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6609

  1. 1. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺨﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻭﺘﺭ‬ INTERNATION COMPUTER DRIVING LICENSE (ICDL) ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺸﻭﻗﻲ ﺸﺎﻫﻴﻥ‬ ashahen@gmail.com 1
  2. 2. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ‪Database‬‬ ‫3002 ‪Microsoft Access‬‬ ‫2‬
  3. 3. ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻷول : اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ إدارة ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻮ أآﺴﻴﺲ ‪ Access‬؟‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺠﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻮل‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﺤﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎح اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻬﺮس‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاول اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮات ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻐﺮض ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺠﺪاول اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪول‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎح اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺐ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮة اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻣﻊ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت أآﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺪاول ‪Tables‬‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج ‪Forms‬‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت ‪Queryes‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ ‪Reports‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎت وﻳﺐ ‪Pages‬‬ ‫وﺣﺪات اﻟﻤﺎآﺮو ‪Macros‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪات اﻟﻨﻤﻄﻴﺔ ‪Modules‬‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮوﺳﻮﻓﺖ أآﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫إﻏﻼق أآﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﻗﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﺟﺪﻳﺪة‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮص‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﻹﻋﺪادات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ أﻧﻤﺎط اﻟﻌﺮض‬ ‫إﻃﺎر ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻃﺮق اﻟﻌﺮض‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪ ﻋﺮض اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪ ﻋﺮض اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎهﺪ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت ‪Using Help‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪Assistance‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ أوﻓﻴﺲ ‪Office Assistance‬‬ ‫3‬
  4. 4. ‫ﺟﺪول اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت ‪Table of Content‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻰ : اﻟﺠﺪاول‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﺟﺪول ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻌﺮض اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻰ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﺤﻘﻮل ‪Data Types‬‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﻘﻞ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎح اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻓﻰ اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﺠﻼت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺠﺪول ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺴﺠﻼت ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام أواﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪Edit‬‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎل ﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﻣﺤﺪد ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻟﻮﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ وﺣﺬف اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت داﺧﻞ اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام أﻣﺮ اﻟﺘﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﺳﺠﻞ‬ ‫إﻏﻼق اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﺣﺬف اﻟﺠﺪول‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺤﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ اﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺣﻘﻮل اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻘﻴﻢ اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻴﺔ ‪Default Value‬‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ اﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ واﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪Validation Rule‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﻴﺮات اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺸﺊ اﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ‪Expression Builder‬‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺼﻮص‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ‬ ‫ﺿﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻮل اﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ إدﺧﺎل اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻓﻰ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت ‪Relationships‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ارﺗﺒﺎط رأس ﺑﺄﻃﺮاف ‪One To Many‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ اﻻرﺗﺒﺎط أﻃﺮاف ﺑﺄﻃﺮاف ‪Many To Many‬‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ اﻻرﺗﺒﺎط رأس ﺑﺮأس ‪One To One‬‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﻤﺮﺟﻌﻰ ‪Referential Integrity‬‬ ‫ﺣﺬف اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﺪوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ : اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج ‪Forma‬‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻧﻤﻮذج ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫4‬
  5. 5. ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﻧﻤﻮذج ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج ‪Form Wizard‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج إدﺧﺎل وﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ وﺣﺬف اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺮض اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫إدﺧﺎل اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﺠﻼت اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء اﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﺳﺠﻞ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ أو ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ اﻟﻨﺼﻮص ﻟﺮأس أو ﺗﺬﻳﻴﻞ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺮاﺑﻊ : اﺳﺘﻌﺎدة اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎت اﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻷﺣﺮف اﻟﻌﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﻤﻴﺰة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺠﺪاول واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻔﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﺠﻼت ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت ‪Queries‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ هﻮ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎت اﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء اﺳﺘﻌﻼم ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮض اﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫إﺧﻔﺎء ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫إدراج ﺣﻘﻞ ﻓﻰ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪة ﺣﻘﻮل‬ ‫إزاﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼم‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺨﺎﻣﺲ : اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﻮدى ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﺸﺎء ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺟﺪوﻟﻰ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ اﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮز وﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب اﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺎت ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫إﻏﻼق اﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺬف ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺴﺎدس : ﺗﺠﻬﻴﺰ اﻟﻤﺨﺮﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻹﻋﺪاد ﻟﻠﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ اﻟﺠﺪاول واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج واﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ‬ ‫5‬
  6. 6. ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ اﺗﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﺘﻘﺎرﻳﺮ واﻟﺠﺪاول واﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎرات اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫6‬
  7. 7. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻨﺎﻤﺞ‬ ‫7‬
  8. 8. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻪ.‬ ‫•‬ ‫8‬
  9. 9. ‫ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫9‬
  10. 10. ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Numbers‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪Text‬‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﳎﺮﺩﺓ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫‪Data‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﰱ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫‪Sounds‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ‬ ‫‪Images‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ .‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻓﻤﺜﻼ )ﺃﲪﺪ ، 000052 ، 01( ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Information‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﺮﺩﺓ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻝ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲﺀ ، ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻘﻪ )ﺃﲪﺪ( ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻛﻌﻤﻮﻟﺔ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ 01% ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﻘﻖ ﻣﺒﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﻗﺪﺭﻫﺎ 000052 .‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ‪‬ﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ، ﻭﲣﺰﻥ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Database‬‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ .‬ ‫01‬
  11. 11. ‫ﻨﻅﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ )‪ Data Base Management Systems (DBMS‬ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪.Microsoft Access ، Paradox ، ORACLE ، dDASE IV ، dBASE III PLUS‬‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﻧﻈﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪Relational Data Base Systems‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﺑﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﰱ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ .‬ ‫11‬
  12. 12. ‫؟‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺱ ‪Access‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ‪ Microsoft Access‬ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰱ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫21‬
  13. 13. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ‪ Tables‬ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﻀﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﳏﺪﺩ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ‪ Products‬ﺃﻭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ‪. Orders‬‬ ‫31‬
  14. 14. ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ‪ Records‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﲣﺺ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ‪ Employees‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺴﻤﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﻰ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻩ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻭﺭﻗﻢ ﻫﺎﺗﻔﻪ .‬ ‫41‬
  15. 15. ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ‪ Field‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰱ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ، ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻇﻔﲔ .‬ ‫51‬
  16. 16. ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ Field Data Type‬ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ، ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻧﺼﻰ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻴﻪ ، ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳌﻴﻼﺩ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻷﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﻀﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ .‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ .‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰱ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ، ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ‬ ‫‪Field Properties‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ‪ Size‬ﳊﻘﻞ ﻧﺼﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ 05 ، ﻳﻌﲎ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ 05 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻞ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ‪ Primary Key‬ﻫﻮ ﺣﻘﻞ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻟﻴﻤﻴﺰ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ، ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰱ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫61‬
  17. 17. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Index‬‬ ‫ﲤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻭﻫﻰ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﻞ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﰱ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺑﻂ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻧﻨﺸﻲ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫، ﺣﻴﺚ ﳚﻤﻊ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫ﳝﻨﻊ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺓ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ .‬ ‫71‬
  18. 18. ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫81‬
  19. 19. ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳚﺐ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ، ﻳﺘﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺣﻀﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮات ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﲤﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫1- ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫2- ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫3- ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫4- ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫5- ﲡﺮﻳﺐ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳚﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺳﺘﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﻃﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ ، ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ .‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﰱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﻰ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﰱ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﻏﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻘﺺ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻟﻜل ﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﳚﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﰱ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ :‬ ‫* ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲡﻴﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﺅﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻟﻺﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻨـﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺧﺬ ﰱ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﻥ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫* ﻗﻢ ﺑﺮﺑﻂ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﺘﻀﻤﲔ ﺣﻘﻮﻻ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰱ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺣﱴ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﰱ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫* ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺃﺻﻐﺮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻰ ، ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻻ ﲣﺰﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﻴﺎ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻰ )ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻘﺐ( ﻟﻴﺴﻬﻞ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻓﺮﺯ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ .‬ ‫* ﻻ ﺗﻘﻢ ﺑﺘﻀﻤﲔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳏﺴﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻷﻧﻪ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﰱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ .‬ ‫91‬
  20. 20. ‫ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﳍﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﲤﻴﺰ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻞ ﰱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ، ﳒﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻏﲑ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻋﻤﻴﻞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺣﻘﻼ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺎ ﻻ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ﻭﻻﺣﻆ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺮﺭ ﺍﻷﲰﺎﺀ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﳚﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ، ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﺐ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻼﺕ .‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺋﻘﻴﺔ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲣﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺸﺘﺮﻛﺔ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺰﻧﺔ ﰱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻰ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺟﺪﻭﻟﲔ ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﲔ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﳊﻘﻼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺘﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ .‬ ‫ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫‪Orders‬‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Employees‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫‪EmployeeID‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫‪Northwind‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ‪ Employees‬ﻭﰱ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫، ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻒ‬ ‫‪Foreign Key‬‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺟﻨﱮ‬ ‫‪Orders‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪) EmployeeID‬ﺍﳌﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻃﻠﺒﻴﺔ( ﻓﻘﻂ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﻴﺎﺕ ‪. Orders‬‬ ‫02‬
  21. 21. ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺏ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ، ﳚﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻔﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻠﻪ ﺃﻡ ﻻ ، ﻳﺆﺧﺬ ﰱ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫* ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ .‬ ‫* ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ .‬ ‫* ﳚﺐ ﺃﻻ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﺟﺪﻭﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻟﻴﻀﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻛﺒﲑﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ .‬ ‫* ﳚﺐ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺣﻘﻮﻻ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻷﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻏﲑ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻳﻨﺒﻐﻰ ﺣﺬﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫12‬
  22. 22. ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫22‬
  23. 23. ‫ﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Tables‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻰ : ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫‪Object‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Macros‬‬ ‫‪ Queries‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ‪ Forms‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ‪ Reports‬ﻭﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ‪ Web Pages‬ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺎﻛﺮﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻄﻴﺔ ‪. Modules‬‬ ‫32‬
  24. 24. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ‪Tables‬‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲣﺺ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺎ ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻭﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﺀ ﰱ‬ ‫، ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫‪Fields‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﲡﺎﺭﻳﺔ ، ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﳊﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫‪. Records‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻧﻔﺲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ، ﻓﺤﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﰱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﰱ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ، ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻛﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﲟﻮﻇﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﰱ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﻇﻔﲔ ﻣﺜﻞ )ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫، ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻷﺏ ، ﺍﻟﻠﻘﺐ ، ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ، ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺐ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ .‬ ‫42‬
  25. 25. ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ‪Forms‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻷﻏﺮﺍﺽ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫52‬
  26. 26. ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻼﻤﺎﺕ ‪Queryes‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻐﻴﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻄﺮﻕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫62‬
  27. 27. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ‪Reports‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﻮ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ، ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ .‬ ‫72‬
  28. 28. ‫ﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻴﺏ ‪Pages‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﰱ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ‬ ‫‪HTML‬‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺐ ﻫﻰ ﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﺘﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺽ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻳﺐ ، ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫82‬
  29. 29. ‫ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻜﺭﻭ ‪Macros‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻓﺘﺢ ﳕﻮﺫﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ .‬ ‫92‬
  30. 30. ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻁﻴﺔ ‪Modules‬‬ ‫ﻫﻰ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﳛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲣﺰﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﺎ ﻛﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻣﻬﺎﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻹﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻐﺔ ‪ Visual Basic for Applications‬ﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺍﺕ .‬ ‫03‬
  31. 31. ‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻤﺎﻴﻜﺭﻭﺴﻭﻓﺕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ‪ Access‬ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ‪ Start‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ، ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ‪ Microsoft Access‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣﺞ ‪. Programs‬‬ ‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Exit‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ ‪ File‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Close‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ .‬ ‫13‬
  32. 32. ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪Open‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫‪Open‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ ‪ File‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ‪. Open‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﺑﻪ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Open‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫23‬
  33. 33. ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪New‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪File‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫‪New‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ، ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ‪ Task Pane‬ﻭﻫﻰ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻗﻮﺍﻟﺐ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ .‬ ‫33‬
  34. 34. ‫ﺤﻔﻅ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Save‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﻭﺭ‬ ‫‪File‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫‪Save‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫ﺤﻔﻅ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺭﺹ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺐ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺮﺹ ﻣﺮﻥ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻧﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﳌﺮﻥ ، ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﺸﻒ ﻭﻳﻨﺪﻭﺯ ‪. Windows Explorer‬‬ ‫‪Send‬‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ‪ .mdb‬ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫‪. to 3.5 Floppy‬‬ ‫43‬
  35. 35. ‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Close‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ ‪ ، File‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺈﻏﻼﻕ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪. Database Windows‬‬ ‫53‬
  36. 36. ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫63‬
  37. 37. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺩﻴل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰱ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺗﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ،‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﳕﺎﺫﺝ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻛﺮﻭ ﻭﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪Database Window‬‬ ‫ﳕﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻐﲑ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻪ .‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫‪Database Window‬‬ ‫ﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ، ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺘﻪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺍﻹﻃﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﰒ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻓﺘﺢ ‪ ، Open‬ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﳌﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﰒ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪New‬‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ Design‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺎﺕ .‬ ‫73‬
  38. 38. ‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰱ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺘﻬﺎ ، ﻭﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﻞ ﻛﺎﺋﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﲣﺼﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻮﺭﻳﺔ ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ .‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Design View‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﺸﻬﺪﻯ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪. Data Sheet View‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺼﻬﺎ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰒ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ Design‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﳌﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ‪ Data Sheet View‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ View‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﺭ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ View‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫83‬
  39. 39. ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻼﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻ ﲣﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪ Design View‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ، ﻭﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ .‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪View‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪ View‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫93‬
  40. 40. ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫‪Design View‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﻣﺸﻬﺪﻯ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪Form View‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ، ﻭﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ.‬ ‫‪View‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ‪ View‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫04‬
  41. 41. ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺸﻬﺪﻳﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﲔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮﺽ ﳘﺎ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﻭﻣﺸﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺮﻳﺮ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺘﻪ .‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺯﺭ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪View‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪ View‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫14‬
  42. 42. ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪Using Help‬‬ ‫24‬
  43. 43. ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪ Help‬ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ، ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﻭﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﺎﻳﻜﺮﻭﺳﻮﻓﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﲎ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ ‪Assistance‬‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪ Assistance‬ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ‪ Task Pane‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ 1‪ F‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪ Microsoft Office Word Help‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪. Help‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺍﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪ Search for‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻯ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺃﻭﻓﻴﺱ ‪Office Assistance‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻭﻓﻴﺲ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺮﺗﻮﱏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﺞ ﺃﻭﻓﻴﺲ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﲔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻓﻴﺲ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺃﻭﻓﻴﺲ ‪ Show Office Assistance‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ‪. Help‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻪ "ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻔﻌﻞ" ‪ What you Like to Do‬ﰒ ﻳﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﲝﺚ‬ ‫‪ Search‬ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ .‬ ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ‪Table of Content‬‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﶈﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ‪ Table of Content‬ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺄﻛﺴﻴﺲ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺮﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫34‬
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬ ‫54‬
  46. 46. ‫ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻬﺎ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫64‬
  47. 47. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫74‬
  48. 48. ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻫﻰ ﻋﺼﺐ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺑﺎﻗﻰ ﻛﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻛﺎﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺄﺳﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﰿ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﰱ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫84‬
  49. 49. ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ Design View‬ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﲰﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻧﻮﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺻﻒ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ، ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ New‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺧﻴﺎﺭ ‪ Blank Database‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪Create table‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ‪ Tables‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ‪ Objects‬ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪ in Design view‬ﻧﻘﺮﺍ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺎ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﺢ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰱ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫، ﰒ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺑﻨﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ‬ ‫‪New Table‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫‪New‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ Design View‬ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪. Ok‬‬ ‫‪Field Name‬‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺴﻢ ﻋﻠﻮﻯ ﺑﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ "ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ"‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻛﻞ‬ ‫‪Data Type‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ "ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ"‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ "ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ" ‪ Description‬ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻝ )ﳝﻜﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ( .‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻓﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺋﻪ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺣﻘﻞ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱏ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ‬ ‫‪Tab‬‬ ‫ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﺪﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲢﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ "‪ "First name‬ﰒ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Tab‬ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ‪ Text‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﻊ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫94‬
  50. 50. ‫‪Data Types‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰱ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ، ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻫﻰ:‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ ﻷﻯ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Text‬‬ ‫ﻧﺺ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺣﱴ 552 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ 05 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪Memo‬‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻮﻋﺐ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﱴ 00046 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻟﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩﺍ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪Number‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻮﺭ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻘﻪ ﰱ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ / ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ .‬ ‫‪Date / Time‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﺜﻞ ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫‪Currency‬‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻼﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﰱ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺴﺎﺑﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻞ ﺭﻗﻤﻰ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺘﻌﺒﺌﺘﻪ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﰱ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﻢ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻯ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻛﻤﺴﻠﺴﻞ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫‪Auto Number‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﱃ ﰱ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺎﻻﺕ ﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ ، ﻓﻌﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﻢ / ﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻧﻌﻢ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ –1 ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Yes / No‬‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺻﻔﺮ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺟﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫‪OLE‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﻭﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﰱ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪Ole Object‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﳋﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺗﺸﻌﻴﱮ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺹ ﺍﶈﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪Hyper Link‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻗﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﺰﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ‬ ‫05‬
  51. 51. ‫ﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ‪ Save‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫‪. File‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺣﻮﺍﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪Save‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ .‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰒ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Ok‬ﻟﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﻴﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ‪ Primary Key‬ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺑﺈﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺤﻘﻞ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻻ‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫‪ No‬ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻪ ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ.‬ ‫15‬
  52. 52. ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻭﻗﺖ ، ﺇﻻ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻼﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ،‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫ﳚﺐ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Design View‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﺃﻭ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ Design‬ﰱ‬ ‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﻐﻴﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻬﺑﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ .‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫‪Delete‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ‬ ‫‪Edit‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Delete‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺑﺄﻛﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﳋﺎﻧﺔ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ﻭﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻋﻪ .‬ ‫ﰱ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲤﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Save‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫25‬
  53. 53. ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ ، ﻭﳛﺘﻮﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﲤﻴﺰ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫‪Primary Key‬‬ ‫ﻳﻀﻢ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫‪Primary‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪ Key‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﰱ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﺃﻯ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻴﲔ ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ ‪ Auto Number‬ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻨﻪ ﻛﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻰ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫35‬
  54. 54. ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻬﺑﺎ ، ﺗﺴﺮﻉ‬ ‫‪Primary Key‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻼﻡ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻣﻔﻬﺮﺱ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﳌﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪. Design View‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺘﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪Indexed‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫)‪Yes (Duplicate OK‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ .‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪Indexed‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫)‪Yes (No Duplicate‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﻜﺮﺭﺓ .‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﲝﻔﻆ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫45‬
  55. 55. ‫ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰱ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫‪Record‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺘﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﱃ :‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ‪ Tables‬ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪Open‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﻧﻘﺮ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺟﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻭﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ .‬ ‫‪Enter‬‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﻭﺗﻨﻘﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﻷﺧﺮ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪Tab‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺃﻯ ﻭﻗﺖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺣﻔﻆ ‪ Save‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﻠﻒ ‪ File‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺣﻔﻆ ‪ Save‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫55‬
  56. 56. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫‪Datasheet‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ، ﻓﻬﻰ ﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ ، ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻭﻝ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﻵﺧﺮ ﺳﺠﻞ ، ﻭﲤﻜﻦ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺎﺭﻍ .‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘل ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺘﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺴﺠﻼﺗﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ﺣﻴﺚ :‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Tab‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱃ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺣﲔ ‪ Shift + Tab‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ.‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Home‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﱃ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ End‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﱃ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ‪ Down Arrow Key‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱃ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻯ ‪ Up Arrow Key‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﻠﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Page Up‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ .‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ‪ Page Down‬ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻷﺳﻔﻞ ﲟﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﺎﺷﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ .‬ ‫‪Edit‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻭﺍﻤﺭ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱃ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ‬ ‫‪Edit‬‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Go To‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻭﺃﻭﻝ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺳﺠﻞ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻟﺴﺠل ﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻟﻭﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺘﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫‪Record Number‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺭﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﻭﻳﻀﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ ‪. Enter‬‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻭﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺃﻯ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ،‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳋﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ، Datasheet‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺃﻯ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ، ﺃﻭ ﺣﺬﻓﻪ ﻭﺇﺣﻼﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺪﻻ ﻣﻨﻪ ، ﻭﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰱ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ .‬ ‫65‬
  57. 57. ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ ‫‪Undo‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻣﺮ ﰎ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪Undo‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ‪. Edit‬‬ ‫75‬
  58. 58. ‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﺴﺠل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺳﺠﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﳏﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺹ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Delete‬ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ، ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ‪ Delete Record‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ .‬ ‫85‬
  59. 59. ‫ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫‪Close‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ‬ ‫‪File‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪Close‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﻏﻼﻕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺎ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ .‬ ‫95‬
  60. 60. ‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل‬ ‫‪Database Window‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻪ ﰱ ﺗﺒﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰒ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺯﺭ ‪ Delete‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻟﻠﻔﺄﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻣﺮ ‪. Delete‬‬ ‫06‬
  61. 61. ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل‬ ‫16‬
  62. 62. ‫ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻭﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺃﻯ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ ، ﺃﻭ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻤﻮﺡ ﺑﻪ .‬ ‫ﻀﺒﻁ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻞ ﻧﺼﻰ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻤﻪ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ 05 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ ﻟﻜﻦ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻷﻛﱪ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺳﻴﺘﻢ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻰ ﺣﱴ 552 ﺣﺮﻓﺎ ، ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻰ ﺑﺈﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﻔﺘﺢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰱ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻰ ﰱ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﳋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ‪ Size‬ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﰒ ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺠﻢ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺑﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ .‬ ‫26‬
  63. 63. ‫ﻀﺒﻁ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﺩ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ ‪ Number Field‬ﻧﻄﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﱴ ﳝﻜﻦ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﰱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻀﺒﻂ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺭﻗﻤﻰ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ‪. Long Integer‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻰ ﰱ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ، ﰒ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ Field Size‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ .‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺃﻯ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪. Format‬‬ ‫36‬
  64. 64. ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﻨﺴﻴﻕ ﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻱ ﺣﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﰱ ﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ، ﰒ ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺗﻨﺴﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ Format‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫46‬
  65. 65. ‫ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ ‪Default Value‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻰ ﰱ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺫﺍﻟﻚ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ‪ Default Value‬ﰱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ، ﰒ ﺍﺿﻐﻂ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻹﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪ Enter‬ﻣﻦ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ .‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺳﺠﻞ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﺘﺠﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻜﺘﻮﺑﺔ ﰱ ﺣﻘﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﻢ.‬ ‫56‬
  66. 66. ‫ﻀﺒﻁ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﻀﻴﺔ ﻟﺤﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺿﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺎ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﺬﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ ﳋﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺣﻘﻞ‬ ‫)(‪= Date‬‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳊﺎﱃ ﻓﺴﻨﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ .‬ ‫66‬
  67. 67. ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ‪Validation Rule‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺪﺧﻠﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﻓﻼ ﻳﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﻧﺼﻮﺹ ﰱ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻣﺎ ﰱ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ، ﻭﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻀﺒﻂ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻘﺖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺴﺠﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﲝﻴﺚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﰎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻋﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﺒﲔ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺟﺐ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﳍﺎ .‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻘﺪﺓ ، ﻹﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﳋﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ :‬ ‫ﻗﻢ ﺑﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﰒ ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫•‬ ‫‪ Validation Rule‬ﰱ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﻧﺺ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ .‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﰱ ﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺳﻴﻘﻮﻡ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﺑﻌﺮﺽ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻬﺑﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻗﻤﺖ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻟﻪ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﻧﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ .‬ ‫76‬
  68. 68. ‫ﻤﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ‪Expression Builder‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻘﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﰱ ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﳉﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻠﻪ ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻘﻮﻝ .‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍ‪‬ﻠﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺣﻘﻮﻝ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻮﺍﺑﺖ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰱ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ .‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻘﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ ﰒ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﻟﺼﻖ ‪ Paste‬ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰱ ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ .‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﲢﺮﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺯﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ‪ Ok‬ﻟﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﲑ ﰱ ﺧﺎﻧﺔ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ .‬ ‫86‬

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