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5376

  1. 1.       Bibliotheca Alexandrina The lamp of Science, the Source of Knowledge (‫)ﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬ The Main Building, The Planetarium and The Conference Centre It is a bilingual book ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﻓﺎﺭﺱ‬ prepared by Faress Awad Abonnour-Faress Oxford – who ‫ﻋﻭﺽ ﺃﺒﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺭ – ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻜﺴﻔﻭﺭﺩ‬ is specialized in English language ‫– ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻯ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ and literature in addition to being specialized in studying heritage. . ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ Faress Awad ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻭﺽ‬
  2. 2. ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎ ﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳌﻠﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫.‬ ‫אא‬ ‫א‬ ‫)ﻋـﱪ ﺍﻻﻧﱰﻧـﺖ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫א‬ ‫אא‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒــﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﱰﻭﻧﻴــﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﻗــﺮﺍﺹ ﺍﳌﺪﳎــﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻯ‬ ‫א‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ (‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫.‬ ‫.‬ ‫א א‬
  3. 3. ‫‪‬‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫٧‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺎﺘﺏ‬ ‫٩‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺫﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫٢١‬ ‫ﺇﻫﺩﺍﺀ‬ ‫٦١‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫91‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫٠٢‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل : ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫٣٢‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ : ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫٩٢‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ : ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫١٣‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ: ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫33‬ ‫‪   ‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫43‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫٨٣‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل: ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫١٤‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ ‫٣٤‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ : ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫٦٤‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ : ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫٨٤‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫٥٥‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬
  4. 4. ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫66‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫٧٦‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل : ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫٩٦‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ : ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫57‬ ‫‪      ‬‬ ‫٦٧‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻷﻭل : ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬ ‫٠٨‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ: ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻭﻁﺎﺕ‬ ‫٤٩‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ: ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ‬ ‫٧٩‬ ‫ﺨﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫١٠١‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬
  5. 5.   The Importance of The Book
  6. 6.       Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Lamp of Science, the Source of Knowledge 1- The book in hand is in both ‫١- ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻴﺩﻴﻙ ﻫﻭ‬ Arabic and English. .‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ 2- It is a documentary book ‫٢- ﺇﻨﻪ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ containing authenticated ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺸﻬﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ information about the world’s .‫ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ most famous library. 3- It benefits those who work in the ‫٣- ﺇﻨﻪ ﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺤﻘل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ field of translation from Arabic into English and vice versa. .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ‬ 4- It benefits the Arabs studying ‫٤- ﺇﻨﻪ ﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ English and the English studying .‫ﻭﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ Arabic. 5- It benefits the Arabs and the ‫٥- ﺇﻨﻪ ﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‬ English who are interested in history and heritage. .‫ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ‬
  7. 7.   Introducing The Writer
  8. 8. Introducing The Writer   I am specialized in English ‫ﺇﻨﻨﻲ ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ‬ language and in translation from the ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻱ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ English language into Arabic and vice versa. But studying and ‫ﺍﻹﻨﻜﻠﻴﺯﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻜﺱ ، ﻟﻜﻥ‬ researching in heritage are my ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻫﻤﺎ ﻫﻭﺍﻴﺘﻲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‬ favourite hobbies. On studying any sign of ‫ﺇﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺜﺭ ﺃﻟﺠﺄ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ heritage, I refer to authenticated books in addition to contacting ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ specialists to provide me with true information about any sort of ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ ﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩﻱ‬ heritage . .‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ After getting what I want about ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﺎﻴﺘﻲ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ‬ the sign of heritage, I begin to write ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺩﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻟﻜﻰ‬ down the acquired information so ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻪ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ that the reader can benefit by it. . ‫ﺘﺎﻤﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﺜﺭ‬ That has been done when ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺘﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ thinking of writing a book about ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﺫ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina. I got ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺜﻭﻕ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺃﻭﻻ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ contacted with well-cultured ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ people. I got good and authenticated information by ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺫﻭﻱ‬ reading several books relating to ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﻥ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina. .‫ﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ Faress Awad ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻭﺽ‬
  9. 9.    What is the Book about?
  10. 10. What is the Book about? ‫ﻨﺒﺫﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ The Book in hand is a ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻴﺩﻴﻙ ﻫﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ documentary and memorial book which narrates the story of the ‫ﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻲ ﻭﺘﺫﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻴﺭﻭﻱ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ world's most famous library. .‫ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ The book tells the story of the ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻴﺤﻜﻲ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ancient Library which ranked as a world wonder and how it came to ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺒﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﺇﻨﺘﻬﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ be revived. .‫ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﻭﻟﺩﺕ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ The Book is divided into five parts: : ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻴﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ‬ In the first part, the Book gives ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ historical information about the ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ establishment of Alexandria, then ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ the ancient Library with its famous ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺫﻜﺭ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ scholars and concludes with ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﺃﺜﺭﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ ﺜﻡ‬ reference to the contents of the ‫ﻴﺨﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ancient Library. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ In the second part, the Book ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ refers to the end of the Legend and ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ‬ mentions some opinions concerning ‫ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﻜﻴﻑ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺕ‬ the end. . ‫ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ In the third part, the Book ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ displays the calls for the revival ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻋﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻨﺎﺩﺕ ﺒﺎﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ‬ and the roles played by Dr Mustafa Al-Abbadi, Mrs Suzanne Mubarak, ‫ﻟﻌﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ‬ UNESCO and finally the role of ‫ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ‬ president Mubarak who made the ‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺠﻌل‬ Library get up out of its sleep and ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺘﻨﻬﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺯﻫﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺨﺭ‬ stand in pride by Alexandria's .‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺎﻁﺊ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ waterfront.
  11. 11. In the fourth part, the Book displays the idea of establishing the ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺒﻊ ﻴﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ new Edifice which is a revival of ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ the ancient Library. It shows how the modern Edifice has been ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ established and also shows its shape and components. .‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﻭﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬ In the fifth part, the Book displays the contents of the Library ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ ﻴﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ after the revival. As well, it shows ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ the most famous documents and manuscripts and speaks about the ‫ﻤﻥ ﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ ﻭﻤﺨﻁﻭﻁﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ Acquisitions Department and its role. .‫ﻋﻥ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ The Book contains important ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺼﻭﺭ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻷﻗﺴﺎﻡ‬ pictures of the Library's divisions, the reading rooms and some ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻁﻼﻉ ﻭﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬ documents and manuscripts. .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻭﻁﺎﺕ‬
  12. 12.  Dedication
  13. 13. Dedication  But for the existence of the present ‫ﻟﻭﻻ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina, I would not have thought of issuing this ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻜﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ Book and I would not have been known to the reader. Therefore, I ‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻋﺭﻓﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ dedicate this Book to all those who ‫ﻟﺫﺍ ﺃﻫﺩﻯ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻴﺩ‬ participated in the revival process and to all those who keep the ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ library to sustain. . ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ I dedicate this book to ……. ..... ‫ﺍﻫﺩﻱ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ 1- President Hosni Mubarak ‫١- ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ The man who issued Law ١ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠل ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺍﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺭﻗﻡ‬ No. 1 for 2001 concerning the ‫ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ١٠٠٢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Library of Alexandria and its ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ components then the Presidential Decree No. 76 for 2001 about ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﺎﺴﻲ ﺭﻗﻡ ٦٧ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ١٠٠٢ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ the manner of its management ‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺫﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ and decided to be its patron. .‫ﻟﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺭﺍﻋﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ‬ 2- Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak ‫٢- ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ The person who exerted ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺒﺫﻟﺕ ﻗﺼﺎﺭﻯ‬ great efforts so that the great ‫ﺠﻬﺩﻫﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ edifice could come to existence. .‫ﺤﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬
  14. 14. 3- Dr. Mostafa Al-Abbadi ‫٣- ﺩ. ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ‬ The man who turned attention ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠل ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻟﻔﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‬ to the idea of reviving Bibliotheca Alexandrina and who had sowed the ‫ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻏﺭﺱ‬ seed and paved the way for others to irrigate it. .‫ﺍﻟﺒﺫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻡ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺭﻴﻬﺎ‬ 4- Dr. Lulfi Doweidar ‫٤- ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻟﻁﻔﻲ ﺩﻭﻴﺩﺍﺭ‬ The then president of the – ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ University of Alexandria who supported the idea of re-establishing ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺃﻴﺩ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina and that ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻤﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬ paved the way to have a preparatory committee formed to study the ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬ proposed project and to contact the ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ concerned officials of the Egyptian government and UNESCO. As well, that made the University of ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻁﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ Alexandria allocate a plot of land . ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻹﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬ for building the proposed project. 5- United Nations Educational, ‫٥- ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) (‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ That exerted great efforts so ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺒﺫﻟﺕ ﺠﻬﺩﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻴﺒﺯﻍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ that the proposed revival project could come to existence. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻭﻴﺨﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺭ‬ 6- Dr Mohsen Zahran ‫٦- ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﺴﻥ ﺯﻫﺭﺍﻥ‬ Who played an essential role making the design a reality till the ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ magnificent Building came to ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻤﻠﻤﻭﺱ ﻭﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل ﺤﺘﻰ ﻅﻬﺭ‬ existence. And now it stands in full glory by the Mediterranean in ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺭﺍﺌﻌﺎ ﻤﺒﻬﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺎﻁﺊ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ Alexandria . .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬
  15. 15. 6- All those who work at the great ‫٧- ﻜل ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ Edifice Who give it soul and life. .‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻌﻁﻭﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ 8- All those who are interested in ‫٨- ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ science, culture, knowledge and the values of right, justice and beauty. .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺩل ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎل‬ Fares Awad ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺱ ﻋﻭﺽ‬
  16. 16.   General Introduction
  17. 17. General Introduction ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤــــــﺔ ﻋﺎﻤـــــﺔ‬ “Bibliotheca Alexandrina” is ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻗﺩﻡ‬ considered one of the most ancient ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺇﺫ ﻴﻤﺘﺩ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ buildings upon the Earth as its ‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺎﻡ ٥٩٢ ﻕ.ﻡ ﻓﻰ ﻋﻬﺩ‬ establishment is rooted to the year ‫ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ 295 B.C. during the reign of Ptolemy I who followed Alexander ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻭﻨﻲ ﻓﻰ‬ the Great of Macedony who died in ‫ﻋﺎﻡ ٣٢٣ ﻕ.ﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﺭ ﻴﻨﺎﻫﺯ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‬ 323 B.C. at the age of 33. . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﻴﻥ‬ When I thought to issue a book ‫ﺇﻨﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻓﻜﺭﺕ ﻓﻰ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ about Bibliotheca Alexandrina, I first got fortified with knowledge ‫ﻴﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﺼﻨﺕ‬ and true information so that the ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ book could be a documentary one about one of the most important ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎ ﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻴﺎ ﻋﻥ‬ edifices of science and knowledge ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺼﺭﻭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ in the world. To achieve that I got contacted with some documentary ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﻤﺕ ﺒﺎﻻﻁﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ sources such as : : ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﻴﻪ‬ 1- “ The Legend of Alexandria, the ‫١- ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ story of the world’s most famous ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻰ " ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ‬ library” by Akhbar Al-Yom. ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﺸﻬﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﺭﻓﻬﺎ‬ " ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ 2- Different websites about ‫٢- ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺭﻨﺕ ﻋﻥ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina . . ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ 3- “The History of Alexandria and its civilization since Ancient ‫٣- "ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ times” ‫ﻭﺤﻀﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻗﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ" ﻟﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ By : Mohammad Awwad Hassaneen ‫ﻋﻭﺍﺩ ﺤﺴﻨﻴﻥ‬
  18. 18. 4- “History and Fate of the Old ‫٤- "ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺴﻴﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ Library of Alexandria” by Dr. Mustafa Al- Abbadi. ‫ﻭﻤﺼﻴﺭﻫﺎ" ﻟﻠﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ‬ Dear reader , ‫ﻋﺯﻴﺯﻱ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ The present Library of ‫ﺇﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ Alexandria is not a new plantation but it is a revival and resurrection ‫ﻏﺭﺴﺎ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ ﺒل ﻫﻲ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﺒﻌﺙ ﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ of the ancient Bibliotheca ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻅﻠﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻔﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ‬ Alexandrina that remained hidden in the memory of history for ‫ﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻟﻘﺭﻭﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﺘﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺩﻯ‬ centuries till the coming of those .‫ﺒﺈﺤﻴﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﻭﺤﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻌﺜﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ who called for its revival and finally those who turned the dream into a real fact. .‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ‬ The person who studies the ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ history of Bibliotheca Alexandrina has to go through three stages : :‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﻴﺭ ﻓﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ 1- The Establishment Stage ‫١- ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ 2- The Destruction Stage . ‫٢- ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﺀ‬ 3- The Revival Stage . ‫٣- ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺙ ﻭﺍﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ This book will take you through ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺴﻴﺄﺨﺫﻙ ﻓﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺤل‬ the three stages till you come out of ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺨﺭﺝ ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺒﺎﺏ‬ the last door of the Present Edifice . .‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‬
  19. 19.   ‫א‬ ‫• ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫• ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫• ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫• ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ Part I The Establishment • The Establishment of Alexandria • The Establishment of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina • The Scholars of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina • The Holdings of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  20. 20.   Chapter One ‫א‬ The Establishment of Alexandria
  21. 21. With Asia Minor and the ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺴﻘﻭﻁ ﺁﺴﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺭﻯ ﻭﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‬ eastern Mediterranean area under ‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻭﻨﻲ‬ his control, Alexander the Great of Macedony headed for Egypt to ‫ﻴﺘﺠﻪ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺒﺠﻴﻭﺸﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻟﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ secure wheat for the Greek people ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻥ‬ and army. . ‫ﻭﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﺠﻴﺸﻪ‬ On his way north, Alexander ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ admired a plot of land to establish a fine metropolis. The location was ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻬﻭﻴﻪ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﺃﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﻔﻜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ extremely convenient as the Nile water could be supplied to it and in ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻹﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ front of the land there was a small ‫ﻭﺼﻭل ﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻴل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻟﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻪ ﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ‬ island that could be a good defence frontline. .‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺸﻜل ﺠﺒﻬﺔ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ The metropolis was designed ‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ and planned by Denocrates who ‫ﺩﻴﻨﻭﻗﺭﺍﻁ ﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ divided it into five districts that ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﺍﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬  were given Greek names. . ‫ﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ It is noteworthy to say that ‫ﻭﺠﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ‬ Alexander the Great of Macedony was a great military leader and a ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻭﻨﻲ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺌﺩﺍ ﻋﺴﻜﺭﻴﺎ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺎ‬ man of creative thought. He ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺭﺠﻼ ﺫﺍ ﻓﻜﺭ ﺨﻼﻕ ﺸﺠﻊ ﺭﺠﺎل‬ encouraged literary figures, artists and philosophers. He was ‫ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻼﺴﻔﺔ ، ﻭﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ particularly fond of Homer and carried the Iliad whenever he ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺄﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﻫﻭﻤﻴﺭﻭﺱ ﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻠﺤﻤﺔ‬ travelled even in his military . ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻴﺎﺫﺓ ﺭﻓﻴﻕ ﺃﺴﻔﺎﺭﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺍﻭﺘﻪ‬ expeditions.
  22. 22. ‫‪Alexander the Great of‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪Macedony established Alexandria‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ١٣٣ ﻕ.ﻡ ﻟﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪in 331 B.C. to be a port to serve‬‬ ‫‪world commerce and to‬‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻨﺎﺀ ﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﺘﺨﻠﺩ‬ ‫.‪immortalize his name‬‬ ‫ﺫﻜﺭﺍﻩ.‬ ‫‪But eight years after the‬‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻲ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫,‪establishment of Alexandria‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٣٢٣ ﻕ.ﻡ.‬ ‫‪namely in 323 B.C., Alexander died‬‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻓﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺼﺎﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪of malaria in Babylon. He died at‬‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺭﻴﺎ ﺍﺜﺭ ﻟﺩﻏﺔ ﺒﻌﻭﻀﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫.‪the age of 33 years‬‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ ٣٣ ﺴﻨﺔ .‬
  23. 23.   Chapter Two ‫א‬ ‫א‬ The Establishment of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  24. 24. After the sudden death of ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﺠﺌﺔ ﻟﻺﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ Alexander the Great of Macedony, -‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻭﻨﻲ ﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭل-ﺴﻭﺘﻴﺭ‬ Ptolemy I, Sotir, took the throne and made Alexandria capital of his ‫ﺤﻜﻡ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺠﻌل ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺼﻤﺔ‬ kingdom. .‫ﻟﻤﻠﻜﻪ‬ Ptolemy I wanted to make ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﻌل‬ Alexandria a world wonder and ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻋﺠﺎﺌﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻭﻷﻨﻪ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ because he was enthusiastic for learning and discovery, he entrusted ‫ﻤﺘﺤﻤﺴﺎ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻜﺘﺸﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﺩ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻰ‬ Demetrius of Phalerum with ‫ﺩﻴﻤﺘﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﻴﺭﻱ ﺒﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ‬ building a research centre, the ‫ﻋﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Mouseion, and a library to serve the Mouseion Scholars. That was in ‫ﻟﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ 295 B.C. .‫٥٩٢ ﻕ.ﻡ‬ The Mouseion and the Library ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻴﻘﻌﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ were situated in the royal precinct near the Ptolemaic palaces. The ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻲ ﻗﺭﺏ ﻗﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ location of the ancient Library was ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺭﺠﺢ – ﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ probably the same location of the present Library which was chosen ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻩ ﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ to revive the ancient Edifice. .‫ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ The Mouseion and the ancient ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺓ‬ Library were the core of the Old ‫ﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺠﺫﺒﺕ‬ University of Alexandrina that attracted the great intellectuals such ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫل ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺃﻤﺜﺎل‬ as Herophilos, Hipparchus, ‫ﻫﻴﺭﻭﻓﻴﻠﻭﺱ ﻭﻫﺒﺎﺭﺨﻭﺱ ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺘﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ Eratosthenes, and Archimedes. .‫ﻭﺍﺭﺸﻤﻴﺩﺱ‬
  25. 25. The Ptolemies did their best to ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﺫل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻗﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺠﻬﺩﻫﻡ‬ supply the ancient Library with original copies of work produced at ‫ﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ the time. The original copies were ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺭﻫﻡ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ taken from ships or from anywhere else under their control then ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻥ‬ rewritten. The original copies were ‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺘﻬﻡ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻌﺎﺩ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﻭل ﻭﺘﻌﻁﻲ‬ kept and the rewritten ones were given to the owners of the original copies. .‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ‬ The Ptolemies did their best to ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﺫل ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻌﻬﻡ‬ supply the ancient Library with ‫ﻟﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ original copies of work produced at ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺭﻫﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ the time as in ancient Egypt academic and scientific ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺜل‬ establishments such as research ‫ﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ centres, libraries and other ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﺭﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻭﺘﻤﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻜﺱ‬ institutions for learning were state- sponsored unlike Greece where ‫ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ scientific institutions and libraries ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﻠﻜﺎ‬ were privately owned and run. . ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺎ ﻷﺼﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ‬ The wealth of the ancient ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ Library was not only confined to ‫ﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻀﻤﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺜﺭﻭﺓ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ scrolls but curators added more grandeur to the place as well ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻔﺎﺌﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ‬ because they were not mere civil ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻡ ﺒﺎﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ‬ servants but they were ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﺠﺭﺩ ﻤﻭﻅﻔﻴﻥ ﻤﻬﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﺨﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺒل‬ distinguished scholars such as Zenodotus, the epic poet, ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﺎل‬ Eratosthenes, the astronomer and ‫ﺯﻴﻨﻭﺩﻭﺘﻭﺱ ﺸﺎﻋﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤﻡ ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺘﻭﺘﻴﻥ‬ geographer, Aristarchus who ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻜﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ ﻭﺃﺭﻴﺴﺘﺎﺭﺨﻭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻨﺸﺭ ﺍﻷﺸﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ‬ published lyrics and Callimachus who laid the principles of the indexing system. . ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ‬
  26. 26. The ancient Library of ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺘﻔﺭﺩﺓ‬ Alexandria was unique as it offered ‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺇﺫ ﻗﺩﻤﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‬ a new experience in history of human knowledge and it sought to ‫ﻓﺭﻴﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺴﻌﺕ‬ house the knowledge and ‫ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ‬ experience of others. But other ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ libraries were primarily local or regional and were community- ‫ﻴﻐﻠﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ based. .‫ﺒﺸﺌﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ Thus, Bibliotheca Alexandrina ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ housed the treasures of human ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻨﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻻﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻗﺩ‬ thought. It was universal as it ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﻤﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬ included writings from various ‫ﻭﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻭﺏ ﺒﻘﺩﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺠﺩﻴﺭﺓ‬ cultures that were worthly to be read and studied. Under Potelmies ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ these treasures were translated into ‫ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﻜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﻭﺯ‬ Greek. . ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ At that time the shape of the ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻋﻥ‬ book was different from its present ‫ﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ ﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻟﻔﺎﻓﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ shape. The book was a long scroll ‫ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ and the writing was from right to left if in Ancient Egyptian and from ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻴﻤﻴﻥ‬ left to right if in Greek. The scroll ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﺎﺌﻑ‬ was placed in a cylindrical case that ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ was kept horizontally on the library ‫ﺍﺭﻓﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺃﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ‬ shelves. There were about 900.000 scrolls in all branches of ‫ﺘﺴﻌﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﺃﻟﻑ ﺒﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻓﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ knowledge. . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
  27. 27. Scholars made use of scribes ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ and the fee of the scribe was determined according to the quality ‫ﺃﻭﻨﺎﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﺠﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﺤﺴﺏ‬ of the writing and the number of lines. .‫ﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﺭ‬ Callimachus, who laid the ‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﻜﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ‬ principles of the indexing system, divided the Library according to ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻓﺭﻭﻉ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ topics. About the book itself, ‫ﻭﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺼﺎﺤﺏ‬ indexing involved recording the origin of the book, the name of the ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻭﺩ ﺒﻪ ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ owner, the name of the supplier, the ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﻟﻔﻴﻥ ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻜﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ ﺒﻌﻤل‬ sort of the book, the author or authors, the number of lines and the content of the book. As well, ‫ﺴﺠﻼﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻜل‬ Callimachus listed the authors in . ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ various branches of knowledge. Thanks to the indexing system, ‫ﺒﻔﻀل ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ‬ the reader did not find any ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ difficulty to get the needed book. The system of indexing and ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﻗﺭﺍﺀﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻌﻠﻡ‬ bibliography has had a great effect ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻋﻅﻡ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل‬ not only on the ages that followed ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ Callimachus but on the indexing scholars as well. . ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ‬ In 283 B.C., Ptolemy II ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٣٨٢ ﻕ.ﻡ ﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ‬ succeeded his father Ptolemy I. He ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻩ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﻗﺩ‬ arrested Demetrius of Phalerum and exiled him to Delta where he died ‫ﺃﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻴﻤﺘﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻟﻴﺭﻱ ﻭﺘﻡ‬ there. Ptolemy II did so because ‫ﻨﻔﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻟﺘﺎ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ. ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ Demetrius had advised Ptolemy I to ‫ﻻﻥ ﺩﻴﻤﺘﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ name another brother to be the heir to the throne instead of himself. ‫ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﺭﺸﻪ ﻻﺒﻥ ﺁﺨﺭ‬ .‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬
  28. 28. About half a century of the ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻨﺼﻑ ﻗﺭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ‬ establishment of Bibliotheca ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻨﻤﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺯﺍﺩ‬ Alexandrina, the Library acquisitions grew to the extent that ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻓﺘﻘﺭﺭ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻓﺭﻉ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺘﺎﺒﻊ‬ an annex had to be built to store the ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻉ‬ books. The annex was a separate ‫ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻨﻔﺼل ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ location away from premises of the ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺍﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻰ‬ main Library. It was called the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﺴﻡ " ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺒﻨﺔ " ﻭﻗﺩ‬ “Daughter Library”. It was part of the Serapeum which is now the ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺠﺯﺀﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺭﺍﺒﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻪ‬ district of Amud Al Sawari. .‫ﺍﻵﻥ ﺤﻲ ﻋﻤﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺭﻱ‬
  29. 29.   Chapter Three ‫א‬ Scholars of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  30. 30. There were distinguished ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻀﻤﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ scholars whose works enriched the Library. They were Euclid of ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﺭﺯﻴﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﺎل ﺇﻗﻠﻴﺩﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻱ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ‬ Alexandrina, who was a leading mathematician, Appolonius, the ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺒﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ‬ prominent scholar of geometry, ‫ﻭﺩﻴﻤﺘﺭﻴﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻟﻴﺭﻯ ﻤﻨﺸﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ‬ Demetrius of Phalerum, the founder of the Mouseion and the ancient ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﻭل ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ‬ Library of Alexandria and the first ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺴﺔ‬ curator of the Library, Callimachus, the owner of the indexing system ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺘﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﻭﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ and the second curator, Eratosthenes, the philosopher and the third curator, ‫ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻀﻤﺕ ﻫﻴﺒﺎﺘﻴﺎ‬ Hypatia of Alexandrina, the ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﺴﻭﻓﺔ‬ mathematist and the philosopher, Zenodorus, the mathematician, ‫ﻭﺯﻴﻨﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﺱ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺭﺸﻤﻴﺩﺱ‬ Archimedes, the mathematician and Cludius Ptolemy, the astronomer. ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻜﻠﻭﺩﻴﻭﺱ ﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻙ‬
  31. 31.   Chapter Four ‫א‬ ‫א‬ The Holdings of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  32. 32. Through our knowledge of the ‫ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ classical traditions and the surviving papyri that include ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺩﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﻭﺱ‬ references to the Library, we could ‫ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻪ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ have a brief list of the important works that the ancient Library ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻻ‬ housed. .‫ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ In poetry it housed works for ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺭ‬ Homer, Hesiod, Safo, Anakreon, ‫ﻟﻬﻭﻤﻴﺭﻭﺱ ﻭﻫﻴﺴﻴﻭﺩ ﻭﺴﺎﻓﻭ ﻭﺃﻨﺎﻜﺭﻴﻭﻥ‬ Simonides, Pendar, Bacchylides, ‫ﻭﺴﻴﻤﻭﻨﻴﺩﺱ ﻭﺒﻨﺩﺍﺭ ﻭ ﺒﺨﻴﻠﻴﺩﺱ ﻭ‬ Callimachus, Appolonius, ‫ﻜﺎﻟﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ ﻭ ﺃﺒﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺎﺱ ﻭ ﺜﻴﻭﻜﺭﻴﺘﺱ ﻭ‬ Theocretes and Aratoas. .‫ﺃﺭﺍﺘﻭﺍﺱ‬ In Drama it housed works for ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﻭﻱ‬ Acchylus, Sophacles, Euripides, ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻻ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﻤﻴﻴﻥ ﺃﺨﻴﻼﺱ ﻭﺴﻭﻓﺎﻜﻠﻴﺱ‬ Aristophanes, Menander and ‫ﻭﻴﻭﺭﻴﺒﻴﺩﻭﺱ ﻭﺃﺭﻴﺴﺘﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻴﻨﺎﻨﺩﺭ‬ Starton. . ‫ﻭﺴﺘﺎﺭﺘﻭﻥ‬ In criticism it housed works for ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل‬ Zenodotus, Aristophannes and ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺎﺩ ﺯﻴﻨﻭﺩﻭﺘﺎﺱ ﻭﺃﺭﺴﻁﻭﻓﺎﻥ‬ . ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺴﻁﻭﻨﻴﻜﺱ‬ Aristonicus. In philosophy it housed works ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ for Anaxmander, Parmenides, ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ﻟﻠﻔﻼﺴﻔﺔ ﺃﻨﺎﻜﺯﻤﻨﺩﺭ ﻭﺒﺎﺭﻤﻨﻴﺩﺱ‬ Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Zeno, Epicuras, ‫ﻭﺯﻴﻨﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﻫﻴﺭﺍﻗﻠﻴﻁﺱ ﻭﺃﻓﻼﻁﻭﻥ ﻭﺃﺭﺴﻁﻭ‬ Pyrrhon, Panaetius, Philon, ‫ﻭﺜﻴﻭﻓﺭﺍﻁﺱ ﻭﺯﻴﻨﻭ ﻭﺃﺒﻴﻘﻭﺭﺱ ﻭﺒﻴﺭﻫﻭﻥ‬ Apollonius and Plotinus. . ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻓﻴﻠﻭﻥ ﻭﺃﺒﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺒﻠﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺱ‬ In history it housed works for ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ Hecataeus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Zenophanes, Ephorus and ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎل ﻟﻬﻴﻜﺎﺘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻴﺭﻭﺩﻭﺕ ﻭﺜﻭﻜﻴﺩﻴﺩﺱ‬ Hecateus. . ‫ﻭﺯﻴﻨﻭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻴﻔﻭﺭﺍﺱ ﻭﻫﻴﻜﺎﺘﻴﺎﺱ‬
  33. 33. ‫‪In science the ancient Library‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫,‪housed works for Eudotus, Euclid‬‬ ‫,‪Aristarchus, Straton, Eratosthenes‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻴﻭﺩﺘﺱ ﻭﺇﻗﻠﻴﺩﺱ ﻭﺃﺭﻴﺴﺘﺎﺭﺨﻭﺱ‬ ‫,‪Meyasthenes, Patroclus‬‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻭﻥ ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺘﻭﺜﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻴﺠﺎﺜﻴﻥ ﻭﺒﺘﺭﻭﻗﻠﻴﺱ‬ ‫,‪Archimedes, Apolloneus‬‬ ‫‪Hyparchus, Ptolemy, Theone and‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺸﻤﻴﺩﺱ ﻭﺃﺒﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻴﺒﺎﺭﺨﻭﺱ‬ ‫.‪Hypatia‬‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻁﻠﻴﻤﻭﺱ ﻭﺜﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﻫﻴﺒﺎﺘﻴﺎ .‬ ‫‪In Medicine it housed works‬‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﺏ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫,‪for Corpus, Herophilus‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻜﻭﺭﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻫﻴﺭﻭﻓﻴﻠﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫,‪Erasistratus, Callimachus, Sarapion‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻴﺭﺍﺴﻴﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻭﺱ ﻭﻜﻠﻴﻤﺎﺨﻭﺱ ﻭﺴﺎﺭﺍﺒﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫‪Heracleides, Rufus, Apollonius and‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻴﺭﺍﻗﻠﻴﺩﺱ ﻭﺭﻭﻓﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺒﻭﻟﻭﻨﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫.‪Galliny‬‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺎﻟﻴﻨﻲ.‬ ‫‪Besides, the ancient‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫‪Bibliotheca Alexandrina housed‬‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺭﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻤﺜل ﻤﺎﻨﻴﺜﻭﻥ ﻭﺩﻴﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﺱ‬ ‫‪Non-Greek works. It housed works‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﻤﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻟﻜل‬ ‫.‪for Menethon and Diodorus‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ ﺒﻼ ﺘﻔﺭﻗﺔ ﻤﺜل ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻨﻴﺘﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻴﻭﺩﻭﺭﺍﺱ .‬ ‫‪As well, the Library housed a‬‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﻻﻨﺠﻴل ﺍﻟﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫"‪translation of the "Old Testament‬‬ ‫.‪from Hebrew into Greek‬‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ .‬
  34. 34.   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Part II The End of the Ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  35. 35. The End of the ancient Bibliotheca ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ اﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪرﻳﺔ اﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬ Alexandrina Most ardent researchers and ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺠﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴﻥ‬ investigators of Arab and other nationalities agreed all that there are ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺜﻼﺙ‬ three main suggestions behind the end of the ancient Bibliotheca ‫ﺇﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ Alexandrina. .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ The First Suggestion: : ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل‬ It was said that the ancient ‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل ﺒﺈﺤﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina was ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﻡ ٨٤ ﻕ.ﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ destroyed by a fire in the war with ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺩﺍﺭﺕ ﺭﺤﺎﻫﺎ ﻤﻊ ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭﺱ‬ Julius Caesar in 48 B.C. . ‫ﻗﻴﺼﺭ‬ The Second Suggestion: : ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ It was said that the ancient ‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina was destroyed in 391 A.D. by Theophilus, ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ١٩٣ ﻡ‬ the patriarch of Alexandria, as he ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺜﻴﻭﻓﻴﻠﻭﺱ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﺭﻙ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ considered it a sign of idolatry. .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻫﺎ ﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺜﻨﻴﺔ‬ The Third Suggestion: : ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ It was said that the ancient ‫ﻴﻘﻭل ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﺒﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina was destroyed by the Arabs who conquered ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﻋﺎﻡ ٢٤٦ﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ‬ Egypt under Amr Ibn Al-As in 642 A.D. upon an order of The Caliph ‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻴﺩ ﻋﻤﺭﻭ ﺒﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺹ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ Omar Ibn Al-Khattab. . ‫ﺒﺄﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﻋﻤﺭ ﺒﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺎﺏ‬ In reality, the first suggestion is ‫ﺃﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻘﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺼﻔﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ the truest as when Julius Caesar came ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻷﻭل ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ to Egypt, the ancient Bibliotheca ‫ﻷﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
  36. 36. Alexandrina was at its climax of ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺝ ﻋﻅﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭﺱ ﻗﻴﺼﺭ‬ greatness and it was destroyed as a ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺼﺭ ﻭﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻤﺭﺕ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻴﻕ‬ result of the great fire resulting from the war with Julius Caesar. .‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻴﻭﻟﻴﻭﺱ ﻗﻴﺼﺭ‬ The second suggestion is not true ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺼﺎﺌﺏ ﻷﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ‬ as in the time of the fanatic patriarch ‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺭﻴﻙ ﺜﻴﻭﻓﻴﻠﻭﺱ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ of Alexandria, Theophilus, there was ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺒﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﺇﺫ‬ only the annex and the Serapeum ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻤﺭﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻓﻌﻠﻪ‬ which he destroyed, as signs of ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺭﻴﻙ ﺜﻴﻭﻓﻴﻠﻭﺱ ﻫﻭ ﺘﺩﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ idolatry, and built a church instead. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﺜﺎل ﺴﺭﺍﺒﻴﺱ ﻷﻨﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻫﻤﺎ‬ .‫ﺭﻤﺯﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﻭﺜﻨﻴﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻜﻨﻴﺴﺔ ﺒﺩﻻ ﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ The third suggestion is not true ‫ﺍﻹﺤﺘﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل‬ either, as the European historian ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺭﺥ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺒﻲ ﺃﻟﻔﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﺎﺘﻠﺭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺘﺤﻴﻥ‬ Alfred Batler said, because the Arab conquerors were far from that barbaric ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﺃﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ line of thinking and conduct. . ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺒﺭﻱ‬ Thus, the ancient Bibliotheca ‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﺇﺨﺘﻔﺕ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Alexandrina, which was a legend in ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ the ancient world, had disappeared since 48 B.C. till the time of President ‫ﻭﻅﻠﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻋﺎﻡ ٨٤ ﻕ.ﻡ ﺤﺘﻰ‬ Hosni Mubarak of Egypt in the ‫ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺼﺭ‬ concluding years of the 20th century ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ‬ and the starting years of the 21st century. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬ Thanks to President Hosni ‫ﻓﺒﻔﻀل ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺒﺯﻏﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Mubarak, Bibliotheca Alexandrina has come to existence and got up of the ‫ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﻨﻬﻀﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻅل ﻓﻲ‬ memory of forgetfulness that it was hidden in for centuries. . ‫ﺫﺍﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻟﻘﺭﻭﻥ‬
  37. 37.   ‫א‬ ‫• ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ‬ (‫• ﺩﻭﺭ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ )ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ ‫• ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫• ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫• ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Part III The Revival • The Role of Dr. Mustafa Al-Abbadi • The Role of UNESCO. • The Role of President Hosni Mubarak. • The Role of Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak. • Laws for Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  38. 38.   Chapter One ‫א‬ ‫א‬ The Role of Dr. Mustafa Al-Abbadi
  39. 39. Dr Mustafa Al-Abbadi, the then – ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ‬ professor of ancient history at the University of Alexandria, is ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺃﺴﺘﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻠﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ considered a pioneer of the callers who called for the revival of the ‫ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ – ﺭﺍﺌﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina. . ‫ﻨﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﺒﺈﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ The dream to revive the ancient ‫ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻡ ﺒﺈﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina began at The ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٢٧٩١ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ Teaching Staff Club of the University of Alexandria in 1972. The dream ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺒﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ began when Dr. Mustafa Al-Abbadi ‫ﺃﻟﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓ‬ gave a lecture about the ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina and how it ‫ﻋﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ‬ attracted scholars from all over the ‫ﺇﺠﺘﺫﺒﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻟﻴﺠﺘﻤﻌﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ‬ ancient world. He narrated how the Ptolemies allocated large funds so as ‫ﺭﺤﺎﺒﻬﺎ، ﻭﻗﺩ ﺭﻭﻯ ﻜﻴﻑ ﺍﺤﺘﻀﻥ ﺤﻜﺎﻡ‬ to establish a place where scholars ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻁﺎﻟﻤﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻑ ﺴﺨﺭﻭﺍ ﻜل ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﺎﺘﻬﻡ‬ could gather to make their researches and intellectual production. The place ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ was called the "Mouseion". The ‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻌﻤل ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺜﻬﻡ ﻭﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﻱ‬ ancient Bibliotheca Alexandrina was ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺈﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﺭﻑ ﺒﺎﺴﻡ‬ established to serve the Mouseion scholars and provide them with the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﻭﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺘﻐﺫﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬ needed books. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺴﻴﻭﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ After listening to Dr. Al-Abbadi's ‫ﺃﺸﻌﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺃﻟﻘﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬ lecture, the enthusiasm of the attendants, especially Dr. Lutfi ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﻱ ﺤﻤﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ Doweidar, the then president of the ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻟﻁﻔﻲ ﺩﻭﻴﺩﺍﺭ- ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ Univeristy of Alexandria, rose. Then, ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ- ﺤﻴﺙ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬
  40. 40. a plot of land owned by the ‫ﺒﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ University was allocated for the project and a preparatory committee . ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ to study the proposed project was ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ created. ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺇﺫ ﺒﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻹﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ The committee contacted the ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ officials of the Egyptian government ‫)ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ( ﻤﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ and UNESCO. That had a great effect .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬ on the proposed project.
  41. 41.   Chapter Two ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ( ‫)א‬ ‫א‬ The Role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural (Organization)UNESCO
  42. 42. When UNESCO was ‫ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺒﻼﻍ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ approached, the response was ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ )ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ( ﺘﺤﻤﺴﺕ‬ favourable. It was enthusiastic to contribute to that great universal and ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﺘﻪ‬ cultural project as it was extremely ‫ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻋﺎ ﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺍ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ‬ important to revive the human ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻹﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺙ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‬ heritage of one of the most famous ‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻭﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ libraries of the ancient world: Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Ahmed ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ . ﻭﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻓﺅﺍﺩ ﺇﻤﺒﻭ‬ Mukhtar Embu, the then Director of ‫– ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ- ﺒﺈﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ UNESCO, made the first ‫ﺃﻭل ﻨﺩﺍﺀ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ international appeal to support the project. That was in 1987. The appeal ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٧٨٩١ﻡ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﻋﺯﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ was again reiterated after that by ‫ﻓﻴﺩﻴﺭﻜﻭ ﻤﺎﻴﻭﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﻨﺼﺏ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ‬ Federco Mayor when he was .‫ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ UNESCO Director.
  43. 43.   Chapter Three ‫א‬ The Role of President Hosni Mubarak
  44. 44. After UNESCO'S agreement to ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ collaborate with the Egyptian ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ ﻤﻊ‬ government on the project, the ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺘﺹ ﺒﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ foundation stone was laid in 1989 by ‫ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ president Hosni Mubarak with the attendance of UNESCO Director, a ‫ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ group of statesmen, the governor of ‫٩٨٩١ ﺒﺤﻀﻭﺭ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﺴﻜﻭ‬ Alexandria, the president of the ‫ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺭﺠﺎل ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅ‬ University of Alexandria and other ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ important national and international figures. ‫ﻭﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺔ‬ In 2001 Law No. 1 for 2001 was ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ١٠٠٢ ﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ‬ issued by president Hosni Mubarak, ٢٠٠١ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺭﻗﻡ ١ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ the people's Assembly agreed to it ‫ﻭﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺏ ﻭﺼﺎﺩﻗﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ and the Legislation Committee passed ‫ﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺭﻴﻌﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ it into law. That Law mentioned the ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ‬ components of the Library, the ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‬ affiliated bodies, the financial resources, the budget and general ‫ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻤﻥ‬ taxes (Read chapter five: Laws for ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ )ﺇﻗﺭﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina). (‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
  45. 45. Then in the same year, 2001, ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ١٠٠٢ ﺃﺼﺩﺭ‬ President Hosni Mubarak issued Decree No. 76 for 2001 on ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﻨﻲ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻱ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina. The Decree was about the organization of the ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ٦٧ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ١٠٠٢ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ‬ supervision of the Library and the manner of its management. The ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ‬ Decree also showed the ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ administration staff of the Library, responsibilities and conditions. (Read ‫ﻭﺍﻹﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ )ﺇﻗﺭﺃ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬ Chapter Five: Laws for Bibliotheca Alexandrina). (‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺱ: ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬
  46. 46.   Chapter Four ‫א‬ ‫א‬ The Role of Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak
  47. 47. In 1990, the honorary committee ‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ٠٩٩١ ﻋﻘﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺨﺭﻴﺔ‬ held a meeting under Mrs. Suzanne ‫ﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ‬ Mubarak in Aswan. The meeting was attended by a large number of kings, ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻤﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﺇﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ‬ presidents, princes and great world ‫ﺤﻀﺭﺓ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ‬ figures. The meeting resulted in ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺜﻤﺭ‬ substantial financial contributions ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻋﻡ ﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ‬ from various Arab heads of state in addition to great contributions from ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﺅﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ various countries, institutions and ‫ﺇﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﻀﺨﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ individuals. At that meeting "The ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ، ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺼﺩﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ Aswan Declaration" was issued to ‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻹﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ " ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺍﻥ" ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ mark the occasion and which is considered the birthday of the project ‫ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻤﻴﻼﺩ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺇﺤﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ to revive Bibliotheca Alexandrina. ." ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬
  48. 48.   Chapter Five ‫א‬ ‫א‬ Laws for Bibliotheca Alexandrina
  49. 49. Law No. 1 for 2001 ٢٠٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺭﻗﻡ ١ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ Law No. 1 for 2001 showed the ‫ﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺭﻗﻡ ١ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ١٠٠٢ ﻡ‬ components of Bibliotheca Alexandrina, the affiliated bodies, the ‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ‬ financial resources, the budget and ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ general taxes. . ‫ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ The Law showed the components :‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻷﺘﻲ‬ of Bibliotheca Alexandrina as follows: 1- A main building ‫١- ﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ 2- A planetarium ‫٢- ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ 3- A conference centre ‫٣- ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺘﻤﺭﺍﺕ‬ The three buildings are called ‫ﻭﻴﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ "ﻤﺠﻤﻊ‬ "The compound of Bibliotheca Alexandrina" " ‫ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ That Law showed the affiliated ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻜﺯ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ bodies as follows: :‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ 1- An International Centre for ‫١- ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﺩﻭﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬ Information Studies 2- A Centre for Documentation ‫٢- ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻟﻠﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ and Research 3- A Science Museum ‫٣- ﻤﺘﺤﻑ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ 4- A Calligraphy Institute ‫٤- ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻟﻠﺨﻁﻭﻁ‬ 5- A Manuscript Museum ‫٥- ﻤﺘﺤﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﻁﻭﻁﺎﺕ‬ 6- A Centre for the Preservation of ‫٦- ﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﻟﺤﻔﻅ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺜﺎﺌﻕ‬ Rare Books and Documents. The Law showed the Financial ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺘﻤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
  50. 50. Resources of Bibliotheca Alexandrina : ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ as follows: 1- State Allocations .‫١- ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺨﺼﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ 2- Assistance, Gifts, Donations, ‫٢- ﺍﻹﻋﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻬﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺼﺎﻴﺎ‬ Bequests and Financial Contributions from Egypt or ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﻬﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ abroad .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬ 3- Loans .‫٣- ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ 4- Fees of the Library services and ‫٤- ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Earnings of the Library investment. ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﺅﺩﻴﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ‬ 5- Other sources to be defined in .‫٥- ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻴﺤﺩﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‬ accordance with the law. As for the Budget of Bibliotheca ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ Alexandrina, the Law showed the following: : ‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ 1- The start and the end of the ‫١- ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‬ Library’s fiscal year are identical to those of the state general ‫ﻭﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ‬ budget. .‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬ 2- The Library has a separate account ‫٢- ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ in the Central Bank of Egypt or in a Commercial bank subject to the ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺨﺎﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯﻱ‬ approval of the Minister of Finance. All proceeds of its ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻭﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ resources are deposited in this ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻭﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ‬ account and any surpluses at the end of the fiscal year is carried ‫ﺤﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻴﺭﺤل ﻓﺎﺌﺽ‬ forward to the following year. . ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻨﺔ ﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ As for Bibliotheca Alexandrina ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻭﻀﺢ‬ and the General Taxes, the Law ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺘﻌﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﺠﻬﺯﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬ showed that the Library and its
  51. 51. affiliated bodies are exempt from ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻭﺍﺌﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻴﺭﺍﺩﺍﺕ‬ general taxes on surpluses and ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺴﻭﻡ‬ revenues of its current activities and from registration and declaration fees ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺜﻴﻕ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﻌﻔﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺘﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ as well as duties on imports of ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻠﺯﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ scientific materiel. . ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺭﻜﻴﺔ‬ Presidential Decree No. 76 for 2001 ‫ﻟﺴ ﻨﺔ 67 اﻟﻘ ﺮار اﻟﺠﻤﻬ ﻮري رﻗ ﻢ‬ 2001 Then in the same year the ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ‬ Presidential Decree No. 76 for 2001 on Bibliotheca Alexandrina was ٢٠٠١ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻱ ﺭﻗﻡ ٦٧ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ issued. It was about the organization of the supervision of the Library, the ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺸﺄﻥ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ manner of its management and the ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ conduct of its financial and administrative affairs. .‫ﻭﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺸﺌﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ As for the Administration of ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina, the Library is run by: : ‫ﺘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬ 1- A Council of Patrons ‫١- ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ‬ 2- A Board of Trustees ‫٢- ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ‬ 3- A Director- General ‫٣- ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ The Council of Patrons ‫ﻡﺠﻠ ﺲ اﻟﺮﻋ ﺎة‬ The Council of Patrons is ‫ﻱﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻻ ﻴﻘل‬ composed of a number of not less than eight and not more than twenty ‫ﻋﻥ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ‬ four of prominent persons from ‫ﻤﻥ ﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺩﻭل‬ different parts of the world including the Director – General of ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ UNESCO. .‫ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻨﻴﺴﻜﻭ‬ The members of the Council of Patrons are chosen by the president of ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ the Republic. . ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬
  52. 52. • The Chair of the Council of ‫• ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ Patrons is the president of the Republic or his designate. . ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺽ‬ • The Minister of Higher Education ‫• ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻭﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺔ‬ acts as secretary of the Council. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ • The Council has the responsibility ‫• ﻴﺨﺘﺹ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺒﺩﻋﻡ ﻭﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ‬ of supporting the Library, monitoring its activities and ‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺇﺴﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺭﺍﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ‬ expressing its views on the direction of such activities. .‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ • The Council meets once each three ‫• ﻴﻌﻘﺩ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺇﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ ﻜل ﺜﻼﺙ‬ years at the invitation of its chair. . ‫ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻪ‬ The Board of Trustees ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ‬ The Board of Trustees is ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻻ ﻴﻘل‬ composed of a number of not less than fifteen and not more than thirty ‫ﻋﻥ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ eminent persons of intellectual or ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ international experience, both Egyptians and non-Egyptian, among ‫ﺫﻭﻱ ﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ whom five are ex-officio members of ‫ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﺨﻤﺴﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ the Egyptian Government who are the Minister of Higher Education, the ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺭﻴﺔ ﺒﺼﻔﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻡ ﻭﺯﻴﺭ‬ Minister of Culture, the Minister of ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻭﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻴﺭ‬ Foreign Affairs, the Governor of Alexandria and the president of the ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ University of Alexandria. .‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ • The Chair of the Board of Trustees ‫• ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻟﺭﻋﺎﺓ ﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ‬ is the Chair of the Council of Patrons and the said chair chooses ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ a member of the Board who is an ‫ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺌﻪ ﻴﺤل ﻤﺤﻠﻪ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ acting chair in case of the Chair’s ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ absence. The duration of the membership of the non-ex-officio ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺴﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺘﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ members is two years after which . ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺙ ﻜل ﺴﻨﺔ‬
  53. 53. one third of the members is renewed every year. • The Board of Trustees is the ‫• ﻴﺘﻭﻟﻰ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﻤﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﺌﻭﻥ‬ decision-making authority on the matters of the Library and is responsible for defining its general ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ policies, for the administration, for the planning of its activities and ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻷﻨﺸﻁﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭ ﻟﻭﺍﺌﺤﻬﺎ‬ for the establishment of its administrative and financial . ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ regulations. • The Board of Trustees meets once ‫• ﻴﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﺭﺓ ﻜل ﺴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ a year and can hold exceptional meetings by invitation of its Chair ‫ﺒﺩﻋﻭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻑ‬ or at the request of not less than half of its members. The meeting ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ of the board is deemed legal if a majority of the members are in ‫ﺼﺤﻴﺤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﻀﺭﻩ ﺃﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ attendance and decisions are by simple majority of those present. ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻭﺘﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺄﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ In case of equal votes, the side ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻴﺭﺠﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ with the presiding chair’s vote prevails. . ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻪ ﺭﺌﻴﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ‬ The Director-General of ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﺴﻜﻨﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬ Bibliotheca Alexandrina The Director-General of the ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬ Library is appointed by the Board of Trustees for a period of five years, ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺨﻤﺱ ﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ renewable, and the Director- ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺨﺼﺼﺎﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬ General’s compensation is also determined by the Board of Trustees. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ‬
  54. 54. • The candidate must be a person of ‫• ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺸﺢ ﻟﻤﻨﺼﺏ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ international standing, of a wide ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﻤﻜﺎﻨﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﻤﻭﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻥ‬ background in the field of culture and of the relevant managerial and ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﻭ ﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﻭﺫﻭ ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ technical competence. . ‫ﻭﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻓﻨﻴﺔ‬ • The Director-General of the ‫• ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺱ‬ Library is the chief executive ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﻱ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﻴﻨﺎﻁ ﺒﻪ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬ officer of the Library and is entrusted with the execution of the ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ policies established by the Board ‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﻭﺤﻀﻭﺭ‬ of Trustees, preparing the agenda for the Board meetings, the right to ‫ﺠﻠﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ - ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ attend the meetings, but does not ‫ﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺍﻭﻻﺕ - ﻭﺭﺌﺎﺴﺔ‬ vote on decisions, being the head of the Library staff and deciding ‫ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ matters of appointment, promotion ‫ﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﺭﻗﻴﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺇﻨﻬﺎﺀ ﺨﺩﻤﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﻓﻘﺎ‬ and termination of service in accordance with the relevant legal ‫ﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ ﻴﺨﻀﻌﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ‬ statutes. He is the legal ‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬ representative of the Library before the judiciary and in its ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺼﻼﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ dealing with others. He sets the ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺍﺌﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ administrative and financial regulations and that would enable ‫ﻨﺤﻭ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ it to carry out its mission. He also ‫ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻯ‬ sets the staff code in a manner that is compatible with the Library’s ‫ﻴﺘﻔﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﻤﻊ ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ activities and that is the legal ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﻗﺭﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻨﻲ‬ system that governs the . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬ relationship between staff and Library.
  55. 55.       The Ipsissima Verba of The Laws for Bibliotheca Alexandrina

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