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Department features
       fashion on hangers, to
       try and buy.




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Sr No   Topic                                       Slide #
1       Introduction to Visual Merchandising        4
2       ...
Introduction
Visual Merchandising is the actual selling of Merchandise through a
Visual Medium
                           ...
The presentation of the entire store and its
merchandise in ways that will attract potential
customers and motivate them t...
Everything the customer sees, both exterior and interior, that
creates a positive image of a business and results in atten...
► Visual Merchandising can
     Improve business’s productivity
     Boost sales per square foot
     Generate a faster tu...
Exteriors and Window Structures
Essential to the success of every operation that deals with consumers is
the ability to mo...
Exterior Store Design

► Store design involves formulating and structuring all
elements of the physical environment.
► The...
Signs and Entrances
► A sign is a silent salesperson, and part of a shopper’s
first impression of a store. In less than 10...
► The store’s sign, on the outside of the building, makes
the first impression on the shopper. It sets the look and
image ...
Marquees

► The marquee, a permanent awning for protection from
the elements, is an integral part of the building facade.
...
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Store Front

► Store front can be categorized as below
     Arcade,
     Straight, and
     Angled.




                  ...
Arcade Front

► Arcade fronts are usually spacious.
► They allow the window merchandise closely.
► They seem to be more re...
Straight Front

► This type of front parallels the sidewalk, with its
monotony broken only by entrances.
► The entrances m...
Angled Front
► The angled front is much like the straight front in that it
follows a true line, but the monotony is reliev...
Window Structures
► The following are the basic storefront and window designs
that allow for many variations
       Angled...
Angled Windows
► In order to give more exposure to the viewer, there are
windows that are similar to the parallel to the s...
Parallel to side walk windows

► The windows that run parallel to the sidewalk and are
generally back closed to separate t...
Corner Windows

► Windows at the corners provide view from each of the
two converging streets.
► It can have variations li...
Enclosed Windows

► These are ones which have walls on three sides and
glass on one side to view the window display.




 ...
Open back windows
► Retailers who believe that the entire store should be
visible to the consumer from the outside, yet fe...
Half – Open windows

► Half open windows use
partitions    or   architectural
dividers of some kind to
separate the displa...
Arcades
► In arcade windows there are set back doors/entrances
thereby increasing the size of display windows.
► Stores wi...
Windowless windows

► The thought behind these windows
is that with the ample open frontage,
the shopper can get the impre...
Live or demo windows

► Live or demo windows have caused many shoppers to
stop and notice when they suddenly waved or wrin...
Circular windows
► In order individualize their images, some companies
develop window structures that are quiet different ...
Shadow box windows
► Stores that feature small items such
as jewelry require window structures
that enable close inspectio...
Interactive or Through-glass
                 windows

► They can literally communicate with shoppers day and
night.
► Vie...
Islands
► It’s a display that can be viewed
from all the sides.
► Deep vestibules (arcade or
angled windows)       and wid...
Window Lightning Rules

► Show merchandise in
true colors




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              ...
Window Lightning Rules

► Focus on merchandise




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Window Lightning Rules

► The window’s proscenium (fore ground) and side turns
should conceal most lighting fixtures unles...
► Visual merchandising            is    comprised   of   five
components
    Store Image
    Storefront
    Store Interior...
Principles of Design
The principles of design guide the organization of the design elements
for an effective visual impres...
Principles of Design

► The five principles to be considered are
     Balance,
     Emphasis,
     Proportion,
     Rhythm...
Balance

► Balance may be defined artistically as the state of
equipoise between the two sides of an entity.
► The word ba...
Balance

► Balance is a sense of equilibrium that provides a feeling
of stability. When things are unbalanced, people have...
Types of Balance

► Generally, there are two types of balance:
     Formal or Symmetrical
     Informal or Asymmetrical.

...
Symmetrical/Formal Balance
► Balance achieved through the use of identical objects or
very similar objects on either side ...
Symmetrical/Formal Balance

► Formal balance occurs when
each object on the right side
has an exact counterpart on the
lef...
Symmetrical/Formal Balance

► Formal balance produces a
feeling by the total unit of
dignity,    restraint,   and
conserva...
Asymmetrical / Informal Balance
► Informal balance in display also achieves component
equality to the viewer’s eye, but it...
Asymmetrical / Informal Balance

► Informal balance creates flow or rhythm
and a feeling of excitement.
► The two sides of...
Asymmetrical / Informal Balance
► In the case of objects of different weight, the heavier one
could be moved closer to the...
Points to consider for Balancing
► If colors are too light, they will overwhelm pastels.
► If several small objects are mo...
How to determine balance in a display?
► Use exact objects in both parts of the display.
► Draw an imaginary line down the...
Emphasis

► Emphasis is the point of initial eye contact. From this
spot all other eye movements flow.
► Emphasis is there...
Methods of creating emphasis points

► The display person must keep in mind t hat the eye must
have a point of beginning a...
► Repetition
    A frequently used method is the repetition of an
  element.
    A display created totally in purple would...
► Contrast
    This can create emphasis, intensifying visual
  perception. Great embellishment prolongs the visual
  invol...
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► Elements of design
    Generally, a composition needs one major point of
  emphasis that holds the viewer’s visual atten...
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► A display needs to emphasize a theme or mood, such
as the use of sports equipment, work equipment or leisure
equipment s...
► Unusual textures highlight an area.
► Emphasis is diminished with receding variations such as
thin, fuzzy lines; non des...
Proportion
► The principle of proportion involves the comparative
relationship of the design elements to each other.
► Pro...
► Proportion and contrast are important elements of good
composition. Drastically changing the proportions between
items a...
► Pyramid
    The pyramid is a triangular arrangement with a broad
  base rising to a center peak.
    It is a common devi...
► Step
     The step is a level elevation within the display area. It
  is effectively used as a side unit facing the cent...
► Zigzag
    The zigzag is based on the principle of the double
  reverse curve and is particularly adaptable to wearing
 ...
► Repetition
    Repetition, as a type of proportion, is simple in form.
     It makes use of steps of the same general na...
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► Do not use all large objects, because there is nothing to
break the monotony and sameness of that large feeling.
► Addin...
► Ratio of merchandise to space is critical:
     Each piece of merchandise must be considered in
  relation to others.
  ...
Rhythm
► When all the elements are properly located so that the
eye travels smoothly from one part to another, then flow,
...
Rhythm


► Rhythm may be broken up or continuous; clearly stated
or subtly suggested; repeated or vaguely similar.
► Rhyth...
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► Repetition
    It gives regularity to the movement of the eye, as if it
  knows what is coming next.
    This produces a...
► Continuous Line Movement
    The simplest method for directing the eye is a
  continuous line, either straight or curved...
► Progression of Sizes
    Progression of sizes refers to using similar shapes
  and varying their sizes by consistently i...
► Radiation
     Another way to create rhythm is by radiation, that is,
   use of a circular arrangement that guides the e...
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► English reading people read from left to right. A left to
right reading should be created in the display.
► Use element ...
► It is usually recommended to use an odd number of
items when displaying multiples.
► Use a fabric or color that unifies ...
Unity/Harmony

► When all the elements in a design properly blend to form
a unified picture, the principle of harmony has ...
Unity/Harmony

► Harmony may be achieved through use of the artistic
devices of
     Line,
     Shape,
     Size,
     Tex...
Functional Harmony

► It deals with how something works physically, which
means it must be realistic and must work.
► An e...
Structural Harmony

► It is correctly fitting together all the pieces; merchandise
should not be out of place in the displ...
Decorative Harmony

► It includes the parts of display that are included only for
decorative purpose.
► If an atmosphere o...
Merchandise Display
Merchandise display is the arrangement and organization of display
materials and merchandise to produc...
Outcome of a good display

► It sells products and services
► Publicizes the business.
► Lays a foundation for the future ...
Rules for Display Planning
► Help the eye in finding the focal point of the display easily.
► Limit the number of competin...
Purpose of Display
► The purpose of Display in a store is to attract customers
to the store, and ultimately convince them ...
Functions of a Display

► The display in a store functions in the following three
ways:
     It presents the selection of ...
Points to Enhance the Display
► Create a strong entrance.
► Allow front-to-back sightlines.
► Take advantage of the highes...
Types of Display

► Approaches to merchandise presentation vary according
to the type of display- from special, or feature...
► Types of displays include the following:
     One Item Display
     Line-at-goods Display
     Related Merchandise Displ...
One Item Display

► A one-item display is just the showing and advancement
of a single garment or any single item. It feat...
Line-at-goods Display
► It is a kind of display in which only one type of merchandise is
shown, (viz; all blouses, all ski...
Related Merchandise Display
► When the store wants to deliver a message that says, “I’
am a complete outfit, buy me,” it o...
Variety or Assortment Display
► It is a potpourri of anything and everything.
► It is a collection of unrelated items that...
Promotional Display

► This kind of display advances concept, trend and an
item. The basis of this kind of display is ofte...
Institutional Display
► This display promotes an idea and not an item. It
promotes the institutional services.
► This disp...
► Whatever the event, the store wants to say that here is
retailer with pride in its country and community, with
interests...
Seasonal Display
► Each season brings with it particular merchandise to
feature, and nature suggests general settings in w...
Holidays Display
► While Christmas or Diwali is unquestionably the major
holiday of the year for the majority of the retai...
Creative Display
► While four seasons and major holidays provide a
framework for planning merchandise presentations, much
...
Display Settings

► In the presentation of any display, there are some basic
approaches that any visual merchandiser will ...
Realistic Setting

► A realistic setting is essentially the depiction of a room,
area, or otherwise recognizable locale, r...
Environmental Setting

► This is a merchandise presentation that shows an
assortment of various related items in a setting...
Semi-Realistic/ Vignette Setting


► When space and budget do not allow the time or effort
for a fully realistic presentat...
Fantasy Setting

► A fantasy setting can be as detailed or as suggestive as
the display person, budget, and time permit.
►...
Abstract Setting
► An abstract setting might seem as if it would be the
easiest to do, but it is often the most difficult....
Merchandise Presentation
           Planning

  Methods of Merchandise Presentation:

• Shelving
• Hanging
• Pegging
• Fol...
Merchandise Presentation
              Planning
     Psychological    Factors         to       Consider   When
   Merchand...
45-Degree Customer Sightline




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Vertical Color Blocking




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ELEMENTS OF DISPLAY

► There are few attributes, which contribute to the display
process in a store. These attributes are ...
The Themes

► A display or merchandise presentation should convey a
specific theme or idea. This theme is the framework fo...
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► The following are guidelines as to the correct use of
themes in visual merchandising:
     Over all themes should be sel...
The Merchandise

► The most important element of a display is the
merchandise.
► Props are useful but should never be the ...
The Merchandise

► The merchandise is that element that supports the
theme of the display and, ultimately, the final value...
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Shelf or Display Area

► Shelves and display areas provide the actual physical
framework for the display.
► Before the pro...
Shelf or Display Area
► The type of merchandise that will be displayed (or in the
case of an institutional display the ide...
Shelf or Display Area
► Areas and fixtures used for optimal merchandise
presentation and as display areas include:
    End...
Props

► Props (properties) are special elements, which help to
sell the concept of a company image as well as add an
acce...
Props
► A prop is anything used in
the display to help decorate
the area and accent the style
of the fashion.
► The props ...
Props

► Display props include all physical objects within the
display area that are not considered salable merchandise;
n...
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Props
► A prop could be a
     Chair,
     Table,
     Platform,
     Plant,
     Flower
     Colorful backdrop
     Santa...
Props




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Lighting

► Lighting within the display is used to draw attention to a
part of the area or a specific item in the display,...
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Signage/Copy Cards

► Copy cards or show cards, (lettered cards or signs)
provide the viewer with information concerning t...
Signage/Copy Cards
► Signs do the talking for a display. They give significant
details about the article, such as size, st...
Signage/Copy Cards

► Signs must be informative. The wording should be compact
and, when possible, sparkling.
► Strive for...
Elements of Design
The elements are components or parts, which can be isolated and
defined, in any visual design or work o...
Elements of Design

► Line
► Form, shape and space
► Color
► Pattern
► Texture




                                       ...
Line
It is a major part of composition and second only to color in creating a response
to the merchandise in a display.   ...
Line

► A line is a mark made by a moving point and having
psychological impact according to its direction, weight, and
th...
► Lines can be combined with other lines to create
textures and patterns.
► The use of line in combination results in the
...
Different types of Lines

► Line also communicates emotion and states of mind
through its character and direction. The var...
Horizontal line
► They tend to widen the surface on which they are used
and seemingly decrease the height of the area.
► H...
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Vertical lines

► It expresses strength and stability and is
inherent in many types of merchandise
constructed of rigid ma...
► Horizontal  and      vertical     lines       in   combination
communicate stability and solidity.
► Rectilinear forms s...
Diagonal line
► This type of diagonal line especially connotes action and
movement to the viewer and is quite effective in...
Curved lines
► Curved lines do vary in meaning, however, Soft, shallow
curves suggest comfort, safety, familiarity, relaxa...
Deep, Acute Curves
► Deep Curves suggest confusion, turbulence, even
frenzy, as in the violence of waves in a storm, the c...
Zigzag lines

► Zigzag lines are angular and counter roundness.
► They enlarge the figure and are eye-catching.
► These li...
Perpendicular Lines

► These lines attract attention because of their disturbing
nature.




                             ...
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Textured Lines

► These lines ad weight and attract attention. They are
decorative and busy.




                         ...
Alternating Lines

► These lines are generally eye-catching, dominant and
may be too violent. Psychologically these lines ...
Crossover lines
► These lines create a focal point at the point of
intersection because of their contrasting nature.




 ...
Converging Lines

► These lines emphasize direction and are psychologically
associated with weight and youthfulness.




 ...
Full Curve
► Full curves emphasize body curves, counters thinness
and sharp angles and are better suited on thin figures.
...
Soft Curve

► Soft curves gently emphasize the body curves and are
flattering. Psychologically these lines are associated ...
Undulating Lines
► These lines give roundness and soften the angles.
Psychologically they are associated with feminity,
se...
Ogee
► These lines soften the angles and are more flattering
and give a feeling of sensuousness, feminity,
seductiveness a...
Spiral Lines

► The lines have a focal point and are eye catching. They
are natural, continuous and feminine




         ...
Thin Lines
► These lines give a visual effect, lightweight ness and
have a receding nature. Psychologically they create a
...
Thick Lines

► These lines are heavy, add weight, visually move
forward and attract attention. These are forceful, asserti...
Even Lines

► These lines are smooth and flattering and give a feeling
of firmness, certainty, steadiness and regularity.
...
Uneven Lines

► These lines emphasize bulges and add interest. They
are wobbly, unstable and indecisive.




             ...
Long Lines

► These lines emphasize direction, length or width and are
continuous, graceful, free flowing and smooth.




...
Short Lines

► These lines divide the space and adds interest. They
give a feeling of abruptness, efficiency and blindness...
Broken Line

► These lines are rhythmic and attract attention.
Psychologically they are associated with interruption,
unce...
Form, Shape and Space
Form and shape are areas or masses, which define objects in space. Form and
shape imply space; indee...
► Shape
     The shape of an object refers to the visual form of
  that object. For our purpose, shapes are discussed not
...
►Form
    When lines connect they create form, which is the
  shape of the object.
     Straight lines produce angular for...
► An element of art that is three dimensional (height,
width, and depth) and encloses volume.
► For example a triangle, wh...
Categories of Forms

► There are various ways to categorize form and shape.
     Two-dimensional
     Three dimensional.
 ...
Two-dimensional

► Two-dimensional form is the foundation of pictorial
organization or composition in painting, photograph...
2-D forms giving illusion of 3-D

► Two-dimensional forms can create the illusion of three
dimensional shapes and spaces
►...
Three Dimensional
► Three-dimensional shape has an expressive vocabulary
similar to that of line.
► For example,
     Rect...
Geometric / Organic
► Geometric
  Shapes that are created through use
of mathematics. These shapes include
Circle,   Oval,...
Realistic / Naturalistic

► If we can recognize every day objects and
environments, we refer to the images as being realis...
Abstract

►If the images are difficult or impossible to identify in terms
of our normal, daily visual experience, we may r...
Caricature

► Caricature is a special instance of abstraction, in which
realistic images are distorted to make a statement...
► Space
     Space is the two-dimensional equivalent of volume. It
  is the illusion of three-dimensional spatial relation...
► An element of art that refers to
the distance or area between,
around, above, below, or within
things. It can be describ...
► Size
    Size refers to the physical magnitude, extent, bulk,
  and dimension of something.
    To achieve harmony withi...
► Idea
     In the area of merchandise display, one basic rule is
  to allow one idea to dominate.
    This tends to enhan...
Color
Using color is the best way to add excitement to a visual presentation
without the cost of the installation.
       ...
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► Typically, color is the first element we see when looking
at an object or scene. It affects us physically and
psychologi...
►The color combinations of ceiling, walls, floor coverings
and overall décor can affect the atmosphere of a store.
► Resea...
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Color and Display

► The average pedestrian sees a window
display as a flashing picture that is
approached, observed, and ...
► One of the strongest forces in stopping the pedestrian
and making him or her want an item is the effective use of
color ...
► The psychological effects of color have been well
documented.
► For example, blue, green and violet project elegance;
or...
The Impact of Color
► Color can convey and induce a variety of emotions.
► The effects of color can also be applied to mer...
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Warm Colors
► Warm colors (reds, oranges, and yellows) physically
attract customers to shop are stimulating and Cherry.
► ...
Cool Colors
► On the other hand, cool colors (blues, greens, and
violets) are more appropriate for areas where customers
w...
Dimensions of Color

► Skillful use of color begins with an understanding of its
three dimensions-
     Hue,
     Value, a...
Hue
► In simple terms hue is the
name of the color. Yellow, red,
brown, grey are hues.
► Theoretically all hues can be
mix...
Value

► When describing the lightness or darkness of a hue, we
are speaking of its value.
► Adding white to a hue, we lig...
Intensity or Chroma
► The saturation or purity of a color is referred to as its
intensity.
► A color’s intensity is actual...
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Low Value                             High Value




                                                   200
            va...
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Color Schemes
► Colors often occur in various combinations, referred to
as color schemes.
► Combining colors attractively ...
Related Color Schemes

► The first category is referred to as related because this
type of color scheme utilizes one or mo...
Monochromatic
► A single color on the color wheel is
used with three to five tints and shades
of that single true color in...
Analogous
► Analogous color schemes comprise three colors that are
adjacent on the wheel, which means they contain a commo...
Contrasting Color Schemes

► Contrasting color schemes are subdivided as follows:
     Complementary
     Double-complemen...
Complementary
► A complementary color scheme is represented by two
colors that are exactly opposite to each other on the c...
Double-complementary
► These schemes are based on two adjacent colors
combined with their complementary or opposite colors...
Split-complementary

► Split-complementary color scheme is composed of any
hue plus the two hues on either side of its com...
Triad
► Every fourth color on the color wheel for a total of three
colors make a triadic color scheme.
►It is built on thr...
Tetrad
► Tetrad scheme combines four hues equidistant from
each other on the color wheel, such as orange, yellow-
green, b...
Tone on Tone

► Two colors that are next to one another on the color
wheel with a very little space between them, make up ...
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Psychological Implications of Color
► Market researchers have done extensive studies exploring
the emotional responses of ...
Blue



A cool Color (makes room seem cooler).
   Clams and Relaxes excited people.
    Makes time seem to pass quickly.
T...
Green



       Easy on the Eyes.
         A cool Color
      Restful and Tranquil
   Stimulates Conversations
Makes time ...
Red




   Excites and Stimulates.
     Induces Aggression
Makes time seem to pass Slowly




                            ...
Orange




Friendly, Warm and Vibrant
        Exhilarating




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Yellow



             A cheerful Color.
Creates a feeling o Warmth and Happiness
             Draws attention
           ...
Violet and Purple




               A cool color
Tends to lend elegance and sophistication
                  Royal




  ...
Brown




Relaxing and Warm




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Grey




   Depressing
       Cool
Sophisticated Color




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Black




             Depression
             Richness
Sophistication when used Elegantly




                           ...
White




              Cold
             Elegant
Adds a balance to any Color Scheme




                                 ...
Color Combination
► Colors must be considered in view of their surroundings,
as color can change dramatically when viewed ...
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► A comfortable background color choice for leather goods
is the mid value range, such as a beige or grey.
► This selectio...
► Light colors such as pinks, yellows, blues and whites
should not be used as background colors in the infant and
toddler ...
► Background colors in girls departments should be kept
neutral because of the extensive range of colors sold there,
and b...
► Dark Green or dark Blue colors, with neutrals used for
accents, have been effectively used in menswear areas.
► Primary,...
► Stores that carry china and glass can effectively use
grays, browns and blues as background colors.
► Browns work especi...
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Visual merchandising

  1. 1. 1 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  2. 2. Department features fashion on hangers, to try and buy. 2 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  3. 3. Sr No Topic Slide # 1 Introduction to Visual Merchandising 4 2 Exteriors and Window Structures 8 3 Principles of Design 36 4 Merchandise Display 82 5 Elements of Design 132 6 Lines 134 7 Form, Shape and Space 164 8 Colors 180 9 Patterns 241 10 Interiors 248 11 Store Design Layout 291 12 Material and Props 330 13 Fixtures 346 14 Lighting 376 15 Mannequins 404 16 Signage and Graphics 424 17 Common Errors in display 448 3 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  4. 4. Introduction Visual Merchandising is the actual selling of Merchandise through a Visual Medium 4 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  5. 5. The presentation of the entire store and its merchandise in ways that will attract potential customers and motivate them to make purchases. 5 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  6. 6. Everything the customer sees, both exterior and interior, that creates a positive image of a business and results in attention, interest, desire, and action. 6 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  7. 7. ► Visual Merchandising can Improve business’s productivity Boost sales per square foot Generate a faster turnover rate Sell more of most profitable merchandise Decrease markdown rates Increase the amount of average transaction Convert the shopper a “stopper” and a walk-in rather than a walk -by. 7 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  8. 8. Exteriors and Window Structures Essential to the success of every operation that deals with consumers is the ability to motivate potential customers to come inside. 8 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  9. 9. Exterior Store Design ► Store design involves formulating and structuring all elements of the physical environment. ► The storefront includes all aspects of the front/exterior of the store. ► Elements include the marquee (or exterior sign), entrances, windows, banners, planters, awnings and lighting. ► Three other important functional aspects of exterior design are customer visibility, store security, and potential for efficiency among staff and associates. 9 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  10. 10. Signs and Entrances ► A sign is a silent salesperson, and part of a shopper’s first impression of a store. In less than 10 seconds the sign must attract attention, tell who the business is and what it has to sell. ► Retail entrances are designed to draw customers into the store through visual appeal and physical convenience. ► The number, and type of entrances used depend on the location, the type and density or traffic, and security considerations. ► Doors may be revolving, electric, or regular push pull. 10 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  11. 11. ► The store’s sign, on the outside of the building, makes the first impression on the shopper. It sets the look and image of the store. ► The sign should be the store’s “signature”-personal, original, and recognizable. It should make a statement. 11 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  12. 12. Marquees ► The marquee, a permanent awning for protection from the elements, is an integral part of the building facade. ► It is often cantilevered out over the street, in front of the main entrance to the store. ► The marquee can be an exciting place to start the display of a storewide event or promotion. 12 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  13. 13. 13 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  14. 14. Store Front ► Store front can be categorized as below Arcade, Straight, and Angled. 14 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  15. 15. Arcade Front ► Arcade fronts are usually spacious. ► They allow the window merchandise closely. ► They seem to be more relaxing to the shopper and often take on highly surrealistic shapes, with concave or slanted panes of glass and beautifully decorated windows. 15 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  16. 16. Straight Front ► This type of front parallels the sidewalk, with its monotony broken only by entrances. ► The entrances may be recessed into the main floor area, but all the lines are identical. 16 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  17. 17. Angled Front ► The angled front is much like the straight front in that it follows a true line, but the monotony is relieved by angles away from the sidewalk contour. ► The design of the doors or windows in an angled-front store may be asymmetrical or symmetrical. ►These entrances have deep lobbies to allow traffic to slow down without being pushed or pressured by other pedestrians. 17 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  18. 18. Window Structures ► The following are the basic storefront and window designs that allow for many variations Angled windows Parallel to side walk windows Corner windows Enclosed windows Open back windows Half – Open windows Arcades Windowless windows Live or demo windows Circular windows Shadow box windows Interactive or Through-glass windows Islands vasantkothari@gmail.com 18
  19. 19. Angled Windows ► In order to give more exposure to the viewer, there are windows that are similar to the parallel to the sidewalk type but can feature more displays in less space. ► By angling the windows, the display space can be elongated to form a vestibule that leads the shopper into the store. 19 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  20. 20. Parallel to side walk windows ► The windows that run parallel to the sidewalk and are generally back closed to separate them from the rest of the store. 20 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  21. 21. Corner Windows ► Windows at the corners provide view from each of the two converging streets. ► It can have variations like- entrances from both the sides or entrance in the center, with two windows flanking it. 21 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  22. 22. Enclosed Windows ► These are ones which have walls on three sides and glass on one side to view the window display. 22 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  23. 23. Open back windows ► Retailers who believe that the entire store should be visible to the consumer from the outside, yet feel the need to feature conventional window displays, often choose the open-back window structure. 23 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  24. 24. Half – Open windows ► Half open windows use partitions or architectural dividers of some kind to separate the display from the store proper. ► E.g., Dividers: rail fencing or artificial evergreens. 24 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  25. 25. Arcades ► In arcade windows there are set back doors/entrances thereby increasing the size of display windows. ► Stores with limited frontage whose merchandising philosophy requires a large window display space get benefited from such a design. 25 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  26. 26. Windowless windows ► The thought behind these windows is that with the ample open frontage, the shopper can get the impression of the store’s merchandise and will enter the premises without being enticed by a window. 26 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  27. 27. Live or demo windows ► Live or demo windows have caused many shoppers to stop and notice when they suddenly waved or wrinkled at an unsuspecting passerby. 27 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  28. 28. Circular windows ► In order individualize their images, some companies develop window structures that are quiet different from the traditional ones. ► These do not provide space for retailing. 28 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  29. 29. Shadow box windows ► Stores that feature small items such as jewelry require window structures that enable close inspection of the merchandise. ► Windows of such nature are elevated so that comfortable, clear viewing is possible. 29 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  30. 30. Interactive or Through-glass windows ► They can literally communicate with shoppers day and night. ► Viewers can virtually design their own window displays by calling up brands and images that interested them from a programmed menu. 30 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  31. 31. Islands ► It’s a display that can be viewed from all the sides. ► Deep vestibules (arcade or angled windows) and wide frontage results in an excessive amount of space at the store’s entrance. ► Some stores wishing to better use the lobby area and gain additional display space build islands in the center of the vestibule. ► Sometimes these displays are also set inside the store. vasantkothari@gmail.com 31
  32. 32. Window Lightning Rules ► Show merchandise in true colors 32 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  33. 33. Window Lightning Rules ► Focus on merchandise 33 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  34. 34. Window Lightning Rules ► The window’s proscenium (fore ground) and side turns should conceal most lighting fixtures unless they are a part of the presentation’s design. 34 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  35. 35. ► Visual merchandising is comprised of five components Store Image Storefront Store Interior Store Layout Interior Displays 35 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  36. 36. Principles of Design The principles of design guide the organization of the design elements for an effective visual impression. 36 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  37. 37. Principles of Design ► The five principles to be considered are Balance, Emphasis, Proportion, Rhythm, and Unity/Harmony 37 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  38. 38. Balance ► Balance may be defined artistically as the state of equipoise between the two sides of an entity. ► The word balance describes equality of weight, something distributed evenly or on two sides of an imaginary line. ► Balance refers to the displaying of merchandise “in such a manner that a pleasing distribution of weight occurs. Weighing, to determine balance, involves estimating and comparing the values and importance of the two sides of the display.” 38 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  39. 39. Balance ► Balance is a sense of equilibrium that provides a feeling of stability. When things are unbalanced, people have an uneasy feeling. ► Balance has to do with the relationship of the elements within the composition (advertising, display, etc.). ► Balance results when the parts of the design have equal visual weight. ► Balance is a state of equilibrium––the equality of two things in weight, force, and quantity. 39 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  40. 40. Types of Balance ► Generally, there are two types of balance: Formal or Symmetrical Informal or Asymmetrical. 40 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  41. 41. Symmetrical/Formal Balance ► Balance achieved through the use of identical objects or very similar objects on either side of the center is known as ► Symmetrical or formal balance and produces a sense of dignity, calm, and repose. Symmetrical balance is effective in promoting classic goods for important occasions; such as confirmation dresses or business suits for a job interview. ► This can be effective where Expensive and Quality Merchandise Is being Presented. 41 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  42. 42. Symmetrical/Formal Balance ► Formal balance occurs when each object on the right side has an exact counterpart on the left side relative to size, placement, shape, and color. ► Therefore, each side has equal power to attract attention and is equally forceful in demanding the customer’s action. 42 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  43. 43. Symmetrical/Formal Balance ► Formal balance produces a feeling by the total unit of dignity, restraint, and conservatism. ► This type of balance is usually used to depict tradition, store image (or other institutional examples), and so on and denotes less activity than the informal type. 43 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  44. 44. Asymmetrical / Informal Balance ► Informal balance in display also achieves component equality to the viewer’s eye, but it does so by using varieties of color, placement, size, and shape of the objects on opposite sides of the display. ► Using this type of balance to create a display can result in more subtle and imaginative arrangements. ► It is used in merchandising when the designer wishes to provide activity, excitement, and variety. 44 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  45. 45. Asymmetrical / Informal Balance ► Informal balance creates flow or rhythm and a feeling of excitement. ► The two sides of the display appear to be of equal weight, but hey are not replicas of each others. ► Something large can be balance by several small items or an expense of empty space, a bright color or a shot of light. ► Several soft colors in a large space can be balanced by one bright color because the intensity of the bright color will compensate for its small size. 45 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  46. 46. Asymmetrical / Informal Balance ► In the case of objects of different weight, the heavier one could be moved closer to the center to achieve balance. ► Dark values of colors appear heavier than light values. ► Dull textures appear heavier than smooth textures and should be placed closer to the center to balance the design. 46 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  47. 47. Points to consider for Balancing ► If colors are too light, they will overwhelm pastels. ► If several small objects are more exciting than the large object, they will overpower the large item. ► A large expanse of empty space will call attention to a single object placed within it. ► If an item is placed at an angle or to one side (off center), the space on either side of that piece becomes important. ► If an object is centered, the empty space loses importance because its shape is predictable and therefore has less recognition as its own element. ► A pleasing distribution of weight using merchandise of similar value will provide importance to both sides. 47 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  48. 48. How to determine balance in a display? ► Use exact objects in both parts of the display. ► Draw an imaginary line down the center of the display. ► To achieve formal balance, place objects, weight for weight, on either side of the line. To achieve informal balance, place merchandise and props so that more weight occurs on one side than on the other. ► Place heavier objects and stronger colors closer to the floor or base of the display to avoid top-heaviness. For example, a small item place in the foreground will balance a larger item placed in the background. ► Balance objects of a brighter hue (color) with larger objects that have less intensity of color. ► Balance smaller objects with larger objects by the frequency with which they appear. For example, one large item can be balanced vasantkothari@gmail.com with two or more smaller items. 48
  49. 49. Emphasis ► Emphasis is the point of initial eye contact. From this spot all other eye movements flow. ► Emphasis is therefore the formulation of a focal point, with all else in the display subordinate. ► The focal point is the dominant or central point of a display, with everything else playing a secondary or subordinate role. ► The Merchandise must be the focal point in a majority of displays. 49 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  50. 50. Methods of creating emphasis points ► The display person must keep in mind t hat the eye must have a point of beginning and that this point has to be planned and created. Emphasis can be achieved in a number of ways: Repetition Contrast Elements of design 50 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  51. 51. ► Repetition A frequently used method is the repetition of an element. A display created totally in purple would be difficult to ignore. The shopper’s eye is attracted by the sheer amount of the color. Size is an obvious means of creating a focal point. The largest figure in an advertisement will draw attention and hold it longer than small figures. Repetition creates emphasis by calling attention to the repeated element through sheer force of numbers. 51 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  52. 52. ► Contrast This can create emphasis, intensifying visual perception. Great embellishment prolongs the visual involvement and thus provides a point of focus. By contrast, an area devoid of pattern directs the eye to the object. This is the reason an advertisement with a large amount of white space captures the eye and focuses it on the figure. This concept of space providing emphasis works equally well in a display. Less merchandise in a window means more emphasis on the few items that are there. 52 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  53. 53. 53 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  54. 54. ► Elements of design Generally, a composition needs one major point of emphasis that holds the viewer’s visual attention longer than any other point. This is achieved in part by subordinating all other elements (color, texture, line, form, space, etc.) to the major one. 54 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  55. 55. 55 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  56. 56. ► A display needs to emphasize a theme or mood, such as the use of sports equipment, work equipment or leisure equipment set up in a lifelike situation. Themes may also depict seasons, anniversaries, celebrations, holidays, and other special store events. All elements in a display must then reinforce one other and emphasize th mood created. ► An isolated item can be emphasized when surrounding by blank space. ► Shiny surface emphasize and enlarge objects. ► Dull surface absorb light and help to de emphasize area. ► Color is powerful medium for creating emphasis. Small amount of advancing color, bright intensities, extreme tints or shades contrasts in the right places will provide striking accents. 56 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  57. 57. ► Unusual textures highlight an area. ► Emphasis is diminished with receding variations such as thin, fuzzy lines; non descript shapes; regular spacing; even light absorption, cool hues; dull intensities; medium tints or shades; dull opaque textures; and small, all over or no pattern. ► Repetition usually means something is important; so repeated shapes, colors or motifs grouped together reinforces their importance, creating emphasis. Make sure if goods are used in repetition that these goods are emphasized for sale. 57 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  58. 58. Proportion ► The principle of proportion involves the comparative relationship of the design elements to each other. ► Proportion is the ratio of the parts to the whole display. ► It is comparative relationship of distances, sizes, amounts, degrees or parts. ► When each element is in proportion, the whole will have a pleasing effect to the eye. ► The merchandise along with props and mannequins should be planned such that they are proportionate to each other as well as to the provided display area. 58 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  59. 59. ► Proportion and contrast are important elements of good composition. Drastically changing the proportions between items and dramatic contrasts of color and texture can work wonders in attracting attention to a display and in helping to promote an idea or a look. ► There are four commonly used space divisions or types of arrangements by which the display person achieves proportion: Pyramid, Step, Zigzag, and Repetition 59 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  60. 60. ► Pyramid The pyramid is a triangular arrangement with a broad base rising to a center peak. It is a common device to achieve proportion and may be used with any type of merchandise. It tends to give a display a stiff and formal feeling. 60 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  61. 61. ► Step The step is a level elevation within the display area. It is effectively used as a side unit facing the center of attraction. It is more informal than the pyramid and is most effective when only three steps are used. When steps extend evenly from either side to a midpoint within the display, the appearance is of an inverted pyramid. This aspect of proportion may therefore be easily combined with the illusion of the pyramid. 61 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  62. 62. ► Zigzag The zigzag is based on the principle of the double reverse curve and is particularly adaptable to wearing apparel, owing to the flexibility and ease of draping most fabrics. The zigzag requires equidistant spacing and precision. It may be especially effective when small accessory steps are used, thereby eliminating vacant areas. An easily achieved zigzag effect is created by using material like yarn, rope, or ribbon to lead the eye throughout the zigzag line. 62 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  63. 63. ► Repetition Repetition, as a type of proportion, is simple in form. It makes use of steps of the same general nature. It aligns all items in the same manner by height, spacing, and the angle at which they are placed. This type of repetitive arrangement requires deviations to break the monotonous effect that may evolve. 63 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  64. 64. 64 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  65. 65. ► Do not use all large objects, because there is nothing to break the monotony and sameness of that large feeling. ► Adding an odd number of smaller, related items to large pieces creates more interest and balance. ► Proportions take on more meaning when items define one another. For example the size of dinosaur is defined when it is standing next to a two story house. ► Proportion and balance can best be accomplished when articles within the display play off each other through their size, shape and color. 65 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  66. 66. ► Ratio of merchandise to space is critical: Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relation to others. The ratio of Props and show cards to merchandise must be in proportion to avoid the appearance of stressing or selling your props rather than merchandise. Each object should not be too large or too small, nor too heavy or too light in proportion to other items in display areas. Proportion and contrast are important elements of good display. 66 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  67. 67. Rhythm ► When all the elements are properly located so that the eye travels smoothly from one part to another, then flow, movement, or rhythm have been achieved. Rhythm can be achieved through various means like Repetition Continuous line Progression Radiation 67 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  68. 68. Rhythm ► Rhythm may be broken up or continuous; clearly stated or subtly suggested; repeated or vaguely similar. ► Rhythm entails an arrangement of organized motion and does not necessarily need repetition. However, it does gain impact from repetition. ► A flow exist if the eye travels from one area of a display to another, covering the entire display. The eye should travel easily through the entire design. ► A display can lead the eye with color, repetition, shadows created by light placement, lettering or texture. 68 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  69. 69. 69 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  70. 70. ► Repetition It gives regularity to the movement of the eye, as if it knows what is coming next. This produces an impression of constancy and stability. These impressions are helpful in promoting classic styles of clothing, especially for professional wear. 70 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  71. 71. ► Continuous Line Movement The simplest method for directing the eye is a continuous line, either straight or curved. In an advertisement, the reader’s eye enters the ad in the upper left corner. It may proceed from left to right in a straight line. The eye starts at the top left quarter of the arrangement and proceeds downward to the lower right corner. 71 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  72. 72. ► Progression of Sizes Progression of sizes refers to using similar shapes and varying their sizes by consistently increasing or decreasing them along the visual path. The eye is made to move rapidly over the display, and this swift eye movement is in keeping with the immediate, quick viewing that is essential to the successful display of merchandise. It is a more dynamic means of achieving eye movement than is repetition. It employs the sequential evolution of an element for example, using light, medium, and dark colors sequentially in a design. 72 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  73. 73. ► Radiation Another way to create rhythm is by radiation, that is, use of a circular arrangement that guides the eye from a central point around the parts of the design. Designs that employ radial rhythm or movement are often dramatic. However, this method of creative rhythm offers less variety than the other two methods. 73 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  74. 74. 74 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  75. 75. ► English reading people read from left to right. A left to right reading should be created in the display. ► Use element that mean something together and relate to the merchandise. ► Create a pattern through the use of light and dark, either with color or light. ► Overlapping of objects placed together in the display area can prevent the blank space that could exist with an even number of items in a display. Overlapping is one of the most effective tools for creating good flow. 75 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  76. 76. ► It is usually recommended to use an odd number of items when displaying multiples. ► Use a fabric or color that unifies the themes. ► Use props that are repetitious either in form or theme. ► Use the technique of flying merchandise to create flow. ► Use lettering with repetition of similar items or with dominance by using oversized items to create flow. ► It is important that the eye is led throughout the display and does not leave until all parts have been seen. 76 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  77. 77. Unity/Harmony ► When all the elements in a design properly blend to form a unified picture, the principle of harmony has been achieved. ► Harmony is a coordinating umbrella principle that can cover and incorporate every other principle. ► Harmony is agreement in feeling and consistency in mood ► Without Harmony, the observer is uncomfortable and will not be enticed to purchase merchandise. 77 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  78. 78. Unity/Harmony ► Harmony may be achieved through use of the artistic devices of Line, Shape, Size, Texture, and Idea. 78 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  79. 79. Functional Harmony ► It deals with how something works physically, which means it must be realistic and must work. ► An example of kitchen counter used in a display that is the appropriate height and depth for working. 79 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  80. 80. Structural Harmony ► It is correctly fitting together all the pieces; merchandise should not be out of place in the display. ► For example, an electrical appliance is not structurally consistent in an outdoor or camping device. ► A good window display may have pots and pans, fishing gear and outdoor furniture all mixed together because these items truly would be used on a camping trip; hence a camping theme is carried out. ► All the merchandise is brought together as part of the trip and harmony would be created or a mood would be set. 80 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  81. 81. Decorative Harmony ► It includes the parts of display that are included only for decorative purpose. ► If an atmosphere of spring is being developed, butterflies and/or flowers may be used as props. These items are attractive and add to the theme. 81 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  82. 82. Merchandise Display Merchandise display is the arrangement and organization of display materials and merchandise to produce a stimulus that leads to the sale of merchandise and services. 82 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  83. 83. Outcome of a good display ► It sells products and services ► Publicizes the business. ► Lays a foundation for the future sales ► Builds prestige ► Educates the public ► Builds up the goodwill of the public ► Offers the public useful, practical demonstrations. ► Familiarizes the public with the operations of the business. ► Harmonizes business interests with esthetics. 83 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  84. 84. Rules for Display Planning ► Help the eye in finding the focal point of the display easily. ► Limit the number of competing elements in the display. ► Give the display one dominant theme. ► Use contrast and rhythm to add life to the colors and proportion. ► Select display props and material having some connection with the exhibited product. ► Do not allow the display props and materials to take up most of the best space in the window. ► Avoid anything that conflicts with the sales message. ► Use colors appropriate to the season. ► Do not mix the styles. ► Relax and see if the display sells. vasantkothari@gmail.com 84
  85. 85. Purpose of Display ► The purpose of Display in a store is to attract customers to the store, and ultimately convince them to buy the merchandise. The main purposes of a display can be discussed as under: Sell by show Encourage the shopper to enter the store Establish, promote & enhance the store’s visual image. To enhance the customer’s shopping experience Introduce & explain new products Educate customers by answering to their queries regarding the use & accessorization of a product. 85 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  86. 86. Functions of a Display ► The display in a store functions in the following three ways: It presents the selection of merchandise in a manner that will maximize both space and visibility to customers. To allow store sales associates to interact with customers more effectively. To enhance the visual appeal of a product to encourage customer’s interest and subsequent purchase. 86 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  87. 87. Points to Enhance the Display ► Create a strong entrance. ► Allow front-to-back sightlines. ► Take advantage of the highest profile location and place the best selling merchandise in this area. ► Direct and redirect common customer traffic patterns, which will encourage them to zigzag through the store. ► Wrap it all up at the cash-wrap stand, to enable the customer to reach that point after seeing the merchandise. ► Maintain an active feeling in your store so that the sales associates do not congregate in one location and do not make the store look static. 87 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  88. 88. Types of Display ► Approaches to merchandise presentation vary according to the type of display- from special, or feature, areas to regular freestanding assortments and wall units. ► Special display areas include end-of-aisle end caps, windows and point-of-sale and demo areas. ► A display is at its best when it simply shows a color, an item, a collection, or just an idea. 88 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  89. 89. ► Types of displays include the following: One Item Display Line-at-goods Display Related Merchandise Display Variety or Assortment Display Promotional Display Institutional Display Seasonal Display Holidays Display Creative Display 89 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  90. 90. One Item Display ► A one-item display is just the showing and advancement of a single garment or any single item. It features only one piece of merchandise-designer gown, automobile, piece of jewelry etc. 90 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  91. 91. Line-at-goods Display ► It is a kind of display in which only one type of merchandise is shown, (viz; all blouses, all skirts, pots etc.) although they may be in a variety of designs and colors. ► They could be designed by the same designer, or created with the same fabric or print, or they could all feature a common theme. ► However, for more effective presentation, and for better comprehension and acceptance by the shopper, there should be some connection or relevance indicated as to why these three or four articles are being shown together. 91 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  92. 92. Related Merchandise Display ► When the store wants to deliver a message that says, “I’ am a complete outfit, buy me,” it often chooses to feature the outfit or ensemble in a setting by itself. ► The intention is to entice the customer to buy a total package rather than one or two items. ► The main merchandise of purchase is set along with all other complimenting merchandise tempting the shopper to but all of them altogether. 92 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  93. 93. Variety or Assortment Display ► It is a potpourri of anything and everything. ► It is a collection of unrelated items that happen to be sold in the same store. ► It can be work shoes, silk stockings, teakettles, Hawaiian print shirts, nightgowns etc. ► It is a mélange of odds and ends, a sampling of the merchandise contained within. 93 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  94. 94. Promotional Display ► This kind of display advances concept, trend and an item. The basis of this kind of display is often the sales. ► It has a very low margin of profit and thus needs a large sales volume to exist. ►These display stores generally advertise prices. 94 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  95. 95. Institutional Display ► This display promotes an idea and not an item. It promotes the institutional services. ► This display presents the store as member of the community which helps further in building the image of the store. ► In this kind of display only incidental mention is made of merchandise; service, special features, or facilities of the store are featured. ► These displays create customer loyalty and goodwill. They do not produce direct sales of merchandise. ► The concept of institutional display is more subtle than other concepts, concentrating on building an image for the store in the minds of the customers 95 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  96. 96. ► Whatever the event, the store wants to say that here is retailer with pride in its country and community, with interests beyond just making sales. 96 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  97. 97. Seasonal Display ► Each season brings with it particular merchandise to feature, and nature suggests general settings in which to show it. ► The cold of winter, the budding and blooming of flowers in the spring, the warmth of summer, and the chill of fall each provide a unique opportunity to encourage customers to start thinking about what they need for the next season, and try to buy it now. 97 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  98. 98. Holidays Display ► While Christmas or Diwali is unquestionably the major holiday of the year for the majority of the retailing world, other holidays play a major role in the achievement of the year’s total volume. ► The selling period for each holiday varies, as does the number of departments served by the holiday promotions. 98 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  99. 99. Creative Display ► While four seasons and major holidays provide a framework for planning merchandise presentations, much of the work visual merchandisers produce does not fall under these categories. ► These are the visual presentations that result from the ingenuity of the display persons and their inherent creativity. ► There are no real guidelines except that they must not overpower the merchandise. 99 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  100. 100. Display Settings ► In the presentation of any display, there are some basic approaches that any visual merchandiser will make to set the scene for the merchandise or the concept to be sold. These approaches can be summed up as under: Realistic Setting Environmental Setting Semi-Realistic/ Vignette Setting Fantasy Setting Abstract Setting 100 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  101. 101. Realistic Setting ► A realistic setting is essentially the depiction of a room, area, or otherwise recognizable locale, reinterpreted in the allotted display area, either in the windows or inside the store. ► A realistic setting requires the careful blending of color, textures, shapes, and the proper lighting to keep the background at a proper distance. 101 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  102. 102. Environmental Setting ► This is a merchandise presentation that shows an assortment of various related items in a setting depicting how and where they may eventually be used. ► In this form of realistic setting, the “background” is actually the “foreground” because the details that make up the realistic set are actually the merchandise being promoted in the display. ► Everything on display in this setting is for sale in the store. 102 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  103. 103. Semi-Realistic/ Vignette Setting ► When space and budget do not allow the time or effort for a fully realistic presentation, the display person may opt for the very popular, semi-realistic or “vignette” setting. ► The visual merchandiser presents the essence, and leaves the rest to the active imagination of the shopper. ► This is a more effective but simpler approach to merchandise settings. 103 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  104. 104. Fantasy Setting ► A fantasy setting can be as detailed or as suggestive as the display person, budget, and time permit. ► It is creative, requires thought, energy, and lots of planning, but it can be very rewarding. ► It can be surrealistic or just completely off-the wall. 104 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  105. 105. Abstract Setting ► An abstract setting might seem as if it would be the easiest to do, but it is often the most difficult. ► The least amount of display often makes the biggest statement. In an abstract setting, the merchandise is the dominant feature and the setting supports and reinforces the message. ► The abstract setting is predominantly an arrangement of lines and shapes, panels, cubes, cylinders, triangles, curves, arcs, and circles. ► The design does not really represent or look like anything in particular, but it does evoke certain responses from the viewer. 105 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  106. 106. Merchandise Presentation Planning Methods of Merchandise Presentation: • Shelving • Hanging • Pegging • Folding • Stacking • Dumping 106 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  107. 107. Merchandise Presentation Planning Psychological Factors to Consider When Merchandising Stores: • Value/fashion image • Angles and sightlines • Vertical color blocking 107 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  108. 108. 45-Degree Customer Sightline 108 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  109. 109. Vertical Color Blocking 109 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  110. 110. ELEMENTS OF DISPLAY ► There are few attributes, which contribute to the display process in a store. These attributes are known as the “elements of display”. These include six elements that are necessary components in the production of successful display units. They are: Theme Merchandise Shelf or Display Area Props Lighting, and Copy Cards (Show Cards). 110 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  111. 111. The Themes ► A display or merchandise presentation should convey a specific theme or idea. This theme is the framework for creating a visual presentation. ► Lack of a theme is the most common display error; therefore a theme needs to be properly planned and developed. ► A store’s promotional policy dictates the appropriate theme of a display. 111 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  112. 112. 112 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  114. 114. ► The following are guidelines as to the correct use of themes in visual merchandising: Over all themes should be selected after the bulk of the merchandise has been bought for the season. Overall themes must relate to the merchandise in both color and concept. Overall themes must create an image instantaneously––and it must be the correct image. Overall themes can be achieved by the use of hanging banners or signs; floor signs; flowers or props that relate to the signs and banners; matching urns; merchandise coordination; and valance colors. 114 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  115. 115. The Merchandise ► The most important element of a display is the merchandise. ► Props are useful but should never be the focus and become more important than the merchandise. ► To create a good display requires the use of the art principles involving-line, form, balance, color, and light. The eye appeal of the display is responsible for most impulse sales. 115 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  116. 116. The Merchandise ► The merchandise is that element that supports the theme of the display and, ultimately, the final value of the display in the light of the merchandising goal. ► All other elements are intended to support and promote the goal that this initial selection of merchandise or idea produces-special promotion, holiday, seasonal, high fashion, and so on. 116 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  117. 117. 117 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  118. 118. Shelf or Display Area ► Shelves and display areas provide the actual physical framework for the display. ► Before the props, lighting, or show-cards are considered, this physical facility must be analyzed to determine what, if any, problems could arise involving the use of the area. ► During such analysis, it is important to keep in mind that the viewer’s eye must move easily throughout the display, regardless of the direction from which he or she approaches. 118 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  119. 119. Shelf or Display Area ► The type of merchandise that will be displayed (or in the case of an institutional display the idea, the service or benefit offered) influences the selection of a display area. ► A small item such as jewelry will require a case to be properly displayed, whereas linens may require cube units and a floor display to promote the merchandise effectively. 119 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  120. 120. Shelf or Display Area ► Areas and fixtures used for optimal merchandise presentation and as display areas include: End caps- located at the end of an aisle. Promotional aisle - used to promote seasonal or special sale merchandise. Freestanding fixtures POP area Bulk of stock – contains a full assortment of merchandise. Walls 120 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  121. 121. Props ► Props (properties) are special elements, which help to sell the concept of a company image as well as add an accent to the environment, which are created. ► 121 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  122. 122. Props ► A prop is anything used in the display to help decorate the area and accent the style of the fashion. ► The props in a display enhance the fashion message, help to tell the story, and should not compete with the merchandise. ► They should be interesting and relevant to the merchandise. 122 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  123. 123. Props ► Display props include all physical objects within the display area that are not considered salable merchandise; namely, floor coverings, wall treatments, backgrounds, mannequins, shelves, steps, and other objects involved in creating settings for the merchandise. ► Display props, however, must not overshadow or dominate the salable items. ► The major purpose of display must always be kept in mind: to present and sell merchandise to the consumer. 123 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  124. 124. 124 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  125. 125. Props ► A prop could be a Chair, Table, Platform, Plant, Flower Colorful backdrop Santa Claus mannequin, Stuffed animal, Tinsel or Glitter. 125 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  126. 126. Props 126 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  127. 127. Lighting ► Lighting within the display is used to draw attention to a part of the area or a specific item in the display, or to coordinate parts of the total area. ► Lighting emphasizes items or areas: it also may be used to bring motion into the various segments of the display and to direct the viewer’s eye. ►Types of lights, in addition to usual indoor lighting arrangements, include floodlights, revolving lights, black lights, colored lights, flashing lights, and spotlights. 127 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  128. 128. 128 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  129. 129. Signage/Copy Cards ► Copy cards or show cards, (lettered cards or signs) provide the viewer with information concerning the displayed items and their benefits to the consumer, Copy cards are that additional incentive so important to visual selling. ► Copy cards are designed appropriately in lettering style, content, emphasis, size, and placement, so that the message they convey to the viewers will be in agreement with the purpose of the total display. 129 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  130. 130. Signage/Copy Cards ► Signs do the talking for a display. They give significant details about the article, such as size, styles, and colors. Thus, as silent salespeople, signs answer customer’s questions about price and features and tell where the goods are located in the store. 130 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  131. 131. Signage/Copy Cards ► Signs must be informative. The wording should be compact and, when possible, sparkling. ► Strive for a professional look. ► Signs must be clean. Nothing spoils merchandise quicker in the customer’s eyes than a soiled sign. ► Keep signs timely by changing them often. ►Try to make signs sell customer benefits rather than things. Signs for clothes, for example, should sell neat appearance, style, and attractiveness rather than utility. For furniture, they should sell home life and happiness rather than just lamps and tables. 131 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  132. 132. Elements of Design The elements are components or parts, which can be isolated and defined, in any visual design or work of art. They are the structure of the work, and can carry a wide variety of messages. 132 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  133. 133. Elements of Design ► Line ► Form, shape and space ► Color ► Pattern ► Texture 133 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  134. 134. Line It is a major part of composition and second only to color in creating a response to the merchandise in a display. 134 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  135. 135. Line ► A line is a mark made by a moving point and having psychological impact according to its direction, weight, and the variations in its direction and weight. ► It is an enormously useful and versatile graphic device that is made to function in both visual and verbal ways. ► It can act as a symbolic language, or it can communicate emotion through its character and direction. ►Line is not necessarily an artificial creation of the artist or designer; it exists in nature as a structural feature such as branches, or as surface design, such as striping on a tiger or a seashell. 135 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  136. 136. ► Lines can be combined with other lines to create textures and patterns. ► The use of line in combination results in the development of form and value, which are other elements of design. ► However, line is not always explicit. It can exist by implication, as the edge of forms. ► As young children we usually begin drawing landscapes by making outlines for earth, sky, and other objects. ► Gradually we learn that objects do not have such outlines and we let color changes define the edges of shapes, creating implicit lines. Thus we can speak of a horizon “line,” or the “lines” of a car or a fashion silhouette, even though we know there is no literal line present. 136 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  137. 137. Different types of Lines ► Line also communicates emotion and states of mind through its character and direction. The variations of meaning generally relate to our bodily experience of line and direction. ► The way in which these lines are utilized and combined determines the effectiveness of the merchandise presentation. ► Each line suggests something else and, as letters combine to form words, lines are arranged to make selling “pictures.” 137 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  138. 138. Horizontal line ► They tend to widen the surface on which they are used and seemingly decrease the height of the area. ► Horizontal lines create a feeling of rest, relaxation, and repose, as in the restful line of the horizon. ► Objects parallel to the earth are at rest in relation to gravity. ► It is perfectly compatible with robes, loungewear, or nightwear. 138 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  140. 140. Vertical lines ► It expresses strength and stability and is inherent in many types of merchandise constructed of rigid materials. ► Its application naturally gives the viewer an up-and-down eye movement. ► Dominant use of vertical lines in a display tends to heighten the area, giving the illusion of increased space in this direction. 140 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  141. 141. ► Horizontal and vertical lines in combination communicate stability and solidity. ► Rectilinear forms stay put in relation to gravity, and are not likely to tip over. ► This stability suggests permanence, reliability and safety. In the case of the man in this family group, the lines seem to imply stability to the point of stodginess. 141 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  142. 142. Diagonal line ► This type of diagonal line especially connotes action and movement to the viewer and is quite effective in the informal display arrangement. ► It tends to give the illusion of instability. ► An expert must use it with care and precision. ► The diagonal line is a line of action; it is forceful, strong, and dynamic. 142 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  143. 143. Curved lines ► Curved lines do vary in meaning, however, Soft, shallow curves suggest comfort, safety, familiarity, relaxation. ► They also tend to give a display a feminine atmosphere. ► The curved line personifies grace, charm, and femininity. ► It is soft and enveloping. ► They recall the curves of the human body, and therefore have a pleasing, sensual quality. 143 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  144. 144. Deep, Acute Curves ► Deep Curves suggest confusion, turbulence, even frenzy, as in the violence of waves in a storm, the chaos of a tangled thread, or the turmoil of lines suggested by the forms of a crowd. 144 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  145. 145. Zigzag lines ► Zigzag lines are angular and counter roundness. ► They enlarge the figure and are eye-catching. ► These lines are a series of connected diagonals and give a feeling of being erratic, intense, abrupt and non – serious. 145 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  146. 146. Perpendicular Lines ► These lines attract attention because of their disturbing nature. 146 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  147. 147. 147 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  148. 148. Textured Lines ► These lines ad weight and attract attention. They are decorative and busy. 148 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  149. 149. Alternating Lines ► These lines are generally eye-catching, dominant and may be too violent. Psychologically these lines are associated with sharpness, movement, speed, confusion and excitement. 149 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  150. 150. Crossover lines ► These lines create a focal point at the point of intersection because of their contrasting nature. 150 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  151. 151. Converging Lines ► These lines emphasize direction and are psychologically associated with weight and youthfulness. 151 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  152. 152. Full Curve ► Full curves emphasize body curves, counters thinness and sharp angles and are better suited on thin figures. Psychologically these lines are associated with activeness, roundness, forcefulness, feminity and exuberance. 152 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  153. 153. Soft Curve ► Soft curves gently emphasize the body curves and are flattering. Psychologically these lines are associated with passive nature, gentleness, feminity, smoothness and youthful nature. 153 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  154. 154. Undulating Lines ► These lines give roundness and soften the angles. Psychologically they are associated with feminity, sensuousness, gentleness, fluidity and gracefulness. The structural use of these lines is for the flowing fabric edges, fabric patterns, frills and ruffles. 154 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  155. 155. Ogee ► These lines soften the angles and are more flattering and give a feeling of sensuousness, feminity, seductiveness and gracefulness. 155 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  156. 156. Spiral Lines ► The lines have a focal point and are eye catching. They are natural, continuous and feminine 156 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  157. 157. Thin Lines ► These lines give a visual effect, lightweight ness and have a receding nature. Psychologically they create a feeling of delicacy, calmness, fragility, subtleness and weakness. 157 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  158. 158. Thick Lines ► These lines are heavy, add weight, visually move forward and attract attention. These are forceful, assertive, masculine and confident. 158 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  159. 159. Even Lines ► These lines are smooth and flattering and give a feeling of firmness, certainty, steadiness and regularity. 159 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  160. 160. Uneven Lines ► These lines emphasize bulges and add interest. They are wobbly, unstable and indecisive. 160 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  161. 161. Long Lines ► These lines emphasize direction, length or width and are continuous, graceful, free flowing and smooth. 161 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  162. 162. Short Lines ► These lines divide the space and adds interest. They give a feeling of abruptness, efficiency and blindness. 162 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  163. 163. Broken Line ► These lines are rhythmic and attract attention. Psychologically they are associated with interruption, uncertainty, casualness. 163 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  164. 164. Form, Shape and Space Form and shape are areas or masses, which define objects in space. Form and shape imply space; indeed they cannot exist without space. 164 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  165. 165. ► Shape The shape of an object refers to the visual form of that object. For our purpose, shapes are discussed not in their variations, but as being similar or dissimilar. For the creation of perfect harmony in a display, shapes that correspond exactly to one another are used exclusively. Inharmonious or dissimilar shapes may be used in a display to create contrast and, in some instances, a point of emphasis. 165 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  166. 166. ►Form When lines connect they create form, which is the shape of the object. Straight lines produce angular forms, and curved lines create circular forms. Forms express moods similar to the lines that define them. In advertisements and displays the merchandise and props are the forms and should be chosen for the appropriateness of their shape for the particular promotion. Display forms come in different sizes and can be arranged in a variety of positions. 166 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  167. 167. ► An element of art that is three dimensional (height, width, and depth) and encloses volume. ► For example a triangle, which is two dimensional, is a shape, and a pyramid, which is three dimensional is a form. ► Examples of forms include; Cubes, Spheres, Ovoids, Pyramids, Cones, and Cylinders. vasantkothari@gmail.com 167
  168. 168. Categories of Forms ► There are various ways to categorize form and shape. Two-dimensional Three dimensional. Geometric / Organic Realistic / Naturalistic Abstract Caricature 168 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  169. 169. Two-dimensional ► Two-dimensional form is the foundation of pictorial organization or composition in painting, photography, and many other media. ► It is created in a number of ways: Line Value Change in texture 169 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  170. 170. 2-D forms giving illusion of 3-D ► Two-dimensional forms can create the illusion of three dimensional shapes and spaces ► Whenever we look at a flat surface (a picture, a television screen) and assume we are looking at spaces and objects that have depth, we are accepting a set of visual signals that create an illusion of three-dimensional space. 170 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  171. 171. Three Dimensional ► Three-dimensional shape has an expressive vocabulary similar to that of line. ► For example, Rectilinear shapes suggest stability. Angular shapes placed diagonally in relation to gravity suggest instability. Shapes that exhibit softly curving surfaces suggest quiet, comfort and sensuality. 171 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  172. 172. Geometric / Organic ► Geometric Shapes that are created through use of mathematics. These shapes include Circle, Oval, Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Hexagon, Octagon and Pentagon. ► Organic An irregular shape, or one that might be found in nature, rather than a regular mechanical shape. 172 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  173. 173. Realistic / Naturalistic ► If we can recognize every day objects and environments, we refer to the images as being realistic, or naturalistic. 173 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  174. 174. Abstract ►If the images are difficult or impossible to identify in terms of our normal, daily visual experience, we may refer to the images as abstract. ► There are several kinds of abstract images. Objective image - it is derived from an actual object. Non-objective image - do not refer to any real-world object or scene 174 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  175. 175. Caricature ► Caricature is a special instance of abstraction, in which realistic images are distorted to make a statement about the people, places, or objects portrayed. 175 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  176. 176. ► Space Space is the two-dimensional equivalent of volume. It is the illusion of three-dimensional spatial relationships on a flat, two-dimensional surface. A drawing or painting may appear to have a flat sense of space or a deep sense of space. Space is the distance between forms. It is the expanse between objects. That is, the background upon which a figure is placed. The amount of space given to background helps to create mood and emphasis. Blank background in an advertisement is termed white space. 176 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  177. 177. ► An element of art that refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things. It can be described as two- dimensional or three-dimensional; as flat, shallow, or deep; as positive or negative; and as actual, or illusory. Since the viewer has to look up to view the sculpture, Michelangelo carved the hands, torso, and head An example of how artist use larger so his body would look actual space to manipulate the correctly. viewers perspective, can be seen in Michelangelo’s stone sculpture of “David”. 177 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  178. 178. ► Size Size refers to the physical magnitude, extent, bulk, and dimension of something. To achieve harmony within a display, sizes should be kept consistent. Objects of the sizes in which they appear in reality should constitute an entire area rather than being used in conjunction with objects that are miniatures. Sizes should also be kept in proportion, so that large objects do not minimize smaller ones that appear with them in a display. 178 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  179. 179. ► Idea In the area of merchandise display, one basic rule is to allow one idea to dominate. This tends to enhance the selling message of the window. Here, more than in other areas of design, we emphasize the importance of the display area as a selling tool. A display is not an artistic creation stimulating speculation and interpretation concerning its intent. The viewer must clearly and quickly receive the idea of a window. Its details must be in keeping with the central idea or theme in order to enhance and immediately clarify the idea that prevails. 179 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  180. 180. Color Using color is the best way to add excitement to a visual presentation without the cost of the installation. 180 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  181. 181. 181 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  182. 182. ► Typically, color is the first element we see when looking at an object or scene. It affects us physically and psychologically and is one of the most important elements in creating response, especially to display. ► Color is one of the most powerful of elements. It has tremendous expressive qualities. Understanding the uses of color is crucial to effective composition in design and the fine arts. ► Color is an inexpensive, versatile means of creating mood and drama in the presentation of fashion merchandise. Much of the color comes from the merchandise itself, which requires no additional expense. 182 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  183. 183. ►The color combinations of ceiling, walls, floor coverings and overall décor can affect the atmosphere of a store. ► Research shows that the proper choice of color in store windows and store interiors has significant drawing power. ► Color used properly can attract the eye of the potential customer, create the desired mood, and stimulate the viewer to make a purchase decision. ► Changing a color scheme can change people’s attitudes and perceptions of a store, and increase (or decrease) business. 183 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  185. 185. Color and Display ► The average pedestrian sees a window display as a flashing picture that is approached, observed, and responded to all in less than 11 seconds. ► This picture must be magnetic to bring customers into the store. ► A window display should represent the store, and it should help sell goods. ► To do this, it must attract the eye and turn walkers into stoppers-people who stop to examine the goods. 185 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  186. 186. ► One of the strongest forces in stopping the pedestrian and making him or her want an item is the effective use of color in a display. ► It is an invaluable selling tool, because people are color conscious. ► Color helps to create interest in new merchandise and the desire for it. ► Color is critical to an ambiance that projects a store’s image and attracts customers. ► 186 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  187. 187. ► The psychological effects of color have been well documented. ► For example, blue, green and violet project elegance; orange, yellow, and red convey intimacy. ► Appropriate lighting, in turn, enhances the effects of interior color. ►The use of colors in a store communicates various things to the customers who walk in while passing by. Some of the major impacts of color on customers are: Color sets the mood Emphasizes features Highlights a product Conveys the seasonal look 187 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  188. 188. The Impact of Color ► Color can convey and induce a variety of emotions. ► The effects of color can also be applied to merchandise presentations and displays. ► A bright color may attract a customer into the store, but warm colors in general make customers feel uneasy; cool colors in a display create a calm atmosphere and may prolong the customer’s stay in the store. ► Colors also convey the seasonal look; e.g., Red & Green – Christmas Black & Orange – Halloween Red & Pink – Valentine’s Day 188 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  191. 191. Warm Colors ► Warm colors (reds, oranges, and yellows) physically attract customers to shop are stimulating and Cherry. ► It makes room feel warm and intimate. ► Warm colors makes a room seem smaller while making objects in the room appear larger. ► A warm color on the end of the walls of a long narrow room will appear to shorten the room. 191 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  192. 192. Cool Colors ► On the other hand, cool colors (blues, greens, and violets) are more appropriate for areas where customers will be deliberating over a big-ticket purchase such as a fur coat. ► These colors helps by creating a relax atmosphere. ► Rooms decorated primarily in cool colors tend to appear larger and more specious. ► Cool colors are especially pleasing in smaller rooms. 192 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  193. 193. Dimensions of Color ► Skillful use of color begins with an understanding of its three dimensions- Hue, Value, and Intensity. 193 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  194. 194. Hue ► In simple terms hue is the name of the color. Yellow, red, brown, grey are hues. ► Theoretically all hues can be mixed from three basic hues, known as primaries. When pigment primaries are all mixed together, the theoretical result is black. 194 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  195. 195. Value ► When describing the lightness or darkness of a hue, we are speaking of its value. ► Adding white to a hue, we lighten it and achieve a tint. ► With the addition of lack, a darker variation is produced, know as shade. 195 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  196. 196. Intensity or Chroma ► The saturation or purity of a color is referred to as its intensity. ► A color’s intensity is actually its brightness or dullness. ► The intensity is varied by adding middle grey or complement of the color. ► These intense colors catch the eye and stop the customer long enough for her to notice the merchandise. ► High-intensity colors are active and stimulating. ► Low-intensity colors are grayed or dull in appearance, for example, maroon. Dull or low-intensity colors tend to create a calm and restful mood 196 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  200. 200. Low Value High Value 200 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  202. 202. Color Schemes ► Colors often occur in various combinations, referred to as color schemes. ► Combining colors attractively is an art marked by individual style and preference. Although there are no laws for combining colors, there are some formalized methods for producing harmonious color schemes. ► These methods are illustrated on a wheel of 12 colors. ► The two major categories of color scheme in terms of hue are related and contrasting. ► The second category is referred to as contrasting because there are no common hues in these color schemes. Contrasting color schemes are often bold and dramatic. 202 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  203. 203. Related Color Schemes ► The first category is referred to as related because this type of color scheme utilizes one or more hues in common, that is, colors that are adjacent on the color wheel. ► Related color schemes tend to produce a stable feeling and allow the mood of the hue of the color scheme to be expressed clearly. ► The principal types of related color schemes are Monochromatic and Analogous. 203 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  204. 204. Monochromatic ► A single color on the color wheel is used with three to five tints and shades of that single true color in this scheme ► Several pieces of blue merchandise each consisting of a different value ranging from baby blue to navy blue, is an example of Monochromatic color scheme. ► If texture is a selling point, a monochromatic color scheme may be a good choice for highlighting textures, which would be more apparent when the colors are all the same or similar. 204 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  205. 205. Analogous ► Analogous color schemes comprise three colors that are adjacent on the wheel, which means they contain a common hue. ► An example is yellow-orange, yellow, and yellow-green. Another example, from the cooler side of the color wheel, is blue, blue-violet, and violet. ► An analogous color scheme offers more variety in colors than a monochromatic scheme and avoids the possibility of clashing colors since there is a common hue to provide harmony. ► This can be used to create a soft and subtle décor and warm or cool effect. ► This color scheme needs to be used with caution so as not to end up with an over stimulating nor depressing atmosphere. 205 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  206. 206. Contrasting Color Schemes ► Contrasting color schemes are subdivided as follows: Complementary Double-complementary Split-complementary Triad Tetrad Tone on Tone 206 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  207. 207. Complementary ► A complementary color scheme is represented by two colors that are exactly opposite to each other on the color wheel, such as Yellow and Purple or Red and Green. ► It can result in a very pleasing combination of warm and cool colors. ► Avoid using opposite colors in equal amounts of light and dark combinations. 207 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  208. 208. Double-complementary ► These schemes are based on two adjacent colors combined with their complementary or opposite colors, such as yellow orange and yellow with violet and blue- violet, or red-orange and orange with blue and blue-green. ► This scheme incorporates both contrast by means of opposite hues and similarity by means of related hues. ► The related hues give a sense of unity, making this scheme slightly easier to produce than a simple complementary scheme. 208 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  209. 209. Split-complementary ► Split-complementary color scheme is composed of any hue plus the two hues on either side of its complement, such as yellow with red-violet and blue violet, or blue-green with red and orange. ► It is a popular color scheme to create interest and richness. 209 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  210. 210. Triad ► Every fourth color on the color wheel for a total of three colors make a triadic color scheme. ►It is built on three hues equidistant from each other, such as red, yellow, and blue; or orange, green, and violet. ► The combination of unrelated hues is lively, but harmony may be difficult to create because of the variety generated. ► This is a good combination of colors that can create muted, traditional look as well as more vibrant color characteristics of modern color scheme. 210 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  211. 211. Tetrad ► Tetrad scheme combines four hues equidistant from each other on the color wheel, such as orange, yellow- green, blue, and red-violet. ► The various hues provide the contrast and interest. ► The merchandise itself can provide the color schemes for the display. ► In a merchandising grouping, a multicolor item such as a figured blouse can establish the color scheme. When an item comes in several colors, that range, of hues can become the color scheme. 211 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  212. 212. Tone on Tone ► Two colors that are next to one another on the color wheel with a very little space between them, make up a tone on tone scheme. ► Generally no change in either intensity, such as degree of brightness, in tints or shades is used in a tone on tone scheme. ► A display of blue and blue-violet silk flowers is an example of this scheme. 212 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  213. 213. 213 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  214. 214. 214 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  215. 215. Psychological Implications of Color ► Market researchers have done extensive studies exploring the emotional responses of people to color. ► Some of these responses seem to be powerful and fairly universal. However, much of this information is culturally biased. ► We know that cultural traditions endow colors with powerful meanings that can differ greatly from place to place. ► For example, in Europe and the United States, black is the color of mourning. ► In many tropical countries and in East Asia white is the color of death. ► On the other hand, white is the color worn by American brides, while brides in much of Asia wear red. 215 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  216. 216. Blue A cool Color (makes room seem cooler). Clams and Relaxes excited people. Makes time seem to pass quickly. Tends to stimulate thought processes and Encourage conversation. 216 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  217. 217. Green Easy on the Eyes. A cool Color Restful and Tranquil Stimulates Conversations Makes time seem to pass quickly. 217 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  218. 218. Red Excites and Stimulates. Induces Aggression Makes time seem to pass Slowly 218 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  219. 219. Orange Friendly, Warm and Vibrant Exhilarating 219 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  220. 220. Yellow A cheerful Color. Creates a feeling o Warmth and Happiness Draws attention Boosts Morale 220 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  221. 221. Violet and Purple A cool color Tends to lend elegance and sophistication Royal 221 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  222. 222. Brown Relaxing and Warm 222 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  223. 223. Grey Depressing Cool Sophisticated Color 223 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  224. 224. Black Depression Richness Sophistication when used Elegantly 224 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  225. 225. White Cold Elegant Adds a balance to any Color Scheme 225 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  226. 226. Color Combination ► Colors must be considered in view of their surroundings, as color can change dramatically when viewed under different circumstances. ► For Example, A red chair will appear Yellower next to Blue wall Purer and brighter next to Green wall Lighter and Brighter next to White wall Brighter next to Grey wall. ► A dark color placed near a lighter color will appear deeper while light color will appear lighter yet. ► Colors are also radically altered by differences in pattern and texture. 226 vasantkothari@gmail.com
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  228. 228. ► A comfortable background color choice for leather goods is the mid value range, such as a beige or grey. ► This selection also works well for intimate apparel and ready to wear. ► A painted background color will not reflect as much light fabric, so even if the merchandise is the same color as the background it will still stand out. 228 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  229. 229. ► Light colors such as pinks, yellows, blues and whites should not be used as background colors in the infant and toddler areas, since they are the colors used in much of the merchandise sold. ► The small size of the garments and the generally light tones make the merchandise invisible. ► Brighter, sharper colors help these pastels stand out. 229 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  230. 230. ► Background colors in girls departments should be kept neutral because of the extensive range of colors sold there, and boys departments go with bright because the clothes tend to be in bright or deep tones. ► Junior departments utilize various color backgrounds depending on current fashion vogue. ► When neon colors are popular, white is a very suitable background. ► However, when more subtle colors are in fashion, the whites are too cold and overpowering. 230 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  231. 231. ► Dark Green or dark Blue colors, with neutrals used for accents, have been effectively used in menswear areas. ► Primary, Secondary, Peach, Light Blue and Green colors should be avoided. 231 vasantkothari@gmail.com
  232. 232. ► Stores that carry china and glass can effectively use grays, browns and blues as background colors. ► Browns work especially well with bone china and Blues are attractive with porcelain; grays can be utilized with either type of china. ► Silver should not be shown on a brown background because the reflection will make the silver appear tarnished ► However, browns and burgundies are great for displaying brass goods. ► Gift areas can be use black and white with bright accents. 232 vasantkothari@gmail.com

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