Visual merchandising


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Visual merchandising

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 Department features fashion on hangers, to try and buy.
  3. 3. 3 Sr No Topic Slide # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Fixtures 346 14 Lighting 376 15 Mannequins 404 16 Signage and Graphics 424 17 Common Errors in display 448 Introduction to Visual Merchandising 4 Exteriors and Window Structures 8 Principles of Design 36 Merchandise Display 82 Elements of Design 132 Lines 134 Form, Shape and Space 164 Colors 180 Patterns 241 Interiors 248 Store Design Layout 291 Material and Props 330
  4. 4. 4 Introduction Visual Merchandising is the actual selling of Merchandise through a Visual Medium
  5. 5. 5 The presentation of the entire store and its merchandise in ways that will attract potential customers and motivate them to make purchases.
  6. 6. 6 Everything the customer sees, both exterior and interior, that creates a positive image of a business and results in attention, interest, desire, and action.
  7. 7. 7 ► Visual Merchandising can Improve business’s productivity Boost sales per square foot Generate a faster turnover rate Sell more of most profitable merchandise Decrease markdown rates Increase the amount of average transaction Convert the shopper a “stopper” and a walk-in rather than a walk -by.
  8. 8. 8 Exteriors and Window Structures Essential to the success of every operation that deals with consumers is the ability to motivate potential customers to come inside.
  9. 9. 9 Exterior Store DesignExterior Store Design ► Store design involves formulating and structuring all elements of the physical environment. ► The storefront includes all aspects of the front/exterior of the store. ► Elements include the marquee (or exterior sign), entrances, windows, banners, planters, awnings and lighting. ► Three other important functional aspects of exterior design are customer visibility, store security, and potential for efficiency among staff and associates.
  10. 10. 10 Signs and EntrancesSigns and Entrances ► A sign is a silent salesperson, and part of a shopper’s first impression of a store. In less than 10 seconds the sign must attract attention, tell who the business is and what it has to sell. ► Retail entrances are designed to draw customers into the store through visual appeal and physical convenience. ► The number, and type of entrances used depend on the location, the type and density or traffic, and security considerations. ► Doors may be revolving, electric, or regular push pull.
  11. 11. 11 ► The store’s sign, on the outside of the building, makes the first impression on the shopper. It sets the look and image of the store. ► The sign should be the store’s “signature”-personal, original, and recognizable. It should make a statement.
  12. 12. 12 MarqueesMarquees ► The marquee, a permanent awning for protection from the elements, is an integral part of the building facade. ► It is often cantilevered out over the street, in front of the main entrance to the store. ► The marquee can be an exciting place to start the display of a storewide event or promotion.
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 Store FrontStore Front ► Store front can be categorized as below Arcade, Straight, and Angled.
  15. 15. 15 Arcade FrontArcade Front ► Arcade fronts are usually spacious. ► They allow the window merchandise closely. ► They seem to be more relaxing to the shopper and often take on highly surrealistic shapes, with concave or slanted panes of glass and beautifully decorated windows.
  16. 16. 16 Straight FrontStraight Front ► This type of front parallels the sidewalk, with its monotony broken only by entrances. ► The entrances may be recessed into the main floor area, but all the lines are identical.
  17. 17. 17 Angled FrontAngled Front ► The angled front is much like the straight front in that it follows a true line, but the monotony is relieved by angles away from the sidewalk contour. ► The design of the doors or windows in an angled-front store may be asymmetrical or symmetrical. ►These entrances have deep lobbies to allow traffic to slow down without being pushed or pressured by other pedestrians.
  18. 18. 18 Window StructuresWindow Structures ► The following are the basic storefront and window designs that allow for many variations Angled windows Parallel to side walk windows Corner windows Enclosed windows Open back windows Half – Open windows Arcades Windowless windows Live or demo windows Circular windows Shadow box windows Interactive or Through-glass windows Islands
  19. 19. 19 Angled WindowsAngled Windows ► In order to give more exposure to the viewer, there are windows that are similar to the parallel to the sidewalk type but can feature more displays in less space. ► By angling the windows, the display space can be elongated to form a vestibule that leads the shopper into the store.
  20. 20. 20 Parallel to side walk windowsParallel to side walk windows ► The windows that run parallel to the sidewalk and are generally back closed to separate them from the rest of the store.
  21. 21. 21 Corner WindowsCorner Windows ► Windows at the corners provide view from each of the two converging streets. ► It can have variations like- entrances from both the sides or entrance in the center, with two windows flanking it.
  22. 22. 22 Enclosed WindowsEnclosed Windows ► These are ones which have walls on three sides and glass on one side to view the window display.
  23. 23. 23 Open back windowsOpen back windows ► Retailers who believe that the entire store should be visible to the consumer from the outside, yet feel the need to feature conventional window displays, often choose the open-back window structure.
  24. 24. 24 HalfHalf –– Open windowsOpen windows ► Half open windows use partitions or architectural dividers of some kind to separate the display from the store proper. ► E.g., Dividers: rail fencing or artificial evergreens.
  25. 25. 25 ArcadesArcades ► In arcade windows there are set back doors/entrances thereby increasing the size of display windows. ► Stores with limited frontage whose merchandising philosophy requires a large window display space get benefited from such a design.
  26. 26. 26 Windowless windowsWindowless windows ► The thought behind these windows is that with the ample open frontage, the shopper can get the impression of the store’s merchandise and will enter the premises without being enticed by a window.
  27. 27. 27 Live or demo windowsLive or demo windows ► Live or demo windows have caused many shoppers to stop and notice when they suddenly waved or wrinkled at an unsuspecting passerby.
  28. 28. 28 Circular windowsCircular windows ► In order individualize their images, some companies develop window structures that are quiet different from the traditional ones. ► These do not provide space for retailing.
  29. 29. 29 Shadow box windowsShadow box windows ► Stores that feature small items such as jewelry require window structures that enable close inspection of the merchandise. ► Windows of such nature are elevated so that comfortable, clear viewing is possible.
  30. 30. 30 Interactive or ThroughInteractive or Through--glassglass windowswindows ► They can literally communicate with shoppers day and night. ► Viewers can virtually design their own window displays by calling up brands and images that interested them from a programmed menu.
  31. 31. 31 IslandsIslands ► It’s a display that can be viewed from all the sides. ► Deep vestibules (arcade or angled windows) and wide frontage results in an excessive amount of space at the store’s entrance. ► Some stores wishing to better use the lobby area and gain additional display space build islands in the center of the vestibule. ► Sometimes these displays are also set inside the store.
  32. 32. 32 Window Lightning RulesWindow Lightning Rules ► Show merchandise in true colors
  33. 33. 33 Window Lightning RulesWindow Lightning Rules ► Focus on merchandise
  34. 34. 34 Window Lightning RulesWindow Lightning Rules ► The window’s proscenium (fore ground) and side turns should conceal most lighting fixtures unless they are a part of the presentation’s design.
  35. 35. 35 ► Visual merchandising is comprised of five components Store Image Storefront Store Interior Store Layout Interior Displays
  36. 36. 36 Principles of Design The principles of design guide the organization of the design elements for an effective visual impression.
  37. 37. 37 Principles of DesignPrinciples of Design ► The five principles to be considered are Balance, Emphasis, Proportion, Rhythm, and Unity/Harmony
  38. 38. 38 BalanceBalance ► Balance may be defined artistically as the state of equipoise between the two sides of an entity. ► The word balance describes equality of weight, something distributed evenly or on two sides of an imaginary line. ► Balance refers to the displaying of merchandise “in such a manner that a pleasing distribution of weight occurs. Weighing, to determine balance, involves estimating and comparing the values and importance of the two sides of the display.”
  39. 39. 39 BalanceBalance ► Balance is a sense of equilibrium that provides a feeling of stability. When things are unbalanced, people have an uneasy feeling. ► Balance has to do with the relationship of the elements within the composition (advertising, display, etc.). ► Balance results when the parts of the design have equal visual weight. ► Balance is a state of equilibrium––the equality of two things in weight, force, and quantity.
  40. 40. 40 Types of BalanceTypes of Balance ► Generally, there are two types of balance: Formal or Symmetrical Informal or Asymmetrical.
  41. 41. 41 Symmetrical/Formal BalanceSymmetrical/Formal Balance ► Balance achieved through the use of identical objects or very similar objects on either side of the center is known as ► Symmetrical or formal balance and produces a sense of dignity, calm, and repose. Symmetrical balance is effective in promoting classic goods for important occasions; such as confirmation dresses or business suits for a job interview. ► This can be effective where Expensive and Quality Merchandise Is being Presented.
  42. 42. 42 Symmetrical/Formal BalanceSymmetrical/Formal Balance ► Formal balance occurs when each object on the right side has an exact counterpart on the left side relative to size, placement, shape, and color. ► Therefore, each side has equal power to attract attention and is equally forceful in demanding the customer’s action.
  43. 43. 43 Symmetrical/Formal BalanceSymmetrical/Formal Balance ► Formal balance produces a feeling by the total unit of dignity, restraint, and conservatism. ► This type of balance is usually used to depict tradition, store image (or other institutional examples), and so on and denotes less activity than the informal type.
  44. 44. 44 Asymmetrical / Informal BalanceAsymmetrical / Informal Balance ► Informal balance in display also achieves component equality to the viewer’s eye, but it does so by using varieties of color, placement, size, and shape of the objects on opposite sides of the display. ► Using this type of balance to create a display can result in more subtle and imaginative arrangements. ► It is used in merchandising when the designer wishes to provide activity, excitement, and variety.
  45. 45. 45 Asymmetrical / Informal BalanceAsymmetrical / Informal Balance ► Informal balance creates flow or rhythm and a feeling of excitement. ► The two sides of the display appear to be of equal weight, but hey are not replicas of each others. ► Something large can be balance by several small items or an expense of empty space, a bright color or a shot of light. ► Several soft colors in a large space can be balanced by one bright color because the intensity of the bright color will compensate for its small size.
  46. 46. 46 Asymmetrical / Informal BalanceAsymmetrical / Informal Balance ► In the case of objects of different weight, the heavier one could be moved closer to the center to achieve balance. ► Dark values of colors appear heavier than light values. ► Dull textures appear heavier than smooth textures and should be placed closer to the center to balance the design.
  47. 47. 47 Points to consider for BalancingPoints to consider for Balancing ► If colors are too light, they will overwhelm pastels. ► If several small objects are more exciting than the large object, they will overpower the large item. ► A large expanse of empty space will call attention to a single object placed within it. ► If an item is placed at an angle or to one side (off center), the space on either side of that piece becomes important. ► If an object is centered, the empty space loses importance because its shape is predictable and therefore has less recognition as its own element. ► A pleasing distribution of weight using merchandise of similar value will provide importance to both sides.
  48. 48. 48 How to determine balance in a display?How to determine balance in a display? ► Use exact objects in both parts of the display. ► Draw an imaginary line down the center of the display. ► To achieve formal balance, place objects, weight for weight, on either side of the line. To achieve informal balance, place merchandise and props so that more weight occurs on one side than on the other. ► Place heavier objects and stronger colors closer to the floor or base of the display to avoid top-heaviness. For example, a small item place in the foreground will balance a larger item placed in the background. ► Balance objects of a brighter hue (color) with larger objects that have less intensity of color. ► Balance smaller objects with larger objects by the frequency with which they appear. For example, one large item can be balanced with two or more smaller items.
  49. 49. 49 EmphasisEmphasis ► Emphasis is the point of initial eye contact. From this spot all other eye movements flow. ► Emphasis is therefore the formulation of a focal point, with all else in the display subordinate. ► The focal point is the dominant or central point of a display, with everything else playing a secondary or subordinate role. ► The Merchandise must be the focal point in a majority of displays.
  50. 50. 50 Methods of creating emphasis pointsMethods of creating emphasis points ► The display person must keep in mind t hat the eye must have a point of beginning and that this point has to be planned and created. Emphasis can be achieved in a number of ways: Repetition Contrast Elements of design
  51. 51. 51 ► Repetition A frequently used method is the repetition of an element. A display created totally in purple would be difficult to ignore. The shopper’s eye is attracted by the sheer amount of the color. Size is an obvious means of creating a focal point. The largest figure in an advertisement will draw attention and hold it longer than small figures. Repetition creates emphasis by calling attention to the repeated element through sheer force of numbers.
  52. 52. 52 ► Contrast This can create emphasis, intensifying visual perception. Great embellishment prolongs the visual involvement and thus provides a point of focus. By contrast, an area devoid of pattern directs the eye to the object. This is the reason an advertisement with a large amount of white space captures the eye and focuses it on the figure. This concept of space providing emphasis works equally well in a display. Less merchandise in a window means more emphasis on the few items that are there.
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. 54 ► Elements of design Generally, a composition needs one major point of emphasis that holds the viewer’s visual attention longer than any other point. This is achieved in part by subordinating all other elements (color, texture, line, form, space, etc.) to the major one.
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56 ► A display needs to emphasize a theme or mood, such as the use of sports equipment, work equipment or leisure equipment set up in a lifelike situation. Themes may also depict seasons, anniversaries, celebrations, holidays, and other special store events. All elements in a display must then reinforce one other and emphasize th mood created. ► An isolated item can be emphasized when surrounding by blank space. ► Shiny surface emphasize and enlarge objects. ► Dull surface absorb light and help to de emphasize area. ► Color is powerful medium for creating emphasis. Small amount of advancing color, bright intensities, extreme tints or shades contrasts in the right places will provide striking accents.
  57. 57. 57 ► Unusual textures highlight an area. ► Emphasis is diminished with receding variations such as thin, fuzzy lines; non descript shapes; regular spacing; even light absorption, cool hues; dull intensities; medium tints or shades; dull opaque textures; and small, all over or no pattern. ► Repetition usually means something is important; so repeated shapes, colors or motifs grouped together reinforces their importance, creating emphasis. Make sure if goods are used in repetition that these goods are emphasized for sale.
  58. 58. 58 ProportionProportion ► The principle of proportion involves the comparative relationship of the design elements to each other. ► Proportion is the ratio of the parts to the whole display. ► It is comparative relationship of distances, sizes, amounts, degrees or parts. ► When each element is in proportion, the whole will have a pleasing effect to the eye. ► The merchandise along with props and mannequins should be planned such that they are proportionate to each other as well as to the provided display area.
  59. 59. 59 ► Proportion and contrast are important elements of good composition. Drastically changing the proportions between items and dramatic contrasts of color and texture can work wonders in attracting attention to a display and in helping to promote an idea or a look. ► There are four commonly used space divisions or types of arrangements by which the display person achieves proportion: Pyramid, Step, Zigzag, and Repetition
  60. 60. 60 ► Pyramid The pyramid is a triangular arrangement with a broad base rising to a center peak. It is a common device to achieve proportion and may be used with any type of merchandise. It tends to give a display a stiff and formal feeling.
  61. 61. 61 ► Step The step is a level elevation within the display area. It is effectively used as a side unit facing the center of attraction. It is more informal than the pyramid and is most effective when only three steps are used. When steps extend evenly from either side to a midpoint within the display, the appearance is of an inverted pyramid. This aspect of proportion may therefore be easily combined with the illusion of the pyramid.
  62. 62. 62 ► Zigzag The zigzag is based on the principle of the double reverse curve and is particularly adaptable to wearing apparel, owing to the flexibility and ease of draping most fabrics. The zigzag requires equidistant spacing and precision. It may be especially effective when small accessory steps are used, thereby eliminating vacant areas. An easily achieved zigzag effect is created by using material like yarn, rope, or ribbon to lead the eye throughout the zigzag line.
  63. 63. 63 ► Repetition Repetition, as a type of proportion, is simple in form. It makes use of steps of the same general nature. It aligns all items in the same manner by height, spacing, and the angle at which they are placed. This type of repetitive arrangement requires deviations to break the monotonous effect that may evolve.
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65 ► Do not use all large objects, because there is nothing to break the monotony and sameness of that large feeling. ► Adding an odd number of smaller, related items to large pieces creates more interest and balance. ► Proportions take on more meaning when items define one another. For example the size of dinosaur is defined when it is standing next to a two story house. ► Proportion and balance can best be accomplished when articles within the display play off each other through their size, shape and color.
  66. 66. 66 ► Ratio of merchandise to space is critical: Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relation to others. The ratio of Props and show cards to merchandise must be in proportion to avoid the appearance of stressing or selling your props rather than merchandise. Each object should not be too large or too small, nor too heavy or too light in proportion to other items in display areas. Proportion and contrast are important elements of good display.
  67. 67. 67 RhythmRhythm ► When all the elements are properly located so that the eye travels smoothly from one part to another, then flow, movement, or rhythm have been achieved. Rhythm can be achieved through various means like Repetition Continuous line Progression Radiation
  68. 68. 68 RhythmRhythm ► Rhythm may be broken up or continuous; clearly stated or subtly suggested; repeated or vaguely similar. ► Rhythm entails an arrangement of organized motion and does not necessarily need repetition. However, it does gain impact from repetition. ► A flow exist if the eye travels from one area of a display to another, covering the entire display. The eye should travel easily through the entire design. ► A display can lead the eye with color, repetition, shadows created by light placement, lettering or texture.
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70 ► Repetition It gives regularity to the movement of the eye, as if it knows what is coming next. This produces an impression of constancy and stability. These impressions are helpful in promoting classic styles of clothing, especially for professional wear.
  71. 71. 71 ► Continuous Line Movement The simplest method for directing the eye is a continuous line, either straight or curved. In an advertisement, the reader’s eye enters the ad in the upper left corner. It may proceed from left to right in a straight line. The eye starts at the top left quarter of the arrangement and proceeds downward to the lower right corner.
  72. 72. 72 ► Progression of Sizes Progression of sizes refers to using similar shapes and varying their sizes by consistently increasing or decreasing them along the visual path. The eye is made to move rapidly over the display, and this swift eye movement is in keeping with the immediate, quick viewing that is essential to the successful display of merchandise. It is a more dynamic means of achieving eye movement than is repetition. It employs the sequential evolution of an element for example, using light, medium, and dark colors sequentially in a design.
  73. 73. 73 ► Radiation Another way to create rhythm is by radiation, that is, use of a circular arrangement that guides the eye from a central point around the parts of the design. Designs that employ radial rhythm or movement are often dramatic. However, this method of creative rhythm offers less variety than the other two methods.
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75. 75 ► English reading people read from left to right. A left to right reading should be created in the display. ► Use element that mean something together and relate to the merchandise. ► Create a pattern through the use of light and dark, either with color or light. ► Overlapping of objects placed together in the display area can prevent the blank space that could exist with an even number of items in a display. Overlapping is one of the most effective tools for creating good flow.
  76. 76. 76 ► It is usually recommended to use an odd number of items when displaying multiples. ► Use a fabric or color that unifies the themes. ► Use props that are repetitious either in form or theme. ► Use the technique of flying merchandise to create flow. ► Use lettering with repetition of similar items or with dominance by using oversized items to create flow. ► It is important that the eye is led throughout the display and does not leave until all parts have been seen.
  77. 77. 77 Unity/HarmonyUnity/Harmony ► When all the elements in a design properly blend to form a unified picture, the principle of harmony has been achieved. ► Harmony is a coordinating umbrella principle that can cover and incorporate every other principle. ► Harmony is agreement in feeling and consistency in mood ► Without Harmony, the observer is uncomfortable and will not be enticed to purchase merchandise.
  78. 78. 78 Unity/HarmonyUnity/Harmony ► Harmony may be achieved through use of the artistic devices of Line, Shape, Size, Texture, and Idea.
  79. 79. 79 Functional HarmonyFunctional Harmony ► It deals with how something works physically, which means it must be realistic and must work. ► An example of kitchen counter used in a display that is the appropriate height and depth for working.
  80. 80. 80 Structural HarmonyStructural Harmony ► It is correctly fitting together all the pieces; merchandise should not be out of place in the display. ► For example, an electrical appliance is not structurally consistent in an outdoor or camping device. ► A good window display may have pots and pans, fishing gear and outdoor furniture all mixed together because these items truly would be used on a camping trip; hence a camping theme is carried out. ► All the merchandise is brought together as part of the trip and harmony would be created or a mood would be set.
  81. 81. 81 Decorative HarmonyDecorative Harmony ► It includes the parts of display that are included only for decorative purpose. ► If an atmosphere of spring is being developed, butterflies and/or flowers may be used as props. These items are attractive and add to the theme.
  82. 82. 82 Merchandise Display Merchandise display is the arrangement and organization of display materials and merchandise to produce a stimulus that leads to the sale of merchandise and services.
  83. 83. 83 Outcome of a good displayOutcome of a good display ► It sells products and services ► Publicizes the business. ► Lays a foundation for the future sales ► Builds prestige ► Educates the public ► Builds up the goodwill of the public ► Offers the public useful, practical demonstrations. ► Familiarizes the public with the operations of the business. ► Harmonizes business interests with esthetics.
  84. 84. 84 Rules for Display PlanningRules for Display Planning ► Help the eye in finding the focal point of the display easily. ► Limit the number of competing elements in the display. ► Give the display one dominant theme. ► Use contrast and rhythm to add life to the colors and proportion. ► Select display props and material having some connection with the exhibited product. ► Do not allow the display props and materials to take up most of the best space in the window. ► Avoid anything that conflicts with the sales message. ► Use colors appropriate to the season. ► Do not mix the styles. ► Relax and see if the display sells.
  85. 85. 85 Purpose of DisplayPurpose of Display ► The purpose of Display in a store is to attract customers to the store, and ultimately convince them to buy the merchandise. The main purposes of a display can be discussed as under: Sell by show Encourage the shopper to enter the store Establish, promote & enhance the store’s visual image. To enhance the customer’s shopping experience Introduce & explain new products Educate customers by answering to their queries regarding the use & accessorization of a product.
  86. 86. 86 Functions of a DisplayFunctions of a Display ► The display in a store functions in the following three ways: It presents the selection of merchandise in a manner that will maximize both space and visibility to customers. To allow store sales associates to interact with customers more effectively. To enhance the visual appeal of a product to encourage customer’s interest and subsequent purchase.
  87. 87. 87 Points to Enhance the DisplayPoints to Enhance the Display ► Create a strong entrance. ► Allow front-to-back sightlines. ► Take advantage of the highest profile location and place the best selling merchandise in this area. ► Direct and redirect common customer traffic patterns, which will encourage them to zigzag through the store. ► Wrap it all up at the cash-wrap stand, to enable the customer to reach that point after seeing the merchandise. ► Maintain an active feeling in your store so that the sales associates do not congregate in one location and do not make the store look static.
  88. 88. 88 Types of DisplayTypes of Display ► Approaches to merchandise presentation vary according to the type of display- from special, or feature, areas to regular freestanding assortments and wall units. ► Special display areas include end-of-aisle end caps, windows and point-of-sale and demo areas. ► A display is at its best when it simply shows a color, an item, a collection, or just an idea.
  89. 89. 89 ► Types of displays include the following: One Item Display Line-at-goods Display Related Merchandise Display Variety or Assortment Display Promotional Display Institutional Display Seasonal Display Holidays Display Creative Display
  90. 90. 90 One Item DisplayOne Item Display ► A one-item display is just the showing and advancement of a single garment or any single item. It features only one piece of merchandise-designer gown, automobile, piece of jewelry etc.
  91. 91. 91 LineLine--atat--goods Displaygoods Display ► It is a kind of display in which only one type of merchandise is shown, (viz; all blouses, all skirts, pots etc.) although they may be in a variety of designs and colors. ► They could be designed by the same designer, or created with the same fabric or print, or they could all feature a common theme. ► However, for more effective presentation, and for better comprehension and acceptance by the shopper, there should be some connection or relevance indicated as to why these three or four articles are being shown together.
  92. 92. 92 Related Merchandise DisplayRelated Merchandise Display ► When the store wants to deliver a message that says, “I’ am a complete outfit, buy me,” it often chooses to feature the outfit or ensemble in a setting by itself. ► The intention is to entice the customer to buy a total package rather than one or two items. ► The main merchandise of purchase is set along with all other complimenting merchandise tempting the shopper to but all of them altogether.
  93. 93. 93 Variety or Assortment DisplayVariety or Assortment Display ► It is a potpourri of anything and everything. ► It is a collection of unrelated items that happen to be sold in the same store. ► It can be work shoes, silk stockings, teakettles, Hawaiian print shirts, nightgowns etc. ► It is a mélange of odds and ends, a sampling of the merchandise contained within.
  94. 94. 94 Promotional DisplayPromotional Display ► This kind of display advances concept, trend and an item. The basis of this kind of display is often the sales. ► It has a very low margin of profit and thus needs a large sales volume to exist. ►These display stores generally advertise prices.
  95. 95. 95 Institutional DisplayInstitutional Display ► This display promotes an idea and not an item. It promotes the institutional services. ► This display presents the store as member of the community which helps further in building the image of the store. ► In this kind of display only incidental mention is made of merchandise; service, special features, or facilities of the store are featured. ► These displays create customer loyalty and goodwill. They do not produce direct sales of merchandise. ► The concept of institutional display is more subtle than other concepts, concentrating on building an image for the store in the minds of the customers
  96. 96. 96 ► Whatever the event, the store wants to say that here is retailer with pride in its country and community, with interests beyond just making sales.
  97. 97. 97 Seasonal DisplaySeasonal Display ► Each season brings with it particular merchandise to feature, and nature suggests general settings in which to show it. ► The cold of winter, the budding and blooming of flowers in the spring, the warmth of summer, and the chill of fall each provide a unique opportunity to encourage customers to start thinking about what they need for the next season, and try to buy it now.
  98. 98. 98 Holidays DisplayHolidays Display ► While Christmas or Diwali is unquestionably the major holiday of the year for the majority of the retailing world, other holidays play a major role in the achievement of the year’s total volume. ► The selling period for each holiday varies, as does the number of departments served by the holiday promotions.
  99. 99. 99 Creative DisplayCreative Display ► While four seasons and major holidays provide a framework for planning merchandise presentations, much of the work visual merchandisers produce does not fall under these categories. ► These are the visual presentations that result from the ingenuity of the display persons and their inherent creativity. ► There are no real guidelines except that they must not overpower the merchandise.
  100. 100. 100 Display SettingsDisplay Settings ► In the presentation of any display, there are some basic approaches that any visual merchandiser will make to set the scene for the merchandise or the concept to be sold. These approaches can be summed up as under: Realistic Setting Environmental Setting Semi-Realistic/ Vignette Setting Fantasy Setting Abstract Setting
  101. 101. 101 Realistic SettingRealistic Setting ► A realistic setting is essentially the depiction of a room, area, or otherwise recognizable locale, reinterpreted in the allotted display area, either in the windows or inside the store. ► A realistic setting requires the careful blending of color, textures, shapes, and the proper lighting to keep the background at a proper distance.
  102. 102. 102 Environmental SettingEnvironmental Setting ► This is a merchandise presentation that shows an assortment of various related items in a setting depicting how and where they may eventually be used. ► In this form of realistic setting, the “background” is actually the “foreground” because the details that make up the realistic set are actually the merchandise being promoted in the display. ► Everything on display in this setting is for sale in the store.
  103. 103. 103 SemiSemi--Realistic/ Vignette SettingRealistic/ Vignette Setting ► When space and budget do not allow the time or effort for a fully realistic presentation, the display person may opt for the very popular, semi-realistic or “vignette” setting. ► The visual merchandiser presents the essence, and leaves the rest to the active imagination of the shopper. ► This is a more effective but simpler approach to merchandise settings.
  104. 104. 104 Fantasy SettingFantasy Setting ► A fantasy setting can be as detailed or as suggestive as the display person, budget, and time permit. ► It is creative, requires thought, energy, and lots of planning, but it can be very rewarding. ► It can be surrealistic or just completely off-the wall.
  105. 105. 105 Abstract SettingAbstract Setting ► An abstract setting might seem as if it would be the easiest to do, but it is often the most difficult. ► The least amount of display often makes the biggest statement. In an abstract setting, the merchandise is the dominant feature and the setting supports and reinforces the message. ► The abstract setting is predominantly an arrangement of lines and shapes, panels, cubes, cylinders, triangles, curves, arcs, and circles. ► The design does not really represent or look like anything in particular, but it does evoke certain responses from the viewer.
  106. 106. 106 Merchandise PresentationMerchandise Presentation PlanningPlanning Methods of Merchandise Presentation: •Shelving •Hanging •Pegging •Folding •Stacking •Dumping
  107. 107. 107 Merchandise PresentationMerchandise Presentation PlanningPlanning Psychological Factors to Consider When Merchandising Stores: • Value/fashion image • Angles and sightlines • Vertical color blocking
  108. 108. 108 4545--Degree Customer SightlineDegree Customer Sightline
  109. 109. 109 Vertical Color BlockingVertical Color Blocking
  110. 110. 110 ELEMENTS OF DISPLAYELEMENTS OF DISPLAY ► There are few attributes, which contribute to the display process in a store. These attributes are known as the “elements of display”. These include six elements that are necessary components in the production of successful display units. They are: Theme Merchandise Shelf or Display Area Props Lighting, and Copy Cards (Show Cards).
  111. 111. 111 The ThemesThe Themes ► A display or merchandise presentation should convey a specific theme or idea. This theme is the framework for creating a visual presentation. ► Lack of a theme is the most common display error; therefore a theme needs to be properly planned and developed. ► A store’s promotional policy dictates the appropriate theme of a display.
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  114. 114. 114 ► The following are guidelines as to the correct use of themes in visual merchandising: Over all themes should be selected after the bulk of the merchandise has been bought for the season. Overall themes must relate to the merchandise in both color and concept. Overall themes must create an image instantaneously––and it must be the correct image. Overall themes can be achieved by the use of hanging banners or signs; floor signs; flowers or props that relate to the signs and banners; matching urns; merchandise coordination; and valance colors.
  115. 115. 115 The MerchandiseThe Merchandise ► The most important element of a display is the merchandise. ► Props are useful but should never be the focus and become more important than the merchandise. ► To create a good display requires the use of the art principles involving-line, form, balance, color, and light. The eye appeal of the display is responsible for most impulse sales.
  116. 116. 116 The MerchandiseThe Merchandise ► The merchandise is that element that supports the theme of the display and, ultimately, the final value of the display in the light of the merchandising goal. ► All other elements are intended to support and promote the goal that this initial selection of merchandise or idea produces-special promotion, holiday, seasonal, high fashion, and so on.
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  118. 118. 118 Shelf or Display AreaShelf or Display Area ► Shelves and display areas provide the actual physical framework for the display. ► Before the props, lighting, or show-cards are considered, this physical facility must be analyzed to determine what, if any, problems could arise involving the use of the area. ► During such analysis, it is important to keep in mind that the viewer’s eye must move easily throughout the display, regardless of the direction from which he or she approaches.
  119. 119. 119 Shelf or Display AreaShelf or Display Area ► The type of merchandise that will be displayed (or in the case of an institutional display the idea, the service or benefit offered) influences the selection of a display area. ► A small item such as jewelry will require a case to be properly displayed, whereas linens may require cube units and a floor display to promote the merchandise effectively.
  120. 120. 120 Shelf or Display AreaShelf or Display Area ► Areas and fixtures used for optimal merchandise presentation and as display areas include: End caps- located at the end of an aisle. Promotional aisle - used to promote seasonal or special sale merchandise. Freestanding fixtures POP area Bulk of stock – contains a full assortment of merchandise. Walls
  121. 121. 121 PropsProps ► Props (properties) are special elements, which help to sell the concept of a company image as well as add an accent to the environment, which are created. ►
  122. 122. 122 PropsProps ► A prop is anything used in the display to help decorate the area and accent the style of the fashion. ► The props in a display enhance the fashion message, help to tell the story, and should not compete with the merchandise. ► They should be interesting and relevant to the merchandise.
  123. 123. 123 PropsProps ► Display props include all physical objects within the display area that are not considered salable merchandise; namely, floor coverings, wall treatments, backgrounds, mannequins, shelves, steps, and other objects involved in creating settings for the merchandise. ► Display props, however, must not overshadow or dominate the salable items. ► The major purpose of display must always be kept in mind: to present and sell merchandise to the consumer.
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  125. 125. 125 PropsProps ► A prop could be a Chair, Table, Platform, Plant, Flower Colorful backdrop Santa Claus mannequin, Stuffed animal, Tinsel or Glitter.
  126. 126. 126 PropsProps
  127. 127. 127 LightingLighting ► Lighting within the display is used to draw attention to a part of the area or a specific item in the display, or to coordinate parts of the total area. ► Lighting emphasizes items or areas: it also may be used to bring motion into the various segments of the display and to direct the viewer’s eye. ►Types of lights, in addition to usual indoor lighting arrangements, include floodlights, revolving lights, black lights, colored lights, flashing lights, and spotlights.
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  129. 129. 129 Signage/Copy CardsSignage/Copy Cards ► Copy cards or show cards, (lettered cards or signs) provide the viewer with information concerning the displayed items and their benefits to the consumer, Copy cards are that additional incentive so important to visual selling. ► Copy cards are designed appropriately in lettering style, content, emphasis, size, and placement, so that the message they convey to the viewers will be in agreement with the purpose of the total display.
  130. 130. 130 Signage/Copy CardsSignage/Copy Cards ► Signs do the talking for a display. They give significant details about the article, such as size, styles, and colors. Thus, as silent salespeople, signs answer customer’s questions about price and features and tell where the goods are located in the store.
  131. 131. 131 Signage/Copy CardsSignage/Copy Cards ► Signs must be informative. The wording should be compact and, when possible, sparkling. ► Strive for a professional look. ► Signs must be clean. Nothing spoils merchandise quicker in the customer’s eyes than a soiled sign. ► Keep signs timely by changing them often. ►Try to make signs sell customer benefits rather than things. Signs for clothes, for example, should sell neat appearance, style, and attractiveness rather than utility. For furniture, they should sell home life and happiness rather than just lamps and tables.
  132. 132. 132 Elements of Design The elements are components or parts, which can be isolated and defined, in any visual design or work of art. They are the structure of the work, and can carry a wide variety of messages.
  133. 133. 133 Elements of DesignElements of Design ► Line ► Form, shape and space ► Color ► Pattern ► Texture
  134. 134. 134 Line It is a major part of composition and second only to color in creating a response to the merchandise in a display.
  135. 135. 135 LineLine ► A line is a mark made by a moving point and having psychological impact according to its direction, weight, and the variations in its direction and weight. ► It is an enormously useful and versatile graphic device that is made to function in both visual and verbal ways. ► It can act as a symbolic language, or it can communicate emotion through its character and direction. ►Line is not necessarily an artificial creation of the artist or designer; it exists in nature as a structural feature such as branches, or as surface design, such as striping on a tiger or a seashell.
  136. 136. 136 ► Lines can be combined with other lines to create textures and patterns. ► The use of line in combination results in the development of form and value, which are other elements of design. ► However, line is not always explicit. It can exist by implication, as the edge of forms. ► As young children we usually begin drawing landscapes by making outlines for earth, sky, and other objects. ► Gradually we learn that objects do not have such outlines and we let color changes define the edges of shapes, creating implicit lines. Thus we can speak of a horizon “line,” or the “lines” of a car or a fashion silhouette, even though we know there is no literal line present.
  137. 137. 137 Different types of LinesDifferent types of Lines ► Line also communicates emotion and states of mind through its character and direction. The variations of meaning generally relate to our bodily experience of line and direction. ► The way in which these lines are utilized and combined determines the effectiveness of the merchandise presentation. ► Each line suggests something else and, as letters combine to form words, lines are arranged to make selling “pictures.”
  138. 138. 138 Horizontal lineHorizontal line ► They tend to widen the surface on which they are used and seemingly decrease the height of the area. ► Horizontal lines create a feeling of rest, relaxation, and repose, as in the restful line of the horizon. ► Objects parallel to the earth are at rest in relation to gravity. ► It is perfectly compatible with robes, loungewear, or nightwear.
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  140. 140. 140 Vertical linesVertical lines ► It expresses strength and stability and is inherent in many types of merchandise constructed of rigid materials. ► Its application naturally gives the viewer an up-and-down eye movement. ► Dominant use of vertical lines in a display tends to heighten the area, giving the illusion of increased space in this direction.
  141. 141. 141 ► Horizontal and vertical lines in combination communicate stability and solidity. ► Rectilinear forms stay put in relation to gravity, and are not likely to tip over. ► This stability suggests permanence, reliability and safety. In the case of the man in this family group, the lines seem to imply stability to the point of stodginess.
  142. 142. 142 Diagonal lineDiagonal line ► This type of diagonal line especially connotes action and movement to the viewer and is quite effective in the informal display arrangement. ► It tends to give the illusion of instability. ► An expert must use it with care and precision. ► The diagonal line is a line of action; it is forceful, strong, and dynamic.
  143. 143. 143 Curved linesCurved lines ► Curved lines do vary in meaning, however, Soft, shallow curves suggest comfort, safety, familiarity, relaxation. ► They also tend to give a display a feminine atmosphere. ► The curved line personifies grace, charm, and femininity. ► It is soft and enveloping. ► They recall the curves of the human body, and therefore have a pleasing, sensual quality.
  144. 144. 144 Deep, Acute CurvesDeep, Acute Curves ► Deep Curves suggest confusion, turbulence, even frenzy, as in the violence of waves in a storm, the chaos of a tangled thread, or the turmoil of lines suggested by the forms of a crowd.
  145. 145. 145 Zigzag linesZigzag lines ► Zigzag lines are angular and counter roundness. ► They enlarge the figure and are eye-catching. ► These lines are a series of connected diagonals and give a feeling of being erratic, intense, abrupt and non – serious.
  146. 146. 146 Perpendicular LinesPerpendicular Lines ► These lines attract attention because of their disturbing nature.
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  148. 148. 148 Textured LinesTextured Lines ► These lines ad weight and attract attention. They are decorative and busy.
  149. 149. 149 Alternating LinesAlternating Lines ► These lines are generally eye-catching, dominant and may be too violent. Psychologically these lines are associated with sharpness, movement, speed, confusion and excitement.
  150. 150. 150 Crossover linesCrossover lines ► These lines create a focal point at the point of intersection because of their contrasting nature.
  151. 151. 151 Converging LinesConverging Lines ► These lines emphasize direction and are psychologically associated with weight and youthfulness.
  152. 152. 152 Full CurveFull Curve ► Full curves emphasize body curves, counters thinness and sharp angles and are better suited on thin figures. Psychologically these lines are associated with activeness, roundness, forcefulness, feminity and exuberance.
  153. 153. 153 Soft CurveSoft Curve ► Soft curves gently emphasize the body curves and are flattering. Psychologically these lines are associated with passive nature, gentleness, feminity, smoothness and youthful nature.
  154. 154. 154 Undulating LinesUndulating Lines ► These lines give roundness and soften the angles. Psychologically they are associated with feminity, sensuousness, gentleness, fluidity and gracefulness. The structural use of these lines is for the flowing fabric edges, fabric patterns, frills and ruffles.
  155. 155. 155 OgeeOgee ► These lines soften the angles and are more flattering and give a feeling of sensuousness, feminity, seductiveness and gracefulness.
  156. 156. 156 Spiral LinesSpiral Lines ► The lines have a focal point and are eye catching. They are natural, continuous and feminine
  157. 157. 157 Thin LinesThin Lines ► These lines give a visual effect, lightweight ness and have a receding nature. Psychologically they create a feeling of delicacy, calmness, fragility, subtleness and weakness.
  158. 158. 158 Thick LinesThick Lines ► These lines are heavy, add weight, visually move forward and attract attention. These are forceful, assertive, masculine and confident.
  159. 159. 159 Even LinesEven Lines ► These lines are smooth and flattering and give a feeling of firmness, certainty, steadiness and regularity.
  160. 160. 160 Uneven LinesUneven Lines ► These lines emphasize bulges and add interest. They are wobbly, unstable and indecisive.
  161. 161. 161 Long LinesLong Lines ► These lines emphasize direction, length or width and are continuous, graceful, free flowing and smooth.
  162. 162. 162 Short LinesShort Lines ► These lines divide the space and adds interest. They give a feeling of abruptness, efficiency and blindness.
  163. 163. 163 Broken LineBroken Line ► These lines are rhythmic and attract attention. Psychologically they are associated with interruption, uncertainty, casualness.
  164. 164. 164 Form, Shape and Space Form and shape are areas or masses, which define objects in space. Form and shape imply space; indeed they cannot exist without space.
  165. 165. 165 ► Shape The shape of an object refers to the visual form of that object. For our purpose, shapes are discussed not in their variations, but as being similar or dissimilar. For the creation of perfect harmony in a display, shapes that correspond exactly to one another are used exclusively. Inharmonious or dissimilar shapes may be used in a display to create contrast and, in some instances, a point of emphasis.
  166. 166. 166 ►Form When lines connect they create form, which is the shape of the object. Straight lines produce angular forms, and curved lines create circular forms. Forms express moods similar to the lines that define them. In advertisements and displays the merchandise and props are the forms and should be chosen for the appropriateness of their shape for the particular promotion. Display forms come in different sizes and can be arranged in a variety of positions.
  167. 167. 167 ► An element of art that is three dimensional (height, width, and depth) and encloses volume. ► For example a triangle, which is two dimensional, is a shape, and a pyramid, which is three dimensional is a form. ► Examples of forms include; Cubes, Spheres, Ovoids, Pyramids, Cones, and Cylinders.
  168. 168. 168 Categories of FormsCategories of Forms ► There are various ways to categorize form and shape. Two-dimensional Three dimensional. Geometric / Organic Realistic / Naturalistic Abstract Caricature
  169. 169. 169 TwoTwo--dimensionaldimensional ► Two-dimensional form is the foundation of pictorial organization or composition in painting, photography, and many other media. ► It is created in a number of ways: Line Value Change in texture
  170. 170. 170 22--D forms giving illusion of 3D forms giving illusion of 3--DD ► Two-dimensional forms can create the illusion of three dimensional shapes and spaces ► Whenever we look at a flat surface (a picture, a television screen) and assume we are looking at spaces and objects that have depth, we are accepting a set of visual signals that create an illusion of three-dimensional space.
  171. 171. 171 Three DimensionalThree Dimensional ► Three-dimensional shape has an expressive vocabulary similar to that of line. ► For example, Rectilinear shapes suggest stability. Angular shapes placed diagonally in relation to gravity suggest instability. Shapes that exhibit softly curving surfaces suggest quiet, comfort and sensuality.
  172. 172. 172 Geometric / OrganicGeometric / Organic ► Geometric Shapes that are created through use of mathematics. These shapes include Circle, Oval, Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Hexagon, Octagon and Pentagon. ► Organic An irregular shape, or one that might be found in nature, rather than a regular mechanical shape.
  173. 173. 173 Realistic / NaturalisticRealistic / Naturalistic ► If we can recognize every day objects and environments, we refer to the images as being realistic, or naturalistic.
  174. 174. 174 AbstractAbstract ►If the images are difficult or impossible to identify in terms of our normal, daily visual experience, we may refer to the images as abstract. ► There are several kinds of abstract images. Objective image - it is derived from an actual object. Non-objective image - do not refer to any real-world object or scene
  175. 175. 175 CaricatureCaricature ► Caricature is a special instance of abstraction, in which realistic images are distorted to make a statement about the people, places, or objects portrayed.
  176. 176. 176 ► Space Space is the two-dimensional equivalent of volume. It is the illusion of three-dimensional spatial relationships on a flat, two-dimensional surface. A drawing or painting may appear to have a flat sense of space or a deep sense of space. Space is the distance between forms. It is the expanse between objects. That is, the background upon which a figure is placed. The amount of space given to background helps to create mood and emphasis. Blank background in an advertisement is termed white space.
  177. 177. 177 ► An element of art that refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things. It can be described as two- dimensional or three-dimensional; as flat, shallow, or deep; as positive or negative; and as actual, or illusory. Since the viewer has to look up to view the sculpture, Michelangelo carved the hands, torso, and head larger so his body would look correctly. An example of how artist use actual space to manipulate the viewers perspective, can be seen in Michelangelo’s stone sculpture of “David”.
  178. 178. 178 ► Size Size refers to the physical magnitude, extent, bulk, and dimension of something. To achieve harmony within a display, sizes should be kept consistent. Objects of the sizes in which they appear in reality should constitute an entire area rather than being used in conjunction with objects that are miniatures. Sizes should also be kept in proportion, so that large objects do not minimize smaller ones that appear with them in a display.
  179. 179. 179 ► Idea In the area of merchandise display, one basic rule is to allow one idea to dominate. This tends to enhance the selling message of the window. Here, more than in other areas of design, we emphasize the importance of the display area as a selling tool. A display is not an artistic creation stimulating speculation and interpretation concerning its intent. The viewer must clearly and quickly receive the idea of a window. Its details must be in keeping with the central idea or theme in order to enhance and immediately clarify the idea that prevails.
  180. 180. 180 Color Using color is the best way to add excitement to a visual presentation without the cost of the installation.
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  182. 182. 182 ► Typically, color is the first element we see when looking at an object or scene. It affects us physically and psychologically and is one of the most important elements in creating response, especially to display. ► Color is one of the most powerful of elements. It has tremendous expressive qualities. Understanding the uses of color is crucial to effective composition in design and the fine arts. ► Color is an inexpensive, versatile means of creating mood and drama in the presentation of fashion merchandise. Much of the color comes from the merchandise itself, which requires no additional expense.
  183. 183. 183 ►The color combinations of ceiling, walls, floor coverings and overall décor can affect the atmosphere of a store. ► Research shows that the proper choice of color in store windows and store interiors has significant drawing power. ► Color used properly can attract the eye of the potential customer, create the desired mood, and stimulate the viewer to make a purchase decision. ► Changing a color scheme can change people’s attitudes and perceptions of a store, and increase (or decrease) business.
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  185. 185. 185 Color and DisplayColor and Display ► The average pedestrian sees a window display as a flashing picture that is approached, observed, and responded to all in less than 11 seconds. ► This picture must be magnetic to bring customers into the store. ► A window display should represent the store, and it should help sell goods. ► To do this, it must attract the eye and turn walkers into stoppers-people who stop to examine the goods.
  186. 186. 186 ► One of the strongest forces in stopping the pedestrian and making him or her want an item is the effective use of color in a display. ► It is an invaluable selling tool, because people are color conscious. ► Color helps to create interest in new merchandise and the desire for it. ► Color is critical to an ambiance that projects a store’s image and attracts customers. ►
  187. 187. 187 ► The psychological effects of color have been well documented. ► For example, blue, green and violet project elegance; orange, yellow, and red convey intimacy. ► Appropriate lighting, in turn, enhances the effects of interior color. ►The use of colors in a store communicates various things to the customers who walk in while passing by. Some of the major impacts of color on customers are: Color sets the mood Emphasizes features Highlights a product Conveys the seasonal look
  188. 188. 188 The Impact of ColorThe Impact of Color ► Color can convey and induce a variety of emotions. ► The effects of color can also be applied to merchandise presentations and displays. ► A bright color may attract a customer into the store, but warm colors in general make customers feel uneasy; cool colors in a display create a calm atmosphere and may prolong the customer’s stay in the store. ► Colors also convey the seasonal look; e.g., Red & Green – Christmas Black & Orange – Halloween Red & Pink – Valentine’s Day
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  191. 191. 191 Warm ColorsWarm Colors ► Warm colors (reds, oranges, and yellows) physically attract customers to shop are stimulating and Cherry. ► It makes room feel warm and intimate. ► Warm colors makes a room seem smaller while making objects in the room appear larger. ► A warm color on the end of the walls of a long narrow room will appear to shorten the room.
  192. 192. 192 Cool ColorsCool Colors ► On the other hand, cool colors (blues, greens, and violets) are more appropriate for areas where customers will be deliberating over a big-ticket purchase such as a fur coat. ► These colors helps by creating a relax atmosphere. ► Rooms decorated primarily in cool colors tend to appear larger and more specious. ► Cool colors are especially pleasing in smaller rooms.
  193. 193. 193 Dimensions of ColorDimensions of Color ► Skillful use of color begins with an understanding of its three dimensions- Hue, Value, and Intensity.
  194. 194. 194 HueHue ► In simple terms hue is the name of the color. Yellow, red, brown, grey are hues. ► Theoretically all hues can be mixed from three basic hues, known as primaries. When pigment primaries are all mixed together, the theoretical result is black.
  195. 195. 195 ValueValue ► When describing the lightness or darkness of a hue, we are speaking of its value. ► Adding white to a hue, we lighten it and achieve a tint. ► With the addition of lack, a darker variation is produced, know as shade.
  196. 196. 196 Intensity orIntensity or ChromaChroma ► The saturation or purity of a color is referred to as its intensity. ► A color’s intensity is actually its brightness or dullness. ► The intensity is varied by adding middle grey or complement of the color. ► These intense colors catch the eye and stop the customer long enough for her to notice the merchandise. ► High-intensity colors are active and stimulating. ► Low-intensity colors are grayed or dull in appearance, for example, maroon. Dull or low-intensity colors tend to create a calm and restful mood
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  200. 200. 200 Low Value High Value
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  202. 202. 202 Color SchemesColor Schemes ► Colors often occur in various combinations, referred to as color schemes. ► Combining colors attractively is an art marked by individual style and preference. Although there are no laws for combining colors, there are some formalized methods for producing harmonious color schemes. ► These methods are illustrated on a wheel of 12 colors. ► The two major categories of color scheme in terms of hue are related and contrasting. ► The second category is referred to as contrasting because there are no common hues in these color schemes. Contrasting color schemes are often bold and dramatic.
  203. 203. 203 Related Color SchemesRelated Color Schemes ► The first category is referred to as related because this type of color scheme utilizes one or more hues in common, that is, colors that are adjacent on the color wheel. ► Related color schemes tend to produce a stable feeling and allow the mood of the hue of the color scheme to be expressed clearly. ► The principal types of related color schemes are Monochromatic and Analogous.
  204. 204. 204 MonochromaticMonochromatic ► A single color on the color wheel is used with three to five tints and shades of that single true color in this scheme ► Several pieces of blue merchandise each consisting of a different value ranging from baby blue to navy blue, is an example of Monochromatic color scheme. ► If texture is a selling point, a monochromatic color scheme may be a good choice for highlighting textures, which would be more apparent when the colors are all the same or similar.
  205. 205. 205 AnalogousAnalogous ► Analogous color schemes comprise three colors that are adjacent on the wheel, which means they contain a common hue. ► An example is yellow-orange, yellow, and yellow-green. Another example, from the cooler side of the color wheel, is blue, blue-violet, and violet. ► An analogous color scheme offers more variety in colors than a monochromatic scheme and avoids the possibility of clashing colors since there is a common hue to provide harmony. ► This can be used to create a soft and subtle décor and warm or cool effect. ► This color scheme needs to be used with caution so as not to end up with an over stimulating nor depressing atmosphere.
  206. 206. 206 Contrasting Color SchemesContrasting Color Schemes ► Contrasting color schemes are subdivided as follows: Complementary Double-complementary Split-complementary Triad Tetrad Tone on Tone
  207. 207. 207 ComplementaryComplementary ► A complementary color scheme is represented by two colors that are exactly opposite to each other on the color wheel, such as Yellow and Purple or Red and Green. ► It can result in a very pleasing combination of warm and cool colors. ► Avoid using opposite colors in equal amounts of light and dark combinations.
  208. 208. 208 DoubleDouble--complementarycomplementary ► These schemes are based on two adjacent colors combined with their complementary or opposite colors, such as yellow orange and yellow with violet and blue- violet, or red-orange and orange with blue and blue-green. ► This scheme incorporates both contrast by means of opposite hues and similarity by means of related hues. ► The related hues give a sense of unity, making this scheme slightly easier to produce than a simple complementary scheme.
  209. 209. 209 SplitSplit--complementarycomplementary ► Split-complementary color scheme is composed of any hue plus the two hues on either side of its complement, such as yellow with red-violet and blue violet, or blue-green with red and orange. ► It is a popular color scheme to create interest and richness.
  210. 210. 210 TriadTriad ► Every fourth color on the color wheel for a total of three colors make a triadic color scheme. ►It is built on three hues equidistant from each other, such as red, yellow, and blue; or orange, green, and violet. ► The combination of unrelated hues is lively, but harmony may be difficult to create because of the variety generated. ► This is a good combination of colors that can create muted, traditional look as well as more vibrant color characteristics of modern color scheme.
  211. 211. 211 TetradTetrad ► Tetrad scheme combines four hues equidistant from each other on the color wheel, such as orange, yellow- green, blue, and red-violet. ► The various hues provide the contrast and interest. ► The merchandise itself can provide the color schemes for the display. ► In a merchandising grouping, a multicolor item such as a figured blouse can establish the color scheme. When an item comes in several colors, that range, of hues can become the color scheme.
  212. 212. 212 Tone on ToneTone on Tone ► Two colors that are next to one another on the color wheel with a very little space between them, make up a tone on tone scheme. ► Generally no change in either intensity, such as degree of brightness, in tints or shades is used in a tone on tone scheme. ► A display of blue and blue-violet silk flowers is an example of this scheme.
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  215. 215. 215 Psychological Implications of ColorPsychological Implications of Color ► Market researchers have done extensive studies exploring the emotional responses of people to color. ► Some of these responses seem to be powerful and fairly universal. However, much of this information is culturally biased. ► We know that cultural traditions endow colors with powerful meanings that can differ greatly from place to place. ► For example, in Europe and the United States, black is the color of mourning. ► In many tropical countries and in East Asia white is the color of death. ► On the other hand, white is the color worn by American brides, while brides in much of Asia wear red.
  216. 216. 216 BlueBlue A cool Color (makes room seem cooler). Clams and Relaxes excited people. Makes time seem to pass quickly. Tends to stimulate thought processes and Encourage conversation.
  217. 217. 217 GreenGreen Easy on the Eyes. A cool Color Restful and Tranquil Stimulates Conversations Makes time seem to pass quickly.
  218. 218. 218 RedRed Excites and Stimulates. Induces Aggression Makes time seem to pass Slowly
  219. 219. 219 OrangeOrange Friendly, Warm and Vibrant Exhilarating
  220. 220. 220 YellowYellow A cheerful Color. Creates a feeling o Warmth and Happiness Draws attention Boosts Morale
  221. 221. 221 Violet and PurpleViolet and Purple A cool color Tends to lend elegance and sophistication Royal
  222. 222. 222 BrownBrown Relaxing and Warm
  223. 223. 223 GreyGrey Depressing Cool Sophisticated Color
  224. 224. 224 BlackBlack Depression Richness Sophistication when used Elegantly
  225. 225. 225 WhiteWhite Cold Elegant Adds a balance to any Color Scheme
  226. 226. 226 Color CombinationColor Combination ► Colors must be considered in view of their surroundings, as color can change dramatically when viewed under different circumstances. ► For Example, A red chair will appear Yellower next to Blue wall Purer and brighter next to Green wall Lighter and Brighter next to White wall Brighter next to Grey wall. ► A dark color placed near a lighter color will appear deeper while light color will appear lighter yet. ► Colors are also radically altered by differences in pattern and texture.
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  228. 228. 228 ► A comfortable background color choice for leather goods is the mid value range, such as a beige or grey. ► This selection also works well for intimate apparel and ready to wear. ► A painted background color will not reflect as much light fabric, so even if the merchandise is the same color as the background it will still stand out.
  229. 229. 229 ► Light colors such as pinks, yellows, blues and whites should not be used as background colors in the infant and toddler areas, since they are the colors used in much of the merchandise sold. ► The small size of the garments and the generally light tones make the merchandise invisible. ► Brighter, sharper colors help these pastels stand out.
  230. 230. 230 ► Background colors in girls departments should be kept neutral because of the extensive range of colors sold there, and boys departments go with bright because the clothes tend to be in bright or deep tones. ► Junior departments utilize various color backgrounds depending on current fashion vogue. ► When neon colors are popular, white is a very suitable background. ► However, when more subtle colors are in fashion, the whites are too cold and overpowering.
  231. 231. 231 ► Dark Green or dark Blue colors, with neutrals used for accents, have been effectively used in menswear areas. ► Primary, Secondary, Peach, Light Blue and Green colors should be avoided.
  232. 232. 232 ► Stores that carry china and glass can effectively use grays, browns and blues as background colors. ► Browns work especially well with bone china and Blues are attractive with porcelain; grays can be utilized with either type of china. ► Silver should not be shown on a brown background because the reflection will make the silver appear tarnished ► However, browns and burgundies are great for displaying brass goods. ► Gift areas can be use black and white with bright accents.
  233. 233. 233 ► Bright Orange, Bright Red and Blue are appropriate colors to select for hardware store, as they provide the best contrast with the wood handles and metals of hardware items. ► Sky Blue and Tennis court Green enhance sporting goods and equipments because of their outdoor associations. ► White is widely used color in packaging and on printed surfaces because it is a basic paper color and less expensive than solid printed colors.
  234. 234. 234 Guidelines Regarding Color in DisplayGuidelines Regarding Color in Display ► Use strong contrasts and loud color with care: Although very bright hues command attention at first, they disturb immediately afterward and distract attention from the merchandise. The more intense a hue, the smaller the area it should cover. The more intense a hue, the softer should be the second hue used in combination with it. Do not combine two or more strong colors that have not been changed in value or intensity. Do not paint large surfaces in strong colors.
  235. 235. 235 ► Make your color scheme suit the merchandise on display: The color of floors, walls, and background should be either one of the main colors in the merchandise or a neutral shade Generally, soft tints should be given preference over saturated hues.
  236. 236. 236 ► The type of merchandise displayed has a bearing on the selection of colors: Low-priced goods are usually displayed in a color scheme of vivid hue. The more exclusive types of merchandise, on the other hand, are usually displayed in a refined color scheme and in color combinations used in the current fashion
  237. 237. 237 ► Light tints are always a treat for the eye: They appear to deepen the window space. Therefore, they seemingly increase the size of the window.
  238. 238. 238 ► The opposite is true of dark shades They seem to bring the background closer. Therefore, they shorten the window space in the eyes of the spectator.
  239. 239. 239 ► Most colors can be classified as warm or cool: Warm colors include yellow, orange, red, and their combinations with white or black. All these hues impress the eye, enhance the appearance of the merchandise, and optically push it to the front of the display. Cool colors include blue and green. They appear calm, soothing, and balanced, and they create the illusion of enlarging the window.
  240. 240. 240 ► Contrasts are welcome but dangerous: Beware of clashes. Confine strong contrasts to small accessories. Audacious combinations are permissible if taste is preserved. ► More than two principal colors can be grouped in one display But proportionately; more care must be taken to achieve harmony most pastels go well together.
  241. 241. 241 Pattern Pattern can be described as a repeating unit of shape or form.
  242. 242. 242 ► Pattern is an underlying structure that organizes surfaces or structures in a consistent, regular manner. ► Pattern can be described as a repeating unit of shape or form, but it can also be thought of as the “skeleton” that organizes the parts of a composition.
  243. 243. 243 Texture Texture is the quality of an object, which we sense through touch.
  244. 244. 244 ► Texture Texture is the aspect of harmony that relates to the sense of touch. This sense may be stimulated either physically or visually, as when one senses the roughness of sandpaper without feeling it or the softness of satin without handling it. Textures may be divided into two categories: • those materials that appear rough or smooth to the touch and • those textures that reflect light as opposed to those that absorb light.
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  246. 246. 246 ► Color catches the eye, texture draws the customer to the merchandise for close examination. ► Texture is subtler than color but is nevertheless important in gaining a positive response from the customer. ► As a visual element, texture is the result of light being reflected or absorbed by the surface of the object or material. Satin reflects light, and velveteen absorbs light.
  247. 247. 247 When a majority of the textures in a display area tend to be smooth, rough, reflective, or absorbent, we may consider the display to have consistency and harmony. When a combination of visual impressions prevails, the display will have contrast. If all textures are of one type with the exception of one item of a different texture, a point of contrast, or emphasis, has been created.
  248. 248. 248 Interiors Interior design involves all components of the store interior, including fixtures, graphics, flooring, ceiling, lighting; and other visual elements.
  249. 249. 249 Interior Store DesignInterior Store Design ► Of all the elements of store design and visual merchandising, interior design has the greatest capacity to convey store image and create certain moods and emotions in buyers. ► Basic interior design begins with such items as the width of aisles, the treatment of pipes and vents, the decoration of walls, and the style of lighting fixtures. ► All these elements contribute to customers’ perceptions of and responses to the store. ► Displays inside the store should relate to the displays seen in the windows.
  250. 250. 250 ► Good display effects should continue inside the store to move customer traffic through the store. ► The aisles, the signs that direct the customer, the walls, and the interior displays are most important to the total visual concept of the store. ► Each department, shelf, counter, ledge, case, and furnishing in addition to the display areas requires analysis in executing display techniques. ► The furnishings of the store should be attractive and placed so as to enhance the visual impact on the customer. ► There should be updating and improvements in fixtures to avoid a stagnant, dated effect. ► For example, the seasons of the year usually dictate visual changes.
  251. 251. 251 Display AreasDisplay Areas ► Display fixtures include racks, stands, tables, shelves, and other devices for physically presenting merchandise. ► They may be floor fixtures-round, rectangular, or box- racks, cubes – or wall fixtures such as brackets, shelves, etc. ► In addition to holding merchandise and displaying it, store fixtures influence a store’s interior design, from its traffic flow to the image it projects to customers. ► All furnishings of the store should be placed to enhance the visual impression each floor presents. ► They should be arranged both to sell the most merchandise and to be pleasing to the customer.
  252. 252. 252 ► Floor cases It is located away from the walls of the store and, a floor case enables individuals to view the merchandise at close range and provides the sales associate with a counter on which to show merchandise.
  253. 253. 253 ► Multipurpose merchandise systems/ Grid walls These offer a great deal of flexibility. These adapt to almost all retailer’s needs. Some utilize brackets that can have shelves or hangers, some use grooved panels into which fittings can be inserted to get shelves or hangers
  254. 254. 254 ► Island display cases and tables These fixtures encourage self-service. They come in variety of designs, some with storage areas below and others merely serving as places for the display of items.
  255. 255. 255 ► Corner Shops These shops, as well as other marked-off areas with distinctive décor, are employed by store engineers to relieve the monotony of departmental furnishings.
  256. 256. 256 ► Shelves Obviously, shelves are necessary to store stocked merchandise. They are poor display areas, however, and should be hidden whenever possible by walls, curtains, and so on.
  257. 257. 257 ► Counter and Table Display These sell merchandise more readily than do shelf displays, because they are located in front of the stock areas, bringing the goods nearer to the customer and allowing the customer to touch the merchandise. Square and rectangular shapes are the usual design for counters and cases. However, rounded, oval, and surrealistically shaped counters not only ease the flow of traffic through a store, they appear less regimented and do not present hazardous sharp edges to the customer. They are a pleasant change from the square design.
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  259. 259. 259 ► Shadow Boxes A shadow-box display is often located behind the counter area. This location makes it easy to display and maintain an arrangement of merchandise that is beyond the reach of anyone who might otherwise remove it from the store without paying for it. A more dramatic presentation of merchandise is required however, to compensate for the customer’s inability to handle and examine the goods.
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  261. 261. 261 ► Ledges The tops of shelves sometimes serve as areas for display. Ledge areas may be made very attractive with the addition of decorative pieces for seasonal promotions. Because ledges with shelf space below them are above the comfortable range of vision, constant care must be exercised in the placement of merchandise. Unsightly portions of it, such as chair seats, shoe soles, wrong sides of materials, or unfinished backs of stoves or refrigerators, should not be visible to the customer’s eye and must be camouflaged with decorative effects.
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  263. 263. 263 ► Kiosks or Island Areas As their name implies, these are isolated display places amid the pattern of shelves and counters that constitute the principal selling spaces of a store. They are forceful merchandising agents when placed strategically near elevators, by entrances to departments, and at stairway landings. Island displays catch the customer’s fancy and attract the eye. They are not stock areas, nor should they be crowded with boxes and signs. They are concerned exclusively with showing merchandise and items related to that merchandise. Kiosks may be built from 5 to 28 inches above the floor
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  265. 265. 265 ► Platform Displays These are usually used to raise mannequins off of the floor at. Light is usually from above
  266. 266. 266 ► Museum Cases These are display cases with flat surfaces on top. They are usually a rectangle with the top part made of glass and lighted. Expensive and special merchandise is secured in museum cases. ► Demonstration Cubes These are cubes made of many different materials and in many different sizes. The display props are inexpensive, versatile, and extremely flexible. They can be clustered to form island-type displays in traffic aisles.
  267. 267. 267 ► Fascia These are boards approximately 7 feet above the selling floor that hide lighting fixtures and provide space for flat-pinned displays, which help tie an area together and / or define a particular department. The lighting that is covered by fascia is used to emphasize merchandise and is lower than normal ceiling lights.
  268. 268. 268 ► Structural Columns These columns hold up the ceilings and roofs of buildings. They must be a part of a structure. Utilized for the store through attaching ledges, using a variety of wall coverings, and attaching flexible signage, thereby helping to define the beginning and ending of a department. Also can use them to carry out a simple “all-store” theme as is often done at Christmas.
  269. 269. 269 ► Ceiling The ceilings in the window areas of older stores and even in some of the newer ones are often quite high and made of concrete or some other impenetrable material. The window lighting equipment is often set into the ceiling. It may be an electrified track on which the lamp housings can be moved back and forth to target the light where it is needed. In some operations, the track may be installed directly above the front glass, and lighting poles on either side of the window may supplement it.
  270. 270. 270 Merchandise wallsMerchandise walls ► Imagine a customer standing in the entrance to a store, taking in the “view.” Wherever that customer looks the background will be a merchandise wall. Merchandise walls form the total background of the store.
  271. 271. 271 Types of Merchandise WallsTypes of Merchandise Walls ► Those that house merchandise and display that merchandise using face-outs ► Those that house merchandise and display that merchandise using grids. (Face-outs show apparel hanging from the display with the front of it facing the viewer.) But these walls can be treated in many ways to create a strong store “look” and provide an interesting, colorful background for the store’s other fixtures and displays.
  272. 272. 272 Purpose of Merchandise WallsPurpose of Merchandise Walls ► To house and display basic as well as non-basic merchandise (e.g., exceptionally long items such as nightgowns and jumpsuits), ► To help backup merchandise “stories” that are being featured on the selling floor.
  273. 273. 273 ► Fixtures and hardware used on merchandise walls Bars and hardware, Waterfall face-outs, Straight-arm face-outs, Shelving (on brackets), Slat board, and Display grid and adjustable rod
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  275. 275. 275 ► Ways to present merchandise walls With regard to the design plan for the walls, there are different ways to present merchandise walls, each depending on the stock level: • Totally faced out • Faced out with barred • Barred with faced-out merchandise • Heavily barred
  276. 276. 276 ► Totally faced-out walls should, whenever possible, exhibit a formal balance; that is, if a line is draw in the middle of the wall, the placement/presentation of merchandise on the right should be exactly like the placement/presentation of the merchandise on the left ► A faced-out wall with barred merchandise (predominantly facedout) has the position face-outs on primary visual areas of the wall––the area the customer sees first. As noted earlier, all faceouts should be above the level or the racks and totally visible to the customer.
  277. 277. 277 Use a face-out of the best style to lead into barred merchandise. Whenever possible, choose a face-out style of the same color as the barred merchandise it leads into. Vary height and type of face-outs for visual interest.
  278. 278. 278 ► Barred walls with faced-out merchandise (more merchandise needs more bars) should be arranged as follows: Place face-out-related merchandise on primary visual area before bar. Make the face-outs of best-selling items that attract customers to the wall. Use a face-out of the best style to lead into barred merchandise.
  279. 279. 279 Barred merchandise should be grouped according to store directives, which can be based on: • Merchandise classifications. • Color or colors within each classification. • Sleeve or garment length. • Fabrication. Use shelf over long barred areas to tie in related merchandise.
  280. 280. 280 ► Heavily barred walls should be put in using these basic guidelines; Plan for heavy barring with very large stock quantities. Use a face-out of the best style to lead into barred merchandise. Vary the height and length of bars to create a visually interesting presentation. Bar regular-price merchandise. • By classification. • By color within classification. • By sleeve length (sleeveless, short sleeve, long sleeve). • By fabrication.
  281. 281. 281 Hang all merchandise on bars facing the front of the store. Arrange top hooks of hangers over the bar in the same direction. If quantity of sale merchandise is insufficient to make proper colorized presentation, have it sized. Keep merchandise 8 to 12 inches from ceiling to allow better visibility and easier access to customer. Provide a visual “break” from one classification to another in heavily barred wall with face-outs. Always face out the best style of the barred classification. Use different length bars (24 inches, 30 inches, 48 inches, 60 inches) to provide breaks and variety when wall is heavily barred. Wherever possible, use same-length face-outs in one section of a wall.
  282. 282. 282 Wall DisplaysWall Displays ► Wall displays can take several different forms: face-outs above barred merchandise, merchandise displayed on a grid or a ledge display above barred merchandise with face-outs on either side (optional). ► Guidelines for Merchandise Walls Sales associates who will be involved in setting up a wall or floor display should have certain criteria to follow to insure a proper merchandise presentation.
  283. 283. 283 The Selling FloorThe Selling Floor ► The flooring used in an interior setting serves as an indicator of store image, inviting customers to make inferences relating to many characteristics of the business. ► Plush, textured carpeting, for example, suggests high- quality merchandise, an emphasis on service, and relatively high costs. ► Flooring options include ceramic tile, hardwood, parquet, marble, cement, linoleum, and other types. ► Flooring is also important for functional reasons; Flooring delineates departments and selling areas, service departments, and customer and employee lounges. ►