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### 1332256 634646447072252500

1. 1. SENSORS BY G . SUNOMI 2ND M.SC PHYSICS
2. 2. ABSTRACT:-  What is a sensor?  About sensors  Thermo couple sensor and its applications  How to insert a sensor in a switch?  I.R sensors  Use of I.R sensor
3. 3. WHAT IS A SENSOR:-  A sensor (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument.  For example, a mercury-in-glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against knownstandards.
4. 4.  Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base.  There are also innumerable applications for sensors of which most people are never aware. Applications include cars, machines, aerospace, medicine, manufacturing and robotics.  There are no. of sensors
5. 5. THERMO COUPLE SENSOR :-
6. 6. THE THERMO COUPLE SENSOR IS USED IN LIGHT SWITCH SENSORS  Step:-1  turn the power off at the circuit breaker.  As an extra precaution, place a "Do Not Touch!" sign on the outside of the circuit box so that someone else doesn't unwittingly restore power to the circuit while you are working.  Identify the circuits to the switch you will be replacing and turn off the power at the circuit breaker.
7. 7. STEP:-1
8. 8. STEP:-2 TEST THE WIRES AND REMOVE THE SWITCH Remove the wall-plate from the existing switch, and test the wires using a circuit tester -- such as the audible-alarm tester used in our demonstration -- to be absolutely sure there is no power flowing to the wires you'll be removing
9. 9. STEP:-3 CUT THE wires The old switch has three wires connected at the back: a black wire, a white wire and a bare ground. the black and white wires will be connected to the new motion-sensor switch, but the ground will not be used. cut the wires at the back of the old switch.
10. 10. STEP 4: STRIP THE BLACK AND WHITE WIRES
11. 11. STEP 5: CONNECT THE WIRES TO THE NEW SWITCH
12. 12. STEP 6: TUCK WIRES INTO THE BOX, AND SECURE THE SWITCH
13. 13. STEP 7: CUSTOMIZE THE CONTROLS, AND REINSTALL THE WALL-PLATE
14. 14. INFRARED SENSOR:- THESE ARE USED IN HOUSES AND IN HOTELS AT AUTOMATIC LIGHTS AND WATER TAPS
15. 15. THESE I.R SENSORS ARE USED IN TAPS
16. 16. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR A photoelectric sensor, or photo eye, is a device used to detect the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver. They are used extensively in industrial manufacturing.
17. 17. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR The photoelectric sensor can be classified as four types according to approach detect below. - Receiver and Transmitter separately design. - Have the Retro-reflective design - Diffuse-reflective design. - Limited Reflective or Distance Settable design.
18. 18. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR Can be compare to different of photoelectric sensor each types at detection below. - Receiver and Transmitter separately design can be detected long distance when compare with other types. - In section of Retro-reflective design, Diffuse-reflective design , and Distance Settable design will detected in distance not over two meter. So, conclusion different of photoelectric sensor that using to work.
19. 19. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR Photoelectric sensor work, transmitter to the receiver or reflector , object. And when the object move through-beam the beam will is interrupted. And then the output signal order to operate the controls, then the CPU will run according to commands written on the CPU.
20. 20. PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR So, conclusion the photoelectric sensor to use depends on the area of installation or nature of work and the appropriate of work. Such as detect the object on the conveyor, using count the car that enter the park in the parking lot or may be using measurement distance of the object.