The objective of the course is to acquaint the students with Human Resources Management and to develop in them the ability to acquaint them in the corporate world. The main purpose is to assist the students in developing skills – soft and hard, and decision making in the organizations.
Why is it essential to study HRD???? Due to the changing role of HR Functions The shift of organization is from industrial – era models to knowledge era model Customer today are more demanding, quality conscious & cost sensitive Organizations have started to shift from traditional platform to total quality management (TQM) Employees are not viewed as the source of problems but identify the problems in the process For motivating people managers emphasize on removal of barriers Developing employees has replaced controlling the employees Product market is more competitive than ever before There is more focus on customer Teaming and supporting non – hierarchical and informal structures Visionary leadership A change in language and style
HRM refers to the application of management & principles of management to people in an organization. HRM consists of people related functions such as hiring, training and development, PMS, compensation, health & safety etc. Building human capital (skills, knowledge & capacities of employees) Alignment of HR policies & practices with organizations strategies. The major functions of HRM as identified in accordance with Henry Mintzberg are: Planning Staffing Developing
Monitoring Maintaining Managing Relationships Managing Change Evaluation HRM is a broad concept. PM & HRD are a part of HRM HRS (Human resource system) assumes that human beings are a great asset to organization Thy contribute a great deal to the achievement of organizational goals People are treated as assets with unlimited potential is the core of the concept of the HRS Investing in Humans is necessary. Investment for increasing the resource is important
DEFINITION OF HRD Human Resource Development (HRD) is the framework for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, mentoring, succession planning, key employee identification, and organization development.
The focus of all aspects of Human Resource Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers. Human Resource Development can be formal such as in classroom training, a college course, or an organizational planned change effort. Or, Human Resource Development can be informal as in employee coaching by a manager. Healthy organizations believe in Human Resource Development and cover all of these bases.
DEVELOPMENT AS A CONCEPT OF HRS The core concept of HRS is development of Human beings, i.e. HRD Along with developing the individuals, attempts should be made to develop stronger dyads i.e. a group of 2 (employee & his boss). These are the basic units of working in the organization Several groups and committees require attention & development. Groups like task groups & command groups should be developed from the point of view of increasing collaboration amongst people working in the organization, thus making for an effective decision making Development of organizations involve developing self – renewing mechanisms in the organization so that they are able to adjust & develop relevant process for effectiveness
Development becomes a massive effort. HRD play a major role in designing & monitoring development efforts in the organization. 4 partners or agents of development can be indentified as 1. The person or role 2. The immediate boss 3. HR department 4. Organization The effectiveness of managing HR will depend on the emphasis put on development Development is seen as the soul of the personnel or HR function It is the soul of several sub – functions
They relate to the following : Analyzing the Role : 1. Task Analysis 2. Key performance areas 3. Critical attributes 4. Job evaluation Matching the Role & Person 1. Selection / Recruitment 2. Placement 3. Potential appraisal 4. Promotion 5. Career Planning & Succession Planning Developing the persons in the Role 1. Performance Appraisal 2. Feedback & counseling 3. Mentoring 4. Career development 5. Training
Developing the Role for the Person 1. Job Rotation 2. Job Enrichment 3. Job design / Redesign 4. Role effectiveness & efficacy Developing Equitability 1. Management of Salary & Amenities 2. Management of incentives & rewards 3. Standardizing & administering procedures Developing self – renewing capabilities 1. Organization development 2. HRM research 3. Organization learning 4. Developing culture and climate
HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT HRD is concerned primarily with helping employees develop through training, feedback & counseling by their senior officers & other development efforts. It consists of the following sub – systems1. Training :☻ Training should be based on assessment of the needs of different groups & individuals.☻ Training needs may flow from performance needs as well as performance management / appraisal systems☻ Both internal & external resources should be used & enough attention should be paid to the preparation of training material, packages & modules☻ Continuous evaluation of training is also necessary
2. Organization Development :☻ OD is now playing an increasing important role in helping the diagnosis of problems of HR in the company, in taking steps for team building at various levels, in improving general morale and motivation of people & in developing healthy values & trying out various ways of solving problems3. Performance Feedback & Counseling : ☻ Performance & potential appraisals are likely to remain a ritual if a climate for & skills for providing critical & supportive feedback to the employees by the boss is not properly developed ☻ Differences in self – assessment & assessment by the boss can be discussed & a program for further growth of the employees can be jointly worked out
4. System Development & Research :☻ Various systems for HRS need to be continuously designed, tested and reviewed☻ Data needs to be collected & analyzed to develop interventions5. 360⁰ feedback :☻ Multisource Feedback for development has become a useful tool☻ Leadership competencies have been developed in many corporations successfully using 360⁰ feedback☻ 360⁰ is a very popular tool.
A set of systematic & planned activities, designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current & future job demands Learning is at the core of all HRD efforts HRD activities should begin when employees join organization & continue throughout his / her career, regardless of whether that employees is an executive or worker HRD programs must respond to job changes & integrate long term plans & strategies of the organization to ensure efficient & effective us of resources
EVOLUTION OF HRD Through the term, HRS is used commonly only since 1980‟s, the concept is quite ancient Early Apprenticeship Training Program : The origins of HRS can be traces since 18th century by apprenticeship training. In this era, small shops operated by skilled artisans produced virtually all household goods, such as furniture, clothing & shoes To meet a growing demand for their products craft shop owners had to employ additional workers Without vocational training or technical schools, the shop keepers had to educate & train their own workers For little or no wages, these trainees or apprentices, learned the craft of their master, usually working in the shop Apprentices who mastered skills were considered “yeomen”, & could leave their masters & establish their own shops
Early Vocational Education Programs: De Witt Clinton, in 1809, founded the first recognized privately funded vocational school, referred as manual school, in New York The purpose was to provide occupational training to unskilled young people who were unemployed or had criminal records Manual schools grew in popularity, particularly in the Midwestern status Early Factory Schools : With the advent of the industrial revolution during late 1800‟s, machines began to replace the hand tools of the artisans. “Scientific” management principles recognized the significant role of machines in better & more efficient production systems Specifically semi skilled workers using machines could produce more than the skilled workers in small craft shops This marked the beginning of factories Factories made it possible to increase production by using machines
Early Training Programs for Semiskilled & Unskilled Workers: Both apprenticeship programs & factory schools provided training for skilled workers, very few companies during this time offered training programs for unskilled workers This changed after 2 significant historical events. 1st was the introduction of model T by Henry Ford in 1913. Model T was the 1st car to be mass produced using an assembly line, in which production required only the training of semiskilled workers to perform several tasks The new assembly lines cut production costs significantly & Ford lowered its prices, making the model T affordable to a much larger segment With increasing demand for Model T, ford had to design more assembly lines, & this provided more training opportunities The 2nd historical event was to out break of World War 1. to meet the huge demand for military equipments, many factories that produced non-military goods had to retool their machinery & retain their workers, including the semiskilled.
The Human Relations Movement: One of the undesirable by–products of the factory system was the frequent abuse of unskilled workers, including children, who were often subjected to unhealthy working conditions, long hours and low pay. The appalling / awful conditions urge a national anti-factory campaign Led by Mary Parker Follett & Lillian Gilbreth, the campaign gave rise to the “human relations” movement advocating more humane working conditions The human relations movement provided a more complex & realistic understanding of workers The HR movement highlighted the importance of human behavior on the job
The Establishment of Training Profession : With the outbreak of World War II, the industrial sector was once again asked to retool its factories to support the was efforts With the World War I, the initiative led to the establishment of new training program, with larger organizations & unions The federal government established ”Training with Industry” (TWI) services to coordinate training programs across defense – related industries By the end of the war, TWI had trained over 23,000 instructors awarding over 2 million certificated to supervisors, unions, services Many defense related companies established their own training departments with instructors trained by TWI In 1942, the American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) was established & formed some standards within this emerging profession
Emergence of HRD : During 1960‟s & 70‟s, professional trainers realized that their role extended beyond the classroom training The move towards employee involvement in many organizations required trainers to coach & counsel employees T & D therefore expanded to include interpersonal skills such as coaching, group process facilitation & problem solving This additional emphasis on employee development inspired the ASTD to rename itself as the American Society for Training and development. 1980‟s saw greater changes affecting the t & D At ASTD national conferences, in late 70‟s early 80‟s, discussions centered on rapidly expanding profession Influential books helped to clarify & define HRD Since 90‟s efforts are made to strengthen the strategic role of HRD, i.e. how HRD links to & supports the goals & objectives of organization
HRD & HRM In some organization training is a stand – alone function or department However in most organizations Training or HRD is a part of larger HRM departmentPrimary Functions of HRM HR Planning – predicting changes in management strategies & future HR Needs Equal Employment & Opportunities – to satisfy both the legal & moral responsibilities of the organization through the prevention of discriminatory policies, procedures & practices Staffing – activities designed for the timely identification of potential applicants for current & future openings
Compensation & Benefits – responsibility for establishing & maintaining an equitable internal wage structure, a competitive benefit package, incentives tied to individuals, team or org. performance Employee Relations – developing a communication system where employees can address their problems & grievances. Else it leads to labor union, contract negotiation & administration Health, Safety & Security – activities seek to promote a safe & healthy work environment. This can include actions such as safety training employees assistance programs, & health & wellness programs. HRD – activities intended to ensure organizational members have the skills or competencies to meet current & future job demands.
Secondary Functions : Organizational / Job Design – concerned with interdepartmental relations & organizational & definition of jobs PMS – Used for establishing & maintaining accountability throughout the organizations Research & Information System – Necessary to make enlightened HR Decisions
HRD Functions : Training and Development – focus on changing or improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of individuals Training involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed for particular tasks / job through attitude change Development activities have a longer term focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, while also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs T & D begins as an employee enters the organization in the form of employee orientation & skills training Employee orientation is the process by which new employees learn important organisation values, norms, working relationships, etc Skills and Technical training then narrow in scope to teach the employee a particular skill or area of knowledge
Once through with this, HRD activities focuses more on development activities – specifically coaching & counseling. Coaching is the process, where individuals are encouraged to accept responsibilities for their actions, to address any work related problems, and to achieve & sustain superior levels of performance Coaching involves treating employees as partners in achieving both personal and organizational goals Counseling techniques are used to help employees deal with personal problems that may interfere with the achievement of these goals. Counseling programs may address such issues as substance abuse, stress management, smoking cessation, or fitness, nutrition and weight control HRD professionals are also responsible for coordinating management training and development programs to ensure that managers and supervisors have the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective in their positions.
Organisation Development OD is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organisation and the well being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. OD emphasizes both macro and micro organizational changes : macro changes are intended to ultimately improve the effectiveness of the organisation, whereas micro changes are directed at individual, small groups and teams. Eg. Many organisations have introduced employee involvement programs that require fundamental changes in work expectations, reward systems, and reporting procedures, for improving the organizational effectiveness The role of HRD professional involved in OD intervention is to function as a change agent Facilitating change often requires consulting with and advising line managers on strategies that can be used to effect the desired change They may also become directly involved in carrying out the intervention strategy, such as facilitating a meeting, responsible for planning and implementing the actual change process, etc
Career Development Career development is an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stage, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes and tasks Career development involves two distinct processes : career planning and career management Career Planning involves activities performed by individual, often with the assistance of counselors and others, to assess his or her skills and abilities in order to establish realistic career plan Career Management, involves taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan, and generally focuses more on what the organisation can do to foster employee career development. There is a strong relationship between career development and T & D activities.
“Learning performance wheel” book page 21
ROLES OF HRD PROFESSIONALS HRD professional must perform a wide variety of functional roles Functional role is specific set of tasks and expected outputs for a particular job, like class room trainer, instructional designer HRD professionals need to possess many different skills or competencies Bernathal et al. in “Mapping the future” has described the foundational competencies These are depicted as falling into 3 areas: personal, interpersonal and business / management The area of expertise are shown in the middle of the pyramid (refer 2004 ASTD competency Model page 27) and the top shows 4 key roles for HRD professionals : Learning Strategist, Business Partner, project manager and Professional specialists
Learning strategist involved in high level decision making concerning how HRD initiatives will support the goals and strategies of the organisation. BP works together with mangers and others in determining how the HRD initiatives will be implemented and evaluated Project Manager is involved with the day to day planning, funding and monitoring of HRD initiatives Professional specialist adds his or her expertise in particular areas, eg. Designing, developing, delivering, and evaluating the HRD initiatives HRD managers and executives are more likely to be involved with the learning strategist and BP roles
Some other HRD Roles : According to McLagan, HRD professional perform atleast 9 distinct roles. HR strategic advisor – consults strategic decision making HR systems designer and developer – assists HRM in design and development of HR systems Organisation Change Agent – advises management in designing and implementation of change strategies used in transforming organisations Organisation Design Consultant – advises management on work systems design and the efficient use of HR
Learning program specialist – identifies needs of the learner, develops and designs appropriate learning programs, & prepares materials and other learning aids Instructor / Facilitator – presents materials and leads and facilitates structured learning experience Individual development and career counselor – assists individual employees in assessing their competencies and goals in order to develop a realistic career plan Performance Consultant / Coach – advises line management on appropriate interventions designed to improve individual and group performance Researcher – assesses HRD practices and programs using appropriate statistical procedures to determining their overall effectiveness and communicates the results to the organisation
CHALLENGES TO ORGANIZATIONS & TO HRD Emerging work place Trends:1. Drastic Times, Drastic Measures: Uncertain economic conditions force organizations to reconsider how they can grow & be profitable2. Blurred Lines (life or work): new organizational structures are changing the nature of work for employees and HRD professional3. Small World & shrinking: Global communication technology is changing the way people connect and communicate4. New Faces, new Expectations: Diversity in the workplace continues to rise
5. Work be nimble (quick): Accelerated pace of change requires more adaptable employees and nimbler organizations6. Security Alert: concerns about security & about the ability of governments to provide protection have increased individual anxiety levels worldwide7. Life & Work in the e – Lane: Technology, especially the internet is transforming the way people work and live8. A Higher Ethical Bar : Ethical lapses at the highest levels in large organizations have shaken employees loyalty, trust and sense of security
CHALLENGES Increasing Workforce Diversity : Workforce is becoming increasingly diverse including racial, ethnic and gender lines Effectively managing diversity has been identified as one of the distinguishing features of organizations Diversity issues have several implications for HRD professionals Organizations need to address racial, ethnic & other prejudices that may persist as well as cultural insensitivity & language differences Secondly with the increasing numbers of women in the workforce, organizations should continue to provide developmental opportunities that will prepare women for advancement into the sr. ranks and provide safeguards against sexual harassment. The aging of the workforce highlights the importance of creating HRD programs that recognize & address the learning related needs of both younger and older workers
Competing In a Global Economy : Companies compete in a global economy many are introducing new technologies that require more educated and trained workers. Successful Organizations must hire employees with the knowledge to compete in an increasingly sophisticated market. Competing in global market requires more that educating and training workers to meet new challenges Successful organizations institute quality improvement processes & introduce change efforts Workforce must learn to be culturally sensitive to communicate & conduct business among different cultures Developing managers to be global leaders has been identified as a major challenge for organization
Eliminating the Skills Gap To compete successfully in the global economy, companies should hire educated workers. But almost 30% of high school students fail to graduate, & employers must confront that many young adults entering the workforce are unable to meet current job requirements This skill gap poses serious consequences It is impossible to learn many things as it would require reading and writing Many industrialized nations have made systematic changes in order to bridge the skill gap. Eg. Japan and Germany, have an educational system that do a better job of teaching students the basic skills needed by most employers
Need for Life long Learning Given the rapid changing trends, it is certain that employees must continue the learning process throughout their careers This need will compel the organizations to make an ongoing investment in HRD Eg. For semiskilled workers, it may involve more rudimentary skills training to help them build their competencies To professional employees, this learning may mean taking advantage of continuing education opportunities The challenge to HRD professional is to provide a full range of learning opportunities for all kinds of employees Individual assessments can determine the deficiencies or gaps in employees performance capabilities, while also pointing out their preferred learning styles
FRAMEWORK FOR THE HRD PROCESS HRD programs and interventions can be used to address a wide range of issues and problems in an organisation They are used to orient and socialize new employees in to org., provide skills and knowledge and help individuals and groups become effective To ensure that these goals are achieved, extra care must be taken while designing and delivering HRD programs HRD interventions involves a 4 step sequential process : Assessment, Design, Implementation and evaluation – „ADImE‟
Assessment Design Evaluation Implementation Define Select Objectives evaluation criteriaAssess Needs Develop Lesson Plan Determine evaluation Prioritize design needs Develop / acquire Deliver the material HRD Intervention or Select program Conduct Trainer/ evaluation of leader program Select methods & techniques Interpret the Schedule results intervention
Needs Assessment Phase: A need can either be a current deficiency, such as poor employee performance or a new challenge that demands a change in the way organization works Identifying needs involves examining the organisation, its environment, job tasks and employee performance. This information can be used to Establish priorities for expending HRD efforts Define specific training and HRD objectives Establish evaluation criteria
Design Phase: It would include Selecting the specific objectives of the program Developing an appropriate lesson plan for the program Developing or acquiring the appropriate materials for the trainees to use Determining who will deliver the program Selecting the most appropriate method to conduct the program Scheduling the program After the assessment, it is important to translate the issues identifies in that phase to clear objectives for HRD interventions This will facilitate the development of clear lesson plan concerning the programs The design phase also includes the selecting and developing the content of the program i.e. choosing from on the job training, classroom training, role play, lectures, workbooks, job aids, films, videos, ppt., etc
Implementation Phase : The goal of assessment and the design phase is implementation of effective HRD program / interventions That is the program must be delivered or implemented using the most appropriate aid or means Delivering any HRD program generally presents numerous challenges, such as executing the program as planned, creating and environment that enhances learning & resolving problems that may arise.
Evaluation Phase: Evaluation phase is the final phase in Training and HRD process Here the effectiveness of the HRD intervention is measured This is an important but underemphasized activity Careful evaluation provides information on participants reactions to program, what did they learn, usefulness of the intervention, areas to be improved, etc HRD professionals are increasingly being asked to provide evidence of the success of their efforts, i.e. the bottom line impact, as well as employee reaction. This helps manager to make decisions on : Continuing to use the technique or vendor in future programs Offering a particular program in future Budgeting and resource allocation Using some other HR or managerial approach to solve the persisting problem Armed with this information HRD managers can better compete with managers form other areas of the organisation for the effectiveness of their action
WHAT IS TRAINING OR HRD NEED? Discrepancy or gap between what an organisation expects to happen and what actually occurs Identifies needs in this sense focus on correcting substandard performance. An HRD intervention such as coaching or skills training may be necessary to correct the discrepancy. Robert Brinkerhoff has argued that “focusing only on performance deficiency in needs analysis is too restrictive & proposed other ways of looking at training needs”. These include diagnostic and analytic needs. Diagnostic Needs focus on the factors that lead to effective performance & prevent performance problems, rater than emphasizing existing problems. Diagnostic needs are identified by studying the different factors that may impact performance.
Analytic Needs identify new, better ways to perform tasks. The needs are generally discovered by intuition, insight or expert consideration. Compliance Needs are those needs that are mandated by law. Often deals with mandated training programs, such as safety training or food handling HRD professionals should be proactive and future oriented. HRD professionals should bother with needs assessment. HR frames this in terms of potentially hazardous shortcuts
LEVELS OF NEEDS ANALYSIS Needs can exist at any of atleast 3 levels, considering the organization, the job / task and the individual. Strategic or organizational analysis suggests where in the organization training needed and under what conditions it will occur Task Analysis explains what must be done to perform a job or complete a process successfully Person Analysis reveals who needs to be trained & what kind of training they need
STRATEGIC ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS Assessment of needs at the organizational level is usually conducted by performing an organizational analysis. It is a process used for better understanding the characteristics of the organization and to determine where training and HRD efforts are needed Components of Strategic / Organizational Need analysis It requires a broad or “whole system” view of the organization & what it is trying to accomplish. It may include goals & objective, reward systems, planning systems, delegating and control systems. According to Irwin Goldstein, an organizational analysis should identify: Organizational Goals Organizational Resources Organizational Climate Environmental Constraints
These factors provides important information for planning and developing HRD programs Organizational Goals : understanding the organization‟s goals and strategy provides a starting point in identifying the effectiveness of the organizations. Areas where organization is meeting its goals probably don‟t require training efforts, but should be monitored to ensure opportunities for improvement and potential problems are identified. Areas where goals are not being met should be examined further and targeted to HRD or other appropriate HR or management efforts. Organizational Resources : the amount of money available is an important determinant of HRD efforts. In addition, knowledge or resources such as facilities, materials on hand and expertise within the organization also influences HRD. Eg. If there are no classrooms or conference room facilities within the organization, the scheduling of the program becomes difficult.
Organizational Climate : the climate within the organization is an important factor in HRD success. If the climate is not conducive to HRD, designing and implementing a program will be difficult. Eg. If no trusting then participation will be less between managers and EE. Similarly if problem exists between senior and middle management, then middle management can resist or not cooperate. Environmental Constraints : it includes legal, social, political and economic issues faced by the organization. Demand for certain types of HRD programs can be affected by these constraints. Eg. In 1998, the Supreme Court decided two significant cases concerning sexual harassment. Knowledge of legal issues can ensure that the HRD effort is in compliance and will not itself be a source of problems
Advantages of Conducting A Strategic / Organizational Analysis It reveals where HRD is needed and the organizational and environmental conditions that may affect the HRD efforts. Knowledge of these issues ensures that all HRD programs are tied to the organization‟s strategy and mission, which is crucial to its success. Communicating the link between HRD activities and the organization‟s strategic plan to operating managers and employees make the importance of HRD clear. The strategic plan can be a valuable source of information for organizational analysis, whereas HRD efforts can become a major component of carrying out the strategic plan.
Methods of Strategic / Organizational Analysis : This method depends on the particular organization. A list of data sources is available for determining training and HRD needs. The list includes the following : human resource inventories, skill inventories, organizational climate measures and efficiency indexes. Some of these sources, such as efficiency indexes, are continuously monitored by many organizations as a part of normal control procedures. Eg. The Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan markets two instruments – Survey of Organizations and Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire – that are supported by substantial reliability and validity data.
Sources of Data For Organizational Need Analysis Recommended Data Source HRD/Training Need ImplicationsOrganizational Goals & Objectives Where HRD or training emphasis can and should be placed. These provide normative standards of both direction and expected impact, which can highlight deviations from objectives and performance problemsHuman Resource (Manpower) Inventory Where HRD/training is needed to fill gaps caused by retirement, turnover, age, etc. this provides an important demographic database regarding possible scope of training needsSkill Inventory No. of employees in each skill group, knowledge and skill levels, training time per job, etc. this provides an estimate of the magnitude of the specific needs for HRD/training. Useful in cost-benefit analysisOrganizational Climate Indexes “Quality of working life” indicators at the organization may help focus on problems of HRD components
Recommended Data Source HRD/Training Need ImplicationsAnalysis of Efficiency Indexes Cost accounting concepts may represent ratio between actual performance and desired or standard performanceChanges in System or subsystem New or changed equipment may present HRD or training problemsManagement Requests or Management One of the most common techniques ofInterrogation HRD / training needs determinationExit Interviews Often information not otherwise available can be obtained in these. Problem areas and supervisory training needs especiallyMBO or Work Planning and Review Provides performance review, potentialSystem review and long-term business objectives. Provides actual performance data on a recurring basis so that baseline measurements may be known as subsequent improvement or deterioration of performance can be identified and analyzed
TASK ANALYSIS Task analysis sometimes also known as operational analysis, is a systematic collection of data about a specific job or group of jobs to determine what an employee should be taught to achieve optimal performance. Results of a task analysis typically include the appropriate standards of performance, how tasks should be performed to meet these standards, the knowledge, skills and other characteristics Sources of Data for Task analysis : PG 114 - 115
TASK ANALYSIS PROCESS Step 1 : Overall Job Description : JD is the narrative statement of the major activities involved in performing a job and the conditions under which the job is to be performed Job analysis : a systematic study of a job to identify its major components. A Job Analysis process generally involves observing the job being performed; asking job incumbents and supervisors questions about the job, tasks, working conditions & knowledge, skills etc. Step II : Task Identification : it focuses on the behaviors performed within the job. The following information about the job is determined and clearly described: The major tasks within the job How each task should be performed (performance standard) The variability of performance (how the task is actually performed on day to day basis)
5 methods for task identification include : Stimulus – response Feedback : the EE knows it is time to perform a particular behavior, is the response or behavior that EE is to perform and then it is feedback of the EE received about how well the behavior was performed Time Sampling : it involves a trained observer, watch and note the nature and frequency of an employee activity. Critical incident technique : developed by John Flanagan can be used for task identification. It involves having individuals who are familiar with the job record incidents of particularly effective and ineffective behavior that have been seen on the job over a period of time. This can be done by individuals or groups. Job inventories : a questionnaire is developed by asking people familiar with the job to identify all of its tasks. This list is then given to supervisors and job incumbents to evaluate each task is important and time spent to perform the task. This allows inputs from many people and gives numerical informations about each task that can be used to compute indexes and be analyzed
Job- duty –task method : the job is divided into its subparts providing a comprehensive list that identifies the job title, each of its duties and tasks and finally the knowledge, skills abilities or other characteristics (KSAO) required to perform each subtasks. Step 3 : identify what it takes to do the job: successful task performance requires that employees possess the KSAO‟s to perform the task. HRD professional must specify the KSAO‟s because it is these competencies that employees must develop or acquire during the training program Information on KSAO required to perform a job is valuable in determining the focus of an HRD program. Some skills such as written and oral communication or knowledge of safety products and procedure are necessary for effective performance. In such case HRD program may be developed and conducted that can be offered to employees in a wide range of jobs
Step IV : Identify the areas that can most benefit from Training or HRD : the focus here is on determining which tasks and capabilities should be included in HRD programs, both ratings of tasks as well as ratings of KSAO should be examined. Task ratings should be studied concerning their importance, time spent, and the ease of acquisition. These ratings should be studied for their importance, difficult of learning and opportunity to acquire them on the job. Eg a high rating on time spent and ease of learning may indicate that a particular task should be included in training. However, if the same task is also rated low in importance to successful job performance. It may be worth the time and effort involved in training. Step V : Prioritize Training Needs : it should be clear with tasks and KSAO could benefit from training. These tasks and KSAO‟s should be prioritized to determine which ones should be addressed first. Again inspection of ratings provided in steps 2 and 3 can facilitate the prioritizations process.
PERSON ANALYSIS Determining the training needs of individual employees. The focus is typically on how well each employee is performing key job tasks, but this process may identify a wide range of both common and unique HRD needs Traditionally, Person Analysis involved an EE and their supervisor. Depending an the nature of individual‟s work, that EE peers, customers, and subordinates may also be in a position to provide information that can be used to identify person-level needs. Evaluation approach called 360 degree performance appraisal uses as many if these sources as possible to get a complete picture of employees performance
Data Sources Available for Person Needs Assessment Tech. or Data Obtained HRD/Training Need ImplicationPerformance Data or Appraisals as Include weaknesses and areas ofindicators of Problems or weaknesses improvement as well as strong points.Productivity, Absenteeism, Accidents, Easy to analyze and quantify for purposesshort term sickness, Grievances, etc of determining subjects and kinds of trainings needed. Data can be used to identify performance discrepanciesObservation work sampling More subjective technique but provides both employee behavior and results of behaviorInterviews Individual is only one who knows what he believes, needs to learn. Involved in need analysis can also motivate employees to make an effort to learnQuestionnaires Same approaches as interview. Easily tailored to specific characteristics. May produce biasTests Can be tailored made or standardized
Technique or Data Obtained HRD / Training Need ImplicationsAttitude Survey Useful in determining morale, motivation or satisfaction of each employeeRating Scale Care must be taken to ensure relevant, reliable, and objective employee ratingCritical Incidents Observed actions that are critical to the successful or unsuccessful performance of the jobDiaries Individual employee records details of jobDevised situations Certain knowledge, skills, attitudes areRole Play, Conference Leadership, demonstrated by these techniquesTraining Sessions, Business gamesAssessment Centers Combination of several techniques in a programMBO or Work Planning & Review system Provides actual performance data on recurring basis related to organization, so that baseline measurements may be known & subsequent improvement or deteriorated
Performance Appraisal in Person Analysis process PA can be a valuable tool for collecting person analysis data. Although may be attempting to think that performance appraisal by itself can be the sole source of person analysis information. Model of PA, as the person analysis process begins as under:1. Perform or have access to a complete, accurate performance appraisal2. Identity discrepancies between the employees behavior traits and those required for effective performance3. Identify the source of discrepancies4. Select the intervention appropriate to resolve the discrepancies
Development needs: Person analysis data are also used to define development needs, which can be identified during the periodic performance system. The primary use of development data is for maintaining and increasing the knowledge, skills and abilities of each employee. Many organizations use HRIS to compile this information Although this type of information is traditionally used to assess the readiness of the individuals to take on higher levels of responsibilities, it can be also used for training needs assessment Some of the organizations analyze this information to determine the best strategy for developing their HR Eg, if organization is contemplating changes that require new skills, the skill inventory may provide necessary information for devising new training or other HRD programs
EMPLOYEE AS NEED ASSESSMENT CENTER Another source of information for training needs is the employee itself. Employee acts as a source for information It was found that although self-ratings were more lenient than supervisory ratings, self ratings exhibited less halo error It was also found that two sources of ratings were not significantly related and that self ratings discriminated among aspects of performance more than supervisory ratings. It was found that although self ratings of training needs may be a useful part of a needs assessment, HRD professionals would be wise to use multiple sources of need assessment information to ensure validity
PRIORITIZING HRD NEEDS Assuming that a need assessment reveals multiple needs, management and the HRD staff must prioritize these needs Decisions must be made about what resources will be used in HRD Participation in Prioritization Process: The prioritization works best when individuals throughout the organization are involved. As HRD programs are intended to serve a specific area of the organization, representatives from those areas should have input in decision. Some HRD departments regularly solicit ideas from employees and can be used to refine and improve ongoing programs With this input, there is a greater likelihood that more employees will perceive the HRD programs as being relevant to the organization
HRD Advisory Committee One way to continuously reflect the needs of employees and assist is prioritizing needs is to establish an HRD advisory committee The role of committee is to meet regularly and review needs assessment and evaluation data and offer advice on the type and content of HRD programs to be offered Committee is composed of members from a cross-section of the organization This provides different perspectives on HRD needs and can create a broader level of support from all parts of the organization
THE HRD PROCESS MODEL DEBATE A through need assessment establishes the foundation for an HRD or training program. These process are based on the instructional system design or “ADImE” model This model has been a dominant model in HRD since 1970‟s Recently this approach has been strongly criticized The model is too slow and clumsy to meet today‟s training needs There‟s no hang on, we‟ll explain later Used as directed, it produces bad results It clings to the wrong world view