The potential use of green-thinned grape clusters for ethanol production<br />
A few things I am not here to argue about<br />
Quality wine is made in the winery<br />
Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yield<br />
Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yieldThe maximum profit is being obtained from current viticultural p...
X<br />Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yieldThe maximum profit is being obtained from current viticul...
We all know<br />Great wine is grown in the vineyard <br />Quality depends on vine balance<br />And there is always potent...
Producing area	Yield ( t )<br />200725355		205000<br />2008			29310		285000<br />2009			31000		285000<br />NZ wine growers...
Bio-fuel<br />Food versus feedstock<br />Waste product is already being produced <br />
An investigation of<br /><ul><li>The effect of fermentation temperature
Di ammonium phosphate addition</li></li></ul><li>Trial<br /><ul><li>Grapes collected from under vines
 Crushed De-stemmed and Pressed
 pH adjusted from 2.6 to 3.5
 DAP added at 1.1g/L
 Juice divided into 250ml aliquots</li></li></ul><li>Trial <br /><ul><li>Water baths maintained at 26, 31 & 36o C
o Brix, Temperature & Weight </li></li></ul><li>Results <br />
Results <br />
Results <br />
Results <br />
Results <br />
Results <br />
Conclusion <br /><ul><li> Rate of fermentation was significantly effected by temperature
 DAP addition significantly increased the rate of fermentation
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The Potential Use Of Green Thinned Grape Clusters For Ethanol production

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Student research presentation in part completion of a bachelor of Viticulture. This research was undertaken to investigate the use of a waste product.

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  • Is that quality wine is made in the winery
  • and that this quality is inversly related to yield, as quality goes up yield must go down. The practise of grape thinning for increased quality in hawke’s bay is wide spread
  • Or that the maximum profit is being obtained from current viticultural practise in Hawke’s Bay
  • No I am not here to talk about any of these things
  • Because we all knowGreat wine is grown in the vineyardThe quality of this wines is directly related to vine balanceAnd there is always potential for more profit and this is what my project is centered around. Yield reduction is widely practised in Hawkes bay. This reduction is a manipulation of vine balance. A change in the balance indices such as; Yield: prunning weight ratio, Leaf area to fruit weight or Yield:Canopy surface area will influence final fruit and therfore wine quality however my project is not an investigation of these facts. My project is simply to investigate the use of grapes once removed in this production process.Now I would like to ( next slide )Now I would like to highlight something from my first slide…no not the dog
  • I would like to highlight something from my first slide…no not the dogOn the oposite side of the row is this green harvest of grapes.I asked myself on the day these grapes were harvested …..why is no one interested in making money out of this harvest. These grapes were simply left lying on the ground
  • In 2007 the national vineyard consisted of 25355 ha of producing land With a yield of 205000 tonnesIn 2008 the production area increased to 29310 ha an increase of 3955ha. The increased land area produced a total of 85000t when the increased yield is divided by the increased land area the average production / ha was 20t for each additional ha.In 2009 we see the national vineyard has increased to 31000 ha with no increase in yield.… if this additional land produced the same increase as the previous year the national harvest could have reached over 300000t a conservative estimate of 35000t of grape production did not make it into this final yield statistic. what proportion of these grapes must have been left lying on the ground?…The quality must be up this year.We all know that the harvest must have been reduced by thinning grapes or green harvesting as some people like to call it….green harvesting is this harvest actually being used. A possible use is Verjuice this is a condoment to acompany food, after an extensive search of the internetI found the national verjuice website still underconstructionAlthough places such as nedorf and sileniare making and selling this product , I thought of something a little simpler Ethanol
  • Robert zoelick the world bank president fears the production of bioethanol from food feedstock could increase world poverty (click x 2). Land which would otherwise be used in the production of food has over recent years been used for the production of feedstock for bio-fuel production. The use of the land has not changed just the end consumer, the change in demend around the world for feed stock such as corn has increased the price. This “feed stock would normally be sold and consumed as food for humans and not as energy for cars. ( click x2 )The use of waste products such as the grapes we have just seen lying on the ground however could reduce the demand for diverting food to cars and put some extra money into growers pockets.
  • The production of ethanol for bio-fuel is a competitive process with minimisation of cost and energy inputs essential.My trial was to be kept as simple as possible with a factorial design to investigate two factors (click)The effect of fermentation temperature on the rate of fermentation. The temperatures to be tested were 25-30 & 35And the addition or ommision of diamonium phosphate or DAP again on the rate of fermentation
  • At the beginning of 2009 grapes were collected from undervines after comercial thinning at the onset of veraison(26/01).Grapes were crushed and destemmed and pressed, once 40ppm SO2 had been added, juice was settled at 0C for 149 days.Yes this was time may seem excessive but the demands of work and family dictated no possible reduction in this time and as the trial was to investigate fermentation conditions and outcomes it was decided that this time would not affect successful completion . Juice was racked off solids twice in this time.The pH was adjusted by the addition of NAOH a relitively cheap and readily available alkaline product. This was undertaken to remove the need to aclimatise the yeast to acidic conditions in the jucie (pH2.6)One of the two samples of three litres for trail work had 1.1g/L of DAP added this was add to yield 115mg/N/L (Boulton principles and practise of winemaking) (nitrogen included for cell growth mechanisims)this N was added to the already present 25mg/N/L (YAN) calculated using megazyme YAN&PAN enzyme kit. Target of 140mg/L assimiable nitrogen.(Agenbach sited in(ingledew and Kunkee)Fermentatio
  • Fermentations were undertaken in 500mL erlynmeyer flasks.These flask were partially submerged in water baths maintained at one degree above the desired fermentation temperature. This temperature was devised from raising and lowering water bath temperature during a trial ferment before the trial begun. Brix temperature and fermentor weight was measured and recorded at 0 13, 20, 26, 44, 61 & 85 hours after innoculation with EC118 yeast.
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • This graph shows Thedecressing effect of temperature ( point ) the increasing rate of fermentation as temperature can be seen up-to 30 30 up-to 35 still a significant increase but as you can see from the lines the increaseing effect is not as large as that from 25
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentation conditions
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • The weight loss of fermentation vessels was significantly affected by temperature but not by DAP addition.
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • Rate of fermentation was significantly increased by the addition of DAP and elevated temperature. Treatment 35 DAP completed fermentation after 26 hours compared with 25 no DAP which finished after 85 hours. These facts are important for numerous reasons: first on a commercial scale this would facilitate less tank time required and rapidly on selling the ethanol. Elevated temperature would require less cooling therefore reduce energetic and monetary costs. DAP significantly increased the rate of fermentation but this benefit would have to be analysed to quantify the cost of DAP against the cost of additional time in tank required by the omission of DAP. Grape thinnings gathered in this trial at veraison contained insufficient reducible sugars for commercial ethanol production with a mean of 2.4%v/v ethanol in the final solution. Ethanol production from wine containing such low ethanol concentrations as achieved in this study would have no NEB unless grapes with a higher concentration of sugar were used to fortify or inventive distillation was used.
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • This graph shows the mean results from the different fermentations conditions
  • 1 after crushing and distemming these grapes were (next slide)
  • The Potential Use Of Green Thinned Grape Clusters For Ethanol production

    1. 1. The potential use of green-thinned grape clusters for ethanol production<br />
    2. 2. A few things I am not here to argue about<br />
    3. 3. Quality wine is made in the winery<br />
    4. 4. Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yield<br />
    5. 5. Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yieldThe maximum profit is being obtained from current viticultural practice in Hawke’s Bay<br />
    6. 6. X<br />Quality wine is made in the wineryQuality depends on yieldThe maximum profit is being obtained from current viticultural practice in Hawke’s Bay<br />
    7. 7. We all know<br />Great wine is grown in the vineyard <br />Quality depends on vine balance<br />And there is always potential for more profit<br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Producing area Yield ( t )<br />200725355 205000<br />2008 29310 285000<br />2009 31000 285000<br />NZ wine growers statistics (2008)<br />
    10. 10. Bio-fuel<br />Food versus feedstock<br />Waste product is already being produced <br />
    11. 11. An investigation of<br /><ul><li>The effect of fermentation temperature
    12. 12. Di ammonium phosphate addition</li></li></ul><li>Trial<br /><ul><li>Grapes collected from under vines
    13. 13. Crushed De-stemmed and Pressed
    14. 14. pH adjusted from 2.6 to 3.5
    15. 15. DAP added at 1.1g/L
    16. 16. Juice divided into 250ml aliquots</li></li></ul><li>Trial <br /><ul><li>Water baths maintained at 26, 31 & 36o C
    17. 17. o Brix, Temperature & Weight </li></li></ul><li>Results <br />
    18. 18. Results <br />
    19. 19. Results <br />
    20. 20. Results <br />
    21. 21. Results <br />
    22. 22. Results <br />
    23. 23. Conclusion <br /><ul><li> Rate of fermentation was significantly effected by temperature
    24. 24. DAP addition significantly increased the rate of fermentation
    25. 25. Fermentation of green harvested grapes at veraison does not yield sufficient ethanol for a net energy benefit</li></li></ul><li>Further research <br /><ul><li>The use of grape thinnings from veraison to harvest for ethanol production.
    26. 26. Higher temperature fermentation to test upper limit and maximum rate.
    27. 27. Higher inoculation rate vs high temperature to increase fate of fermentation.
    28. 28. Methods of picking grape thinnings up from under vines.
    29. 29. Fermentation of low pH/low Brix juice.
    30. 30. Distillation by solar radiation.
    31. 31. Methods for dehydration before fermentation of low pH/low Brix grapes.
    32. 32. Fermentation of grape thinnings with rachis included to reduce costs and need for nutrient.
    33. 33. Extraction of acid for commercial application from winery waste.
    34. 34. Fermentation of grape thinnings without the removal of gross lees.
    35. 35. Continuous fermentation from veraison until the end of thinning.
    36. 36. Timing of thinning for maximum concentration of sugar in thinnings whilst achieving price point wines.
    37. 37. Various yeast strains and low pH/low Brix high temperature fermentation.
    38. 38. Identification of total thinnings available in Hawke’s Bay post veraison.
    39. 39. The identification of all reducing sugar fruit waste crops in Hawke’s Bay.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />New Zealand winegrowers statistical annual (2008) Retrieved November 5, 2009, from http://www.nzwine.com/statistics/<br />
    40. 40. Blessing’s and salutations<br /><ul><li>Kaia Hawkins ~ The light that guides me on
    41. 41. Koru McClellan ~ Love
    42. 42. Ra McClellan ~ Love
    43. 43. Michel Meunier ~ For beginning the process with me
    44. 44. Malcolm Reeves ~ So much technical knowledge and guidance
    45. 45. Evan Jones ~ Statistical Supremo
    46. 46. Melissa Annand ~ GC mistress
    47. 47. Petra King ~ Methodology friendship companionship leadership general captain of the ship
    48. 48. Diane Rowsell ~ Access and consumables with a smile
    49. 49. Rod Chittenden ~ Methodology
    50. 50. Marion Earwicker ~ Typing skills beyond compare and commitment without falter
    51. 51. Gerard Logan ~ My editor</li></li></ul><li>Thank you.<br />Questions?<br />

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