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User Innovation for the Internet of Things | Gerd Kortuem

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The importance of user innovation is widely accepted, but the development of the Internet of Things is primarily driven by large commercial players. Using an innovation perspective, this paper ...

The importance of user innovation is widely accepted, but the development of the Internet of Things is primarily driven by large commercial players. Using an innovation perspective, this paper identifies how user innovation and market-based innovation can be combined by creating user- centered ecosystems that are open for and provide incentives for end-user innovation. An investigation of the smart-home domain is used to identify challenges for the realization of user-centered ecosystems for the Internet of Things.

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User Innovation for the Internet of Things | Gerd Kortuem User Innovation for the Internet of Things | Gerd Kortuem Presentation Transcript

  • CIOT2010 Workshop: "What can the Internet of Things do for the Citizen?" In conjunction with International Conference on Pervasive Computing 2010 http://www.autoidlabs.org/events/ciot2010 User Innovation for the Internet of Things Gerd Kortuem & Fahim Kawsar Lancaster University kortuem.com @kortuem gerd@kortuem.com
  • The Internet of Things is overwhelmingly driven by industrial players Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • This ... • limits innovation potential • limits public discourse • makes it likely that non-commercial concerns are ignored ➜ privacy Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • According to the Open Source Sensing Foundation “a long and expensive battle is looming” over privacy, accuracy, ownership and sovereignty “between those using sensors to collect data and those whose data is being collected” [opensourcesensing.org] Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • There are at least two ways to address the current situation... Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • 1. Develop systems and applications that directly benefit end-users For example: Guinard, D., Baecker, O., & Michahelles, F. (2008). Supporting a Mobile Lost and Found Community. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (pp. 407-410). New York. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • 2. Empower citizens to become innovators !" # $%&'()* +, !"#$%"%&'()*& *+ ',% -.("%/*.0 von Hippel, E., & Katz, R. (2002). Shifting Innovation to Users via Toolkits. Management Science, 48(7), 821-833 Kawsar F. (2009). A Document-Based Framework for User Centric -./012 +345, 6&789:;) <=)* >7()*?&@) >7()*&@AB7 6BB; Smart Object Systems, PhD dissertation, Dept. Computer Science, Waseda Univ., Feb. (%)=) )M';9@9(HB=( B? (%)?G7@AB7&;9A)=&'';9@&AB7= &*) (%) )7JCG=)*= =97@) (%)*) +345CD:E3 F;(%BG8% BG=;KL 2009. @B7(*B;;978 =H&*( B:I)@( &*) '*BN9J)J (B &==GH)J (B *G7 @B7A7GC 9= 7B =)@B7J&*K G=)* 97()*?&@) 97 (%) =K=()H3 6%G= 9? & G=)* 7))J= (B =(B' &7 &'';9@&AB7 B* =H&*( B:I)@(O= ?G7@AB7&;9A)= ?B* =BH) *)&=B7 D)383L 8B978 ?B* & N&@&AB7EL (%)K @&7 JB =B G=978 (%)=) ?G7@AB7=3 • 122*34()&567%"*84&5 ( 9.*:$%61##$43()*&; 6%)=) ?G7@AB7= &*) 7))J)J (B &==B@9&() & '*BP;) B* &7 &'';9@&AB7 (B & =')@9P@ =H&*( B:I)@(3 QB() (%&( (%) &'';9@&AB7= (%&( &*) Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010 +345CD&E3 7B( &==B@9&()J R9(% &7K =')@9P@ =H&*( B:I)@( @&7 :) 97=(&;;)J ?B;;BR978 -98G*)
  • Providing tools is not enough. Invention ≠ Innovation. Innovation requires creation and diffusion and adoption. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • The iPhone shows how market-based mechanisms can support effective diffusion of user-led innovation. By combining programming tools, application platform and distribution channel, the iPhone has created an environment that effectively supports user innovation networks [8] in which innovation development, production, distribution and consumption are performed by users (or more precisely by user/developers and micro software firms). [8] von Hippel, E. (2002). Open Source Projects as Horizontal Innovation Networks - By and For Users (June 2002). MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4366-02. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • The iPhone ecosystem has “democratized innovation”. This has led to the successful development, diffusion and adoption of applications for social activism, citizen science, and citizen journalism. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • EcoSnoop.com - Sustainability through Activism. EcoSnoop for iPhone is an activism tool that allows green-aware users to assist and encourage corporate green initiatives. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • 360news – putting the power of full featured news reporting in the hands of citizen journalists and news enthusiasts. Featured on Macworld, PCworld, CNet, Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Jungfrau Climate Guide. The Climate Guide gives you a whole new view of Switzerland’s Jungfrau region. The app shows you where the effects of climate change are already visible, and what scientists know about the subject. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • How can we give ordinary citizens a voice, not just as commentators of ongoing IoT developments, but as innovators and shapers of technology? How can we ensure that the Internet allows for user-led innovation? Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Smart Homes Traditionally smart-home research has focused on enabling technologies and applications [26]. Increasingly, research projects aim at establishing technical and business ecosystems [27,28], but these efforts are primarily vendor-driven and supply-side focused without looking at end-user innovation. (The only notable exception is the Do-it-Yourself Smart Experiences project - DiYSE - but concrete results are still sparse [29]). Academic researchers, on the other hand, have investigated end-user programming and tailorability of smhomes [30,31], but this work ignores the important diffusion aspect of innovation. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • User-Centered Smart-Home Ecosystem = as a set of actors (business and individuals) that interact and collaborate in the construction, upkeep and use of smart-homes, together with enabling software/hardware components. The key purpose of the user-centered ecosystem (and the main difference to non-user-centered ecosystems) is to enable owner/ inhabitants to create, deploy and disseminate smart home innovation in the form of new hardware and software applications. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Interface/control manufacturers Owner/inhabitant Owner/inhabitant Owner/inhabitant smart home solution provider Smart home application store Smart appliance store Smart home platform provider Sensor/actuator manufacturers Smart home Smart appliance application vendor manufacturers Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com 1 kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Most research views smart homes as a single complex system that is designed and constructed from the ground up, and assumes that most aspects (physical building, digital infrastructure, furniture, appliances) are under the control of a single smart-home developer. This is wrong. This might be the right if one considers research facilities such as Georgia Tech’s smart- home [32], but is certainly wrong if one takes into account the typical life cycle and evolution of homes [33]. The user-centered ecosystem reflects the fact that buildings are assemblies put together by many contributors and that do-it-yourself home improvements by owners/inhabitants play an important role over the lifetime of a home. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Challenge 1: Understanding and supporting user innovation touchpoints User innovation in the smart-home example can occur in many ways: • by developing innovative smart-home applications • by creating or modifying smart objects and appliances • by upgrading the sensor/actuator infrastructure etc. The challenge is to identify these innovation touchpoints and to provide adequate tools. • How do toolkits look like for modifying smart appliances? • How can these modifications be disseminated to other owner/ users in effective ways? • How can sharing of user-generated physical artefacts be supported by the ecosystem? Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Challenge 2: Understanding the characteristics of open innovation platforms Platforms are at the heart of many hardware/software ecosystems [36] and will likely play an important role for the IoT. What makes a compelling IoT platform from an • end-user/developer, • business and • software engineering point of view? What abstractions should these platforms expose to maximize adoption and innovation? IoT platforms are complex in that they must dynamically integrate sensors and actuators as well as smart objects. How do these platforms manage interoperability between components and products from different vendors? Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Challenge 3: Understanding and supporting user incentives Incentives are at the core of user innovation. On the one extreme, user/developers may simply value the process of innovating because of the enjoyment or learning that it brings them; on the other extreme, they may be able to monetize their innovation by selling products on an open market place. The sensor richness of the Internet of Things adds novel trading and monetization opportunities related to user-generated data. • What are suitable monetization strategies for user-generated data? • How can users resolve the conflict between maintaining privacy and realizing potential value of data? • How can users trade or collect user-generated data without involving monetary transactions? Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • What we currently do Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • HomeSense Project (Tinker London, EDF R&D) Homesense brings the open collaboration methods of online communities to physical infrastructures in the home. Instead of having products forced on them through a top-down design process, selected households will create their own smart homes and live with the technologies that they have developed themselves without any prior technical expertise. Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • THANK YOU Gerd Kortuem & Fahim Kawsar Lancaster University kortuem.com @kortuem gerd@kortuem.com Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010
  • Gerd Kortuem and Fahim Kawsar User Innovation for the Internet of Things Workshop on "What can the Internet of Things do for the citizen?" in conjuction with the Eighth International Conference on Pervasive Computing (Pervasive 2010), Helsinki, Finland, 17 - 20 May 2010 Paper available at http://www.autoidlabs.org/events/ciot2010 Gerd Kortuem | Infolab21 | Lancaster University | gerd@kortuem.com | kortuem.com | 16 May 2010 | CIOT 2010