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DESIGNING
PHYSICAL/DIGITAL OBJECTS
FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS
FROM SENSORS TO USER INTERACTION
Gerd Kortuem
17 June 2009
I...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
SOME TWITTER USERS ARE NOT...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Andy Stanford Clark (IBM)
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Source: Cartoon by Peter S...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
ON THE INTERNET,
NOBODY KN...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
• ATmega1280, 5V
• Digital...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Source: Clive Thomas / Wir...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Source: Clive Thomas / Wir...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Blogjects track and trace ...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
THINGS AND PEOPLE
PEOPLE A...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
1. CASE STUDIES
2. HUMAN D...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
BP Chemical storage facili...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Road maintenance crew, Sou...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Breaker Circular Saw & Wac...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Vibration White Finger
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Vibration Dosimeter
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Duration of use
(measured)...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Static domain model
+
Dyna...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
PERSONAL HEALTH HISTORIES
...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
The recorded usage time ha...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
SITE-SPECIFIC HEALTH LOGS
...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
ACTIVITY PATTERNS
When do ...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Model
Awarness
Interactivi...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Model
Awarness
Interactivi...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
RENTAL COMPANY CONSTRUCTIO...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
USAGE-BASED PRICING
Rental...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
THE SAFETY-AWARE BARREL
Sy...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
THE SAFETY-AWARE BARREL
Do...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
COOPERATIVE REASONING
Chem...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
COOPERATIVE REASONING
Chem...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
COOPERATIVE REASONING
Chem...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
DEVICE ARCHITECTURE
Domain...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
Trial at BP’s chemical pla...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
1. CASE STUDIES
2. HUMAN D...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
DESIGN PROCESS
Gerd Kortue...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
DESIGN PROCESS
Gerd Kortue...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
INVISIBLE RISKS
Risk perce...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
SELF-IMAGE AND SOCIAL PRES...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
PAST EXPERIENCES & NARRATI...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
INFORMATION DISCLOSURE
Sen...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
TECHNOLOGY ARCHETYPES
Sens...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
TECHNOLOGY ARCHETYPES
Mana...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY
Pers...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
POINTS TO TAKE HOME
Intern...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
THANK YOU
Gerd Kortuem
@ko...
Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
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Designing Physical/Digital Objects for The Internet of Things: From Sensors to User Interaction

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Transcript of "Designing Physical/Digital Objects for The Internet of Things: From Sensors to User Interaction"

  1. 1. DESIGNING PHYSICAL/DIGITAL OBJECTS FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS FROM SENSORS TO USER INTERACTION Gerd Kortuem 17 June 2009 Infolab21 | Lancaster University gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com
  2. 2. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University SOME TWITTER USERS ARE NOT HUMAN
  3. 3. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
  4. 4. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
  5. 5. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
  6. 6. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Andy Stanford Clark (IBM)
  7. 7. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Source: Cartoon by Peter Steiner. The New Yorker, July 5, 1993 issue (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20) page 61
  8. 8. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University ON THE INTERNET, NOBODY KNOWS YOU ARE A THING Source: http://www.botanicalls.com/kits/
  9. 9. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University • ATmega1280, 5V • Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 14 provide PWM output) • Analog Input Pins 16 • DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA • DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA • Flash Memory 128 KB of which 4 KB used by bootloader • SRAM 8 KB • EEPROM 4 KB • Clock Speed 16 MH Arduino is an open source microcontroller board, plus a free software development environment, to make objects that can sense inputs from switches, sensors, and computers, and control motors, lights, and other physical outputs in the real world! ARDUINO
  10. 10. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Source: Clive Thomas / Wired http://www.wired.com/techbiz/startups/magazine/16-11/ff_openmanufacturing OPEN-SOURCE HARDWARE
  11. 11. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Source: Clive Thomas / Wired http://www.wired.com/techbiz/startups/magazine/16-11/ff_openmanufacturing OPEN-SOURCE HARDWARE
  12. 12. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Blogjects track and trace where they are and where they’ve been Blogjects have self-contained (embedded) histories of their encounters and experiences Blogjects always have some form of agency — they can foment action and participate; they have an assertive voice within the social web. BLOGJECTS A Manifesto for Networked Objects — Cohabiting with Pigeons, Arphids and Aibos in the Internet of Things BY JULIAN BLEEKER
  13. 13. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University THINGS AND PEOPLE PEOPLE AND THINGS An Internet of Things that is more than just sensors attached to things
  14. 14. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University 1. CASE STUDIES 2. HUMAN DIMENSION
  15. 15. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University BP Chemical storage facility, Saltend, Northeast England
  16. 16. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Road maintenance crew, South England trial users anonymized
  17. 17. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Breaker Circular Saw & Wacker Plate
  18. 18. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Vibration White Finger
  19. 19. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Vibration Dosimeter
  20. 20. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Duration of use (measured) Vibration characteristics (known for each equipment, measured by manufacturer) Soil condition (assumed) all daily trigger tim short-term exposu exposure action). average daily expo • Daily exposu • Daily exposu A(8) is defined as ahv = actual Actual Exposure Maximum Legal Exposure ? Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) • Neurological component – numbness, tingling, reduced sense o touch & temperature – main cause of disability in advanced cases • Vascular component – “vibration white finger” – episodes of finger blanching – typically cold-induced attacks • Musculoskeletal component – pain, weak grip, etc.
  21. 21. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Static domain model + Dynamic world model Operator IN-SITU ASSISTANCE encode rules query REAL-TIME ASSESSMENT inform CODIFICATION Health & Safety Policies
  22. 22. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University PERSONAL HEALTH HISTORIES 0 37.5 75.0 112.5 150.0 13:50 14:00 14:10 14:20 14:30 14:40 14:50 15:00 15:20 15:30 14:20 DailyExposureActionValue Time 0 10 20 30 40 10:50 11:00 11:10 11:20 11:30 11:40 11:50 12:00 12:20 12:30 12:40 DailyExposureLimitValue Time How dangerous is work for each individual? Daily limit Intensity limit
  23. 23. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University The recorded usage time had an average error of 3.2% against the actual usage as recorded by the video footage.
  24. 24. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University SITE-SPECIFIC HEALTH LOGS Where are safety hotspots? Is health managed differently across work-sites?
  25. 25. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University ACTIVITY PATTERNS When do safety incidents occur? When is a task finished? 1 5 9 13 17 21 Tool 1 Tool 2 Motion Sound Light Task 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30
  26. 26. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Model Awarness Interactivity Activity-aware Process-aware Policy-aware Functions Rules Work-Flows POLICY-AWARE OBJECTS
  27. 27. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Model Awarness Interactivity Activity-aware Process-aware Policy-aware Functions Rules Work-Flows ACTIVITY-AWARE OBJECTS
  28. 28. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University RENTAL COMPANY CONSTRUCTION COMPANY UseCost calculation Recording usage LeaseCost = (T "U) + Cost(m)i i=1 |M | #
  29. 29. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University USAGE-BASED PRICING Rental equipment is charged per actual use, not per time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tool Worker 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Tool 3 Tool 2 Tool 1 d1 When, how, how often? By whom? d1 d2 d3
  30. 30. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University THE SAFETY-AWARE BARREL System software Sensors Display Application software Memory Processor Wireless Network Storage
  31. 31. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University THE SAFETY-AWARE BARREL Don’t shake me so much! I am too hot! I shouldn’t be here! There are too many of us! I am standing too close to my neighbours Don’t put me next to these barrels!
  32. 32. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University COOPERATIVE REASONING Chemical A alone is ok Chemical A next to chemical B is not ok Reactive chemicals may not be stored next to each other m1 + m2 < safety limit Total mass of a chemical must be below critical threshold m1 + m2 + m3 > safety limit ©TECO Karlsruhe University
  33. 33. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University COOPERATIVE REASONING Chemical A alone is ok Chemical A next to chemical B is not ok Reactive chemicals may not be stored next to each other m1 + m2 < safety limit Total mass of a chemical must be below critical threshold m1 + m2 + m3 > safety limit Chemical knowledge ©TECO Karlsruhe University
  34. 34. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University COOPERATIVE REASONING Chemical A alone is ok Chemical A next to chemical B is not ok Reactive chemicals may not be stored next to each other m1 + m2 < safety limit Total mass of a chemical must be below critical threshold m1 + m2 + m3 > safety limit Chemical knowledge Spatial awareness ©TECO Karlsruhe University
  35. 35. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University DEVICE ARCHITECTURE Domain Knowledge reactive(<chemical>,<chemical>) critical_mass(<chemical>,<number>) content(me,<chemical>) mass(me,<number> Safety Rules hazard:- content(me, CH1), content(C, CH2), reactive(CH1, CH2), min_dist(CH1, CH2, D1), distance(me, C, D2), D2 > D1. Observational Knowledge distance(<container>,<container>,<dist>) Smart-Its Sensor Node C18F6720 @ 20 MHz (5 MIPS) Program Memory: 128KB Data Memory: 3.8KB RAM 1KB internal EEPROM Memory: 32 KB EEPROM
  36. 36. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Trial at BP’s chemical plant in Hull, UK (July 2006) Smart-its sensor node: PIC18F6720 @ 20 MHz (5 MIPS) Program Memory: 128KB Data Memory: 3.8KB RAM ©TECO Karlsruhe University
  37. 37. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University 1. CASE STUDIES 2. HUMAN DIMENSION
  38. 38. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University DESIGN PROCESS Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
  39. 39. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University DESIGN PROCESS Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University
  40. 40. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University INVISIBLE RISKS Risk perception is poor Goal: increasing awareness
  41. 41. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University SELF-IMAGE AND SOCIAL PRESSURE Safety equipment often not used Personal and social “invisibility” becomes key design goal
  42. 42. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University PAST EXPERIENCES & NARRATIVES GPS had been experienced as surveillance technology Technology narrative must be part of the design = or or ?
  43. 43. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Sensing-only Awareness display Unit w/o display was perceived as surveillance technology
  44. 44. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University TECHNOLOGY ARCHETYPES Sensor network (sensing + data) Smart object (interaction) Developers view problem in light of well-known system models
  45. 45. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University TECHNOLOGY ARCHETYPES Management Operatives' behavior Data logs Exception reports Health & Safety Rules Operatives Feedback Automatic data capture Enterprise System Personal Health & Safety Record Operative's behavior Context-sensitive notices Sensor-network inspired H&S system (top-down) Smart-object inspired H&S system (bottom-up) Different system models imply different H&S solutions
  46. 46. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University BEHAVIOR-BASED SAFETY Personal Health & Safety Record Operative's behavior Context-sensitive notices Personal Health & Safety Record Operative's behavior Context-sensitive notices Operatives as source of expertise and behavioral change Collaborative safety
  47. 47. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University POINTS TO TAKE HOME Internet of Things = Things + People
  48. 48. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University THANK YOU Gerd Kortuem @kortuem kortuem@comp.lancs.ac.uk www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~kortuem
  49. 49. Gerd Kortuem | gerd@kortuem.com | @kortuem | www.kortuem.com | Infolab21 | Lancaster University Press Smart tags hail the web of things. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7207514.stm Scientific Daniel Fitton, Fahim Kawsar and Gerd Kortuem. Exploring The Design of a Memory Model for Smart Objects. First International Workshop on Digital Object Memories. To appear. Daniel Fitton, Vasughi Sundramoorthy, Gerd Kortuem, James Brown, Christos Efstratiou, Joe Finney, Nigel Davies. Exploring the Design of Pay-Per-Use Objects in the Construction Domain. EuroSSC 2008: 192-205 Kortuem et al. Sensor Networks or Smart Artifacts? An Exploration of Organizational Issues of an Industrial Health and Safety Monitoring System. Proceedings International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp 2007), October 2007, Innsbruck, Austria Brown et al. Network Interrupts: Supporting Delay Sensitive Applications in Low Power Wireless Control Networks. Proceedings ACM MobiCom workshop on Challenged Networks (CHANTS 2007), September 2007, Montreal, Canada Efstratiou et al. Experiences of Designing and Deploying Intelligent Sensor Nodes to Monitor Hand-Arm Vibrations in the Field. Proceedings of MobiSys 2007, San Juan, Puerto Rico Iszatt White, M. Catching Them At It? An Ethnography of Rule Violation. Symposium on Current Developments in Ethnographic Research in the Social and Management Sciences, 13th-14th September 2006, Liverpool, UK Busby, J. and Iszatt-White, M. Pushing the Boundaries of HRO Thinking: Non-complex and Uncoupled but still Deadly. SRA Annual Meeting - Risk Analysis in a Dynamic World: Making a Difference, 3rd-4th December 2006, Baltimore, Maryland Davies et al. Sensing Danger – Challenges in Supporting Compliance in the Field. 8th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile 2007), February 2007, Tucson, Arizona Lowton M. and Finney, J. Finding NEMO: On the Accuracy of Inferring Location in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks. Proceedings Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks (RealWSN 2006), June 2006, Uppsala, Sweden PUBLICATIONS
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