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and the relative merit of different options for teaching it.
Grammar-Learning-Teaching The challenges in learning grammar The scope of grammar teaching Teaching as response Teaching as planning Dimensions of grammar (description)
Dimensions of Grammar (Larsen-Freeman, 1999) Form Use Meaning Phonemes, Graphemes, Grammatical morphemes, Syntactic patterns Words , Derivational morphemes, Notions Grammatical morphemes, Syntactic structures. Social functions, Discourse patterns
Form, meaning, and use of the “plural – s” If a singular ends in a y, the plural is usually formed by changing y to i and adding es . The plural of nouns is generally made by adding an – s to the singular form of the noun. Depending on the last sound of the noun, the plural can be pronunced as [iz], [z], and [s]. It refers to more than one person, thing, etc. The plural can be used to refer to a specific group of entities ( My neighbour has black cats. ) We can use the plural to make generalizations about entities ( Black cats bring bad lack.)
Forms of grammar are, like lexical items, meaningful and never “empty” or meaningless, as often assumed in purely structural models of grammar.
I would like to have a cup of coffee! My wishes are directed towards a goal.
lexical categories & grammatical structures The grammar of a language represents the whole of a native speaker’s knowledge of both the lexical categories and the grammatical structures of her language. Assumptions of Cognitive Grammar