Special Education in Today’s Classrooms By Nancy Korby
IDEA 94-142 contains 6 major principles
FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education) – School districts must provide Special Education and services to meet the needs of students with special learning requirements. Services can include transportation, counseling, physical therapy, etc…)
Appropriate Evaluation – a full evaluation must be conducted of the individual before receiving services, parental consent must be given evaluated by a team, more than one procedure for testing, testing is to be done in the students first language. Must be nondiscriminatory.
IEP (Individual Education Plan) – a written document on an individual student that establishes learning goals (short and long term goals) , the services the district will provide, how the disability affects the learning progress with the general curriculum, and transition planning for older students
LRE (Least Restrictive Environment) – students shall attend school and be educated in the least restrictive environment using the most inclusive setting when appropriate.
Parent’s and Students Rights – Parental consent must be obtained for every decision that affects a child with a disability. Consent must be given for evaluations of the student, for any necessary services and for placement of the child in special programs.
Due Process (safe guards) – Parents have the right to appeal any decisions that are made to the special education process and the right to request a due process hearing, the right to initiate a civil action They have the right other educational records. A functional behavior assessment and behavior plan when violation of school rules or code have occurred ( such as drugs, weapons). Increase students efforts in the decisions regarding their education.
IDEA Reauthorization PL 94-142
Incentives for states to serve preschool children with disabilities
Requires states to collect information and to address issues that relate to the transitioning from school to post school.
Mandates services for children ages 3 to 5
Attorney’s fees are provided for in due process or court cases
Disabilities added to the list are autism and traumatic brain injury
Changed the name to “Individuals with Disabilities Education Act”
No later than age 16 transition services must begin
Transition planning begins no later than age 14
Students with behavior problems will include in their IEP’s a behavior intervention plan
Section 504 – Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under Section 504 if they do not qualify under the categories in IDEA
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) – Represents broad civil rights for those that are disabled. It establishes guidelines for public accommodations, transportations, state and local governmental operations and telecommunications systems.
NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act) – Increased accountability – state standards in reading and math; yearly testing for grades 3 – 8; annual progress objectives; AYP (adequate yearly progress); evaluation of district and individual schools; Parents and students have a choice to move to a “better” public school in the district or to obtain supplemental educational services; Greater flexibility I the use of federal education funds; Goal – by the end of the 3 rd grade every child can read; Highly qualified teachers – must be fully qualified in order to teach.
Key Elements in Schools Today
Standards-Based Education – All most all states have content and performance standards in core subjects (English, math, social studies, and science) that must be taught, with the purpose of ensuring that all students can demonstrate knowledge and skills in these areas.
Student Accountability - Accountability through student evaluation by means of high-stakes standards-based testing. Annual testing for reading and math in grades 3 – 8. A percentage of students who have disabilities will take these tests with accommodations.
Inclusion – Students are served in regular classrooms when appropriate. Inclusion is a sense of belonging and acceptance. It offers positive interactions and it is being part of the community and to be respected.
RTI (Response to Intervention) – A 3 –tiered instruction for at-risk and special learners that provides intervention strategies to meet the needs of students with the intensity being increased over the different tiers and over time. RTI uses evidence based instruction.
Key Elements Continued
UDL (Universal Design) – Learning opportunities for all. It minimizes barriers and maximizes learning for all students. It is proactive rather than reactive. Attends to the needs of individuals in general, it increases the usability for everyone which includes representation, action and expression and engagement to create a flexible path to learning.
Differentiated Instruction – Is the idea of teaching to the wide range of students needs by maximizing each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.
Evidence-Based Practices – using interventions that have research based evidence that they have worked with populations with whom they are being used.
Diversity Consideration – One must consider the needs of a range of learners with diverse needs; teachers must acquire specific knowledge and develop a sensitivity to the needs of diverse students. Diversity can include: cultural, racial / ethnic, behavioral, physical / sensory, intellectual, sexual, economic, English Language Learners and Settings.
Diverse Learners [Google Images]. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2011, from http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&source=imghp&biw=1440&bih=676&q=Diverse + leaners&gbv=2&aq=f&aqi=g5&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=
Polloway, E. A., Patton, J. R., & Serna, L. (2008). Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs (Ninth ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education.
You –tube video, “UDL at a Glance,”
You –tube video, “Inclusion is Belonging”
You – tube video, “ Response to Intervention: A Tiered Approach