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215 philosopher matrix 215 philosopher matrix Document Transcript

  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1Running Head: Philosopher’s Matrix and Analysis Philosopher’s Matrix and Analysis Thakore O’Neal Grand Canyon University EDU 215 May 1, 2011
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1 Matrix of Philosophers John Dewey Jean Piaget Jean-Jacques Fredrich Froebel Rousseau(1859 – 1952) (1896-1980) (1782 -1852) (1712 - 1778)American Developmental German Philosopherpsychologist, Psychologist, Philosopher EducationalistPhilosopherDewey believed that Jean Piaget’s view of how Rousseau believed Froebel is the knownlearning was active childrens minds work and that the momentum as the originator ofand schooling develop has been for learning was the Kindergartenunnecessarily long enormously influential, provided by the system.and restrictive. His particularly in educational growth of the personidea was that theory. His particular (nature) and that Froebel felt that itchildren came to insight was the role of what the educator was important thatschool to do things maturation in childrens needed to do was to children learnand live in a increasing capacity to facilitate through play whichcommunity which understand their world. opportunities for his development ofgave them real, learning. Kindergartenguided experiences He believed that children emphasis was onwhich fostered their cannot undertake certain Rousseau believed it play and gifts whichcapacity to tasks until they are was possible to is through playcontribute to psychologically mature preserve the original materials andsociety. For enough to do so. nature of the child activities.example, Dewey by careful control of Their purpose was tobelieved that He proposed that his education and find out the essentialstudents should be childrens thinking does environment based thought representedinvolved in real-life not develop entirely on an analysis of the by the object thetasks and challenges smoothly: instead, there different physical child played with. are certain points at which and psychological Occupations wereHad a profound it "takes off" and moves stages through based on free willimpact on into completely new areas which he passed and representedprogressive and capabilities. from birth to things that kidseducation maturity which is could shape andRejected He saw these transitions as provided by the manipulate such asauthoritarian taking place at about 18 growth of the person clay, sand, beads,teaching methods. months, 7 years and 11 or (infed.org). rope etc.His educational 12 years. Games, songs and
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1theories were Rousseau reflected dances werepermeated by his This has been taken to that there should be accepted by Froebelprimary ethical mean that before these focus on the as the key forvalue of democracy. ages children are not environment with healthy activity andRegarded education capable regardless of how opportunity to physicalin a democracy as a they are of understanding development new development.tool to enable the things in certain ways. experiences andcitizen to integrate Piaget’s theory has been reflections. Froebel sought tohis or her culture used as the basis for encourage theand vocation scheduling the school His idea was that creation ofusefully. curriculum. children learn educationalTo accomplish these through various environments thataims, Dewey said stages and each has involved practicalradical reform was There are a two key Piaget a different form of work and the directneed of both principles for teaching and education. use of materials.pedagogical learning:methods and Learning is an active Rousseau felt that aFroebel paid muchcurricula. process: Direct experience, guiding principle attention to making errors, and looking that what is to be preparing for furtherDewey believed that for solutions are vital for learned should be school education bythe school should the assimilation and determined by an training the infantform as a accommodation of understanding of theinnate facultiescommunity. For information. persons nature at through theexample: Classroom each stage of their complimentary self-environments need How information is development. expression,to make the students presented is important. creativeness,feel welcome to When information is Consideration of collectiveshare their ideas. introduced as an aid to that every child involvement, andThis should not stop problem solving, it learns different motor activity.at the arrangement functions as a tool rather within each stage He consideredof the desks. Dewey than an isolated arbitrary and learning should training of all thewas meaning a little fact. be individualized. vivid faculties:more than comfort Learning should be whole, artistic, imaginative,of the students. authentic, and "real": Today, linguistic,Dewey wanted the Piaget helps us to Individualized arithmetical,environment of the understand that meaning is learning is musical, aesthetic,classroom to constructed as children implemented within scientific, physical,promote peer interact in meaningful classrooms to social, moral,interactions and the ways with the world provide instruction cultural, andstimulations around them. Less for children with spiritual, completestudents get from emphasis on isolated special needs. growth andgroup work. If the "skill" exercises that try to harmoniousdesks are arranged teach something like long Rousseau recognizes development to bein rows, it is very division or end of sentence the need for the even more importantmilitary feeling. punctuation. Students still than any kind of
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1Now if students are learn these things in child to be prepared Knowledgearranged in groups, Piagetian classrooms, but for the future.then the idea of peer they are more likely to Within the child is a Froebel hasinteractions can take learn them if they are reservoir of potential influenced earlyplace. engaged in meaningful energy they dont education from birthAlso, students activities (such as need immediately; to 5 years. Hisshould be able to operating a class "store" or the educators task is influence can bemove around the "bank" or writing and to hold back the seen in the practicesclassroom. This is editing a class newspaper). energy until it can be of informalmainly for younger Whole activities, as used effectively educators, thestudents, but they opposed to isolated skill materials that areshould be able to exercises, authentic Early education is used and thehave room to sit on activities which are based primarily on organization of thethe floors for group inherently interesting and the senses; promotes early learningdiscussions. meaningful to the student. direct contact with environment. You can find many early the physical world;Peer interactions are learning programs such as no book learning for Kindergartens are aa strong part in Preschools that follow the early education part of formallearning. theory of Piaget’s ages and educational stages of Development. environments inDewy believed that In preschool settings the public and privatechildren should classroom is an elementary schools.have freedom in environment of learninglearning through through interactions withexplorative familiar objects,experiences. roleplaying and engaging in real life experiencesDewey influenced a .Child centeredcurriculum or In a Piagetian classroom,school; which focus students must be givenon the child and his opportunities to constructinterest. knowledge through their own experiences. They cannot be "told" by the teacher. There is less emphasis on directly teaching specific skills and more emphasis on learning in a meaningful context (learningandteaching.info).
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1 John Dewey and Jean-Jacques RousseauAs an Early Childhood Educator in an informal setting; I am greatest influenced by thosephilosophers who had the greatest influence on informal teaching or Child centered programs.Two of my most poignant influences are John Dewey and Jean –Jacques Rousseau; each of thesephilosophers believed in supporting the individual child’s learning by providing experiences forthe child to learn from their environment.John Dewey is remembered for saying that "Education is not preparation for life: Education islife itself." The comment is reflective of his ideas about education. Dewey felt that educationshould be derived from the child’s instincts, interest and activities. Dewey believed that childrenshould have opportunities to move freely within their environment for exploration, discovery andengaging in peer interactions. Dewey believed so much in his ideas that he founded TheLaboratory School in 1896. The Lab School became a great influence on American education.The Teachers were trained to observe children interest and to help them follow through on theirinterest. Important skills such as problem solving, language, and math concepts were developedas children were allowed to move freely in and out of the classroom and explore theirsurroundings. Education and curriculum was child centered.John Dewey is one of a few philosophers who have had a great influence on how I view theclassroom. I have taught Pre- K for many years and the environment is arranged with many ofthe ideas of John Dewey. The environment is spacious and inviting for all children. The Day toDay schedule allows time for Centers which allows children ample time to explore theenvironment and materials. The classroom curriculum is thematic; however themes areexpounded on children’s interest. I believe that younger children learn more efficiently if they
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1are interested in the materials and activities. I incorporate familiar objects in the classroom thatthe child may see at home or in in the environment; this always engage the child’s interest and Iam able to facilitate learning and expand the learning experience. When I received myAssociate’s Degree my practicum experience was in a Lab school and as the Teacher; I observedthe child’s interest and encouraged the child to follow through with the activity. During myinternship I learn to create my lesson plan based on the interest of the children that I hadpreviously observed. I find that if I plan an activity or lesson and the children are interested insomething else; I will incorporate that into our learning and environment.Jean- Jacques Rousseau philosophy is reflective of human liberty; he believed that man shouldbe left with his own liberties and that if so; he would make the right choices. Rousseau spentmany years trying to find a way to maximize individual liberties by preserving order, obedienceand harmony within society. Rousseau thought that there were two types of human beings;natural human beings and social human beings. Natural human beings are self- sufficient, self-governing while social humans are dependent and restricted. Rousseau wrote a novel Emille,which was an outline regarding the best way to educate human beings; his goal was to provide aneducation that would maximize human potential rather than restrict him. Rousseau had a greatinfluence over European and American education. The American Public school systemestablished during the nineteenth century drew on his ideas. As an Early Educator in an informalenvironment I have been influenced by some of Rousseau’s beliefs that we should see the childas an individual who learns and discovers at their own pace. For many years, I have been thefacilitator of learning by providing my students with various materials that they may engage with
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1by provoking their senses and exploration of the physical environment. The physicalenvironment changes to stir many interest within the children and learning is built from thoseinterest. I believe that the environment should be a Teacher and that as a Teacher I shouldunderstand that every child develops at varying stages and because of that curriculum should beindividualized.Both, John Dewey and Jean-Jacques Rousseau have influenced the way I teach. I believe that theenvironment is also a Teacher and that young children learn in unrestrictive and invitingenvironments.
  • Philosophers Matrix and Analysis 1 References Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Piagets developmental theory [On-line: UK]retrieved 2 May 2011 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm John Dewey, American Pragmatist. Retrieved from http://dewey.pragmatism.org on May 1,2011Friedrich Frobel retrieved May 1, 2011 from http://www.friedrichfroebel.comWylie G Lorraine (2008) The educational theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau retrieved on May 1,2011 from http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Rousseau.html