MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
UNIT – I
Meaning: Communication is the process of passing information and understanding
from one person to another to bring about commoners of interest, purpose and
efforts communication as not complete unless the receiver of the message has
understood the message properly and his reaction or response is known to the
DEFINITION: According to Newman and summer communication is defined as "an
exchange of facts, ideas, opinions (or) emotions by two or more persons/'
According to Charles‘s E Redfield "communication is the bread field of human
interchange of facts and opinions and not the technologies of telephone, telegraph,
According to the Keith and Gulling, communication is defined as "In its Everyday
meaning, communication refers to the transmitting of information in the form of
words or signals or signs from a source to a receiver".
Communication plays an important role in business organization. The success of an
enterprise depends upon the effectiveness of communications, it is said to be the
new system of the enterprise. Nothing happens in business until communication
takes place. Every manager must communicate, in order to get things done through
others. It has few established that manages spend about 75% to 95% of the working
time in communicating with others. Communication is as indispensable for all
meaning and controlling.
Basis of decision-making and planning
Communication is essential for decision for decision making and planning. It
enables the management to secure information without which it may not be possible
to take any decision without effective communication it may not be possible to issue
instructions and orders to the subordinates effective communication helps in proper
implementation of plants and policies of the management.
Smooth and Efficient working of an organization
According to George R. Terry. "It service as the lubricant, fostering for the
smooth operations of management process.'' Communication makes possible the
smooth and efficient working of an enterprise. It is only through communication that
the management changes and regulates the actions of the subordinates in the desired
Promotes co-operation and industrial Peace
Effective communication creates mutual understanding and trust among the
members of the organization. It promotes co-operation between the employer and
the employees without communication, there cannot be sound industrial relations
and industrial peace. It is only through communication suggestions to the
Motivations and morale
Communication is the means by which the behavior of the subordinates is
modified and change is effected in their actions. Through communication workers
are motivated to achieve the goals of the enterprises and their morale is boosted.
Although motivation communication.
Example: proper drafting of message, thing of communication and the way of
Effective communication creates Job satisfaction among employees as it
increases mutual trust and confident between management and the employees. The
gap between management and the employees is reduced through efficient means of
communication and since of belongingness is created among employees. They work
with Zeal and Enthusiasm.
Increases productivity ad reduces cost
The effective communication saves time are effort. It increases productivity
and reduces cost large scale production involves a large number of people to work
together in a group and achieve the benefits of large scale production.
In the present business world, every business enterprise has to create and
maintain a good corporate image in the society. It is only through communication
that management was present a good corporate image.
Effective communication helps management in maintaining good relations
with workers, customers, suppliers, share holders, government and the community
OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION
The objectives of communication are as follows
To bring about the take of co-ordination among peer.
To furnish emotional and social support to the individual on the principle that
people in the same boat share the same problems.
Cross wise relationships exists between personnel in one decision and
personnel of equal, lower or superior status in other decision.
All the enterprises not only permit but also insist on voluntary crosswise or
horizontal chambers of communications at all levels to speed information and
The process of Human communication
I. The Functions and Purposes of Communication among People
A. Human Communication – ―is the process through which individuals in
relationships, groups, organizations, and societies create and use information to
relate with others.
B. Communication influences the way we think about and react to situations and
1. ―The consequences of these actions have significant implications for the kinds of
relationships we form, whom we become as people, and the way we contribute as
members of families, groups, communities, organizations and the societies in which
C. Communication affects all aspects of our lives: Personally, Socially, and
1. Personal Communication involves a reflection of oneself, and how we
individuals) have learned to communicate throughout our development.
a. Intrapersonal Communication – Is an inner dialogue conducted with oneself to
assess one‘s thoughts, feelings, and reactions.
b. According to Ruben & Stewart ―as individuals, communication is our link to the
world, our means of making impressions, expressing, ourselves, influencing others,
and giving ourselves.‖
2. Social Communication involves communication between two or more individuals.
―Communication is the means of pursuing joint activities, relating to each other, and
a. Interpersonal Communication – Takes place any time a message is transmitted
between two people. (This type of communication is not limited to formal speaking
b. It includes casual acquaintances, intimate relationships, family members,
c. ―Often (this type of communication) originate(s) in face-to-face interactions with
3. Occupational communication consists of specific communication skills that
employers are looking for; specifically:
Integrity and honesty – choosing ethical courses of action
b. Listening – Attending to and interpreting verbal messages from others.
c. Reading – Locating, understanding, and interpreting written information in
documents such as manuals, graphs, and schedules.
d. Oral Communication – Communicating ideas and information through verbal
e. Written Communication – Communicating ideas and information through
documents such as letters, manuals, reports, and graphs.
f. Responsibility and Self-management – Exerting high levels of effort, striving to
achieve goals, monitoring progress, and exhibiting self-control.
g. Problem Solving – Recognizing problems and devising and implementing plans
to solve them.
h. Knowing how to learn – Acquiring and applying new knowledge and skills.
i. Self-esteem – Maintaining a positive view of one‘s self and job.
j. Sociability – Working and interacting well with others.
k. Diversity – Functioning effectively in a multicultural and diverse work
l. Decision Making – Prioritizing goals, generating, alternatives and considering
risks, choosing the best alternatives.
m. Creative Thinking – Generating new ideas.
II. The Elements of Communication (e.g., source, encoding/decoding, channel,
involves Responding to
and Creating Messages and
Transforming Them into Information That Can Be Used
B. Effective Communication consists of the following key elements:
1. A Sender – who transmits a message?
2. A Receiver – who intercepts a message and then decodes it
3. Encoding – which is the act of converting an idea into a message; performed by
4. Decoding – the act of translating the message into an idea; performed by the
5. A Message – any symbol or collection of symbols that has meaning or utility.
6. A Channel – The medium used to transmit the message.
a. There are various types of communication channels/mediums; they can be verbal
or non-verbal, and include telephones, computers, television, etc.
7. Noise – any distortion that interferes with the transmission of a signal from the
source to the destination.
8. and Feedback – a reaction that the receiver gives to a message offered by the
III. The Roles and Characteristics of Senders, Receivers, and Messages
A. the Role of a Sender is to send an encoded message to be decoded by a receiver;
the message is sent via a channel.
B. The Role of a Receiver is to obtain the encoded message and to translate or decode
a. While decoding, the receiver must account for any noise or distortion that may
have interfered during the transmission of the Senders message.
b. ―Coded communication works at its best when the (Sender and Receiver) share
exactly the same code.‖ (Origgi & Sperber) The Receiver and Sender must have a
mutual understanding of the symbols being conveyed through the encoded
message; if this understanding is not present the message may not be clearly
2. Once the Receiver has decoded the message it is up to him/her to provide
feedback (a reaction) to the sender.
C. The Roles and Characteristics of a Message
1. As stated before, a message consists of symbols with meanings; these culturally
agreed upon symbols create a symbolic language.
a. Symbols – are characters, letters, numbers, words, objects, people, or actions that
stand for or represent something besides themselves.
b. A Language – is a set of characters, or elements, and rules for their use in relation
to one another.
2. Messages may involve verbal codes – such as spoken or written language – or
nonverbal codes, involving appearance, gestures, touch or other means.
a. Examples of messages: speech, letter, wink, poem, advertisement, or painting.
IV. The Adjustment of Message Elements to Achieve Specific Goals
A. When an individual decides to pursue a particular plan, career, personal
relationship, or personal challenge, that goal serves to direct his/her attention
toward certain information sources and away from others.
1. The goal increases the likelihood that the individual will expose him/herself to
communication sources and situations pertaining (to their interests).
2. The goal may well increase the individual‘s contact with other people interested in
a similar activity, and this will have an additional influence on information
V. The Use of Denotation and Connotation in the Communication Message
A. Denotation – The basic and generally understood meaning of a word found in the
1. It is likely within a society that there is an agreed upon understanding of symbols
within that society. When someone does not understand the general meaning,
denotation can have an impact on the message; be it a positive or negative impact.
B. Connotation – The meanings and feelings associated with a word by an
individual, based on personal experience.
1. Through self-reference we learn to attach meanings to the symbols to meanings
that reflect our own experiences.
This influence dictates how we interpret messages; what may be happy or sad for
one person can have the opposite effect on someone else.
VI. The Recognition of Characteristics and Influences of Internal/External
Variables on Messages
A. Characteristics of the information or message have a major impact on the
selection, interpretation, and retention (of said message).
1. Origin – Where or how the message was created plays an important role in
a. Some messages are produced in ―our physical environment.‖
b. Some messages are produced internally via intrapersonal communication.
c. And other messages are produced using interpersonal communication. ―From
activities with other persons…‖
2. Mode – Modes are signals/influences that can enhance or distract the receiver
from the original message. ―Both purposeful and no purposeful cues are vital as
potential sources of the information that shapes behavior.‖
There are five types of Modes
a. Visual – cues pertaining to sight; such as a wave, smile, or clothing.
b. Tactile – cues pertaining to touch; such as touch, bumping, or temperature.
c. Auditory – cues pertaining to hearing; such as speaking, honking a horn, or
d. Gustatory – cues pertaining to taste; such as food sources and your taste.
e. Olfactory – cues pertaining to sense of smell; such as body odor,
perfume/cologne, or pheromones.
3. Physical Character – The messages size, color, brightness, and intensity are also
important in information processing.
4. Organization – The way that our ―ordering of ideas or opinions affects reception.‖
5. Novelty – Information that is new, unfamiliar, or unusual stands out, ―grabbing
VII. The Recognition of Contextual Importance of Cultural, Social, Economic, and
A. Cultural – Culture is the complex combination of common symbols, knowledge,
folklore, customs, language, information processing patterns, rituals, habits, and
other behavioral patterns that link and give a common identity to a particular group
of people at a particular point in time.
1. The effects of culture on communication can lead to misunderstandings of
symbols that may have alternative meanings from culture-to-culture.
B. Social – People form social groups with like-minded people. Some notions that
may be agreed upon in one social environment may not have the same meaning in
alternative social settings.
1. ―Through social and public communication the shared realities of language and
meanings are created, perpetuated, reaffirmed, or altered.‖
C. Economic – A persons, societies, or cultures economic status can have a profound
effect on how a message is received and interpreted. This is particularly prevalent in
this technologically advanced stage in human evolution.
1. How can someone in today‘s society communicate via e-mail if they have no
computer? Or if they have no cell phone? Or if they have no television?
D. Historical – The historical influences on a person, culture, or society have the
potential to greatly alter message reception. Reflect on connotation and realize that
each person, culture and society will apply specific ―learned‖ connotation to their
1. Consider land disputes, family disputes, racism, alliances, cultural biases, etc.
These historical influences will be ―brought to the table‖ when communicating about
these topics and with these people.
MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION
transmission of message is black and white. It includes diagrams, picture, graphs etc.
Reports, polices, rules, procedures, orders instruction, agreements etc, have to be
transmitted in writing for efficient running of the organization. Written
communications ensure that everyone concerned has the same information. It
provides a permanent record of communication for future reference written
instructions are essential when the action called for vital and complicated. To be
effective, written communication should be clear, concise, cornet and completed. It
may take the following terms
Pictures, diagram, graphs etc.
9. Notice board etc.
Advantages of written communication:
It ensures transmission of information of uniform manner i.e. everyone
concerned has the same information.
It is an ideal way of transmitting lengthy message.
It ensures little risk of authorized alteration in the messages.
It is the only means of exchanging information‘s at all places even beyond
It tends to be complete, clear, precise and correct
It less be quoted as a legal evidence incase of any disputes
It is suited to convey messages to a large number of persons at one and the
Disadvantages of written communication
It is expensive
It is time consuming
It becomes difficult to maintain secrecy about a written communication
It is rigid and does not provide any scope for making alterations for in
accuracies that might have crept in.
It encourages red 'trapezium‘' and involves so many
It may be interpreted in a different manner by different people.
It oftenly becomes too lengthy, when message are conveyed in writing.
Communication is a composite of speaking and listening. Honing skills in both these
areas is absolutely essential if the communicator wishes to impress the receiver. The
initial impact is made by speaking abilities of the sender. Equally important is the
ability to listen carefully. If the overall effectiveness of these two components is
considered. It would e seen that his ability to listen rather than to speak fluently
impress more. The two activities via, speaking and listening, cannot be segregated.
Both are closely intertwined an overall impact is created if both these skills are used
effectively. Let us use the word ' IMPRESS' as an acronym to understand the basic
features of communication or concept, which, if once understood, would define
helps us to impress the other person.
I - Idea: The first step in the process of communication is to decide on the idea which
needs to be communicated. There may be a host of ideas passing through the mind
of the sender. Depending upon the situation and the receiver, the speaker selects the
idea suited to the occasion.
M - Message Once the idea has been selected, it needs to be clothed in a language
that is comprehensible to the receiver. The encoding of the message has to be done
keeping a number of factors in mind. What is it that needs to be stated? What is the
language that s going to be understood y the receiver? Does the idea necessarily
pertain to the interest of the receiver? What is it that the receiver actually needs to
know? Framing of the message, if done (keeping answers to these question in mind),
would definitely make an impact on the receiver.
P - Pause/ Paragraphs the significance of pauses cannot be underestimated. Pauses
should be juxtaposed at just the right minute so that the receiver can assimilate the
impact of the message. The use of pauses would be best understood in the context of
presentation. The presenter should, at the time of making a presentation, use this
device suitably. Excessive usage of this device can lead the presentation into being
one that is pretty boring and monotonous. The right use of pauses actually
stimulates the audience. The impact is often so great and forceful that the receiver
actually leans forward in their chairs when the presenter pauses, as if urging him to
resume the presentation. This device, in the course of the interaction, lasts for barely
a few seconds. However, the impact is long and meaningful. In written
communication pauses get translated into paragraphs. If the decision to use a certain
number of paragraphs is right and the division of points in these paragraphs is also
correct, then written communication becomes meaningful and creates a positive
R - Receiver.
The receiver is the most important person in the process of communication who
could, if he so desires, also prove to be the most difficult. He is the one who is
generally led into the interaction. In order to draw his attention, it is imperative that
there be an extra plus that would retain his interest and make him attentive to the
ensuing communication. To satisfy this criterion the sender should address himself
to the needs and expectations of the receiver. Formulating the statements according
to a mutually accepted goal is a good way of proceeding and drawing his attention.
E - Empathy
In communication empathy should be used to help us understand the other
individual, the strategies that, he adopts and the responses that he gives at a
particular moment. It would be worthwhile to note that all communication is
situation bound. The same individual in two different situations might use the same
words but his intention might be totally different. Gauging the exact meaning of an
utterance can only be done when we literally put ourselves in the shoes of the other
person and try to understand the situation from the perspective of the sender.
S - Sender
The communication process hinges on the sender. He initiates the interaction and
comes up with ideas and concepts that he wishes to share with the receiver. His role
is the most crucial. The success or failure of interaction depends on him and on the
strategies he adopts to get his message across by securing the attention of the
receiver. A cautious sender would understand that there is a difference between the
mental frames of the participants. Such a difference could be a result of discrepancy
in interpretation of words, perception of reality, and attitudes, opinions and
emotions. Message, if formulated, with awareness along these areas, is sure to bring
success to the sender.
S - Security Check
Effective communication necessitates that the receiver listens carefully to the
utterances of the sender so that the end results are positive. The primary rule is:
never be in -a rush to commence communication. Sufficient time and effort should
be put in formulating the message. Suppose the sender wishes to communicate five
points. The sequencing and necessary substantiation of points with facts and figures
should be done prior to the actual beginning of the communication process. This
would build confidence in the message and eliminate possibility of errors in the
To sum up, the sender, in order to impress the receiver should, at the start, have an
idea encoded in the form of a message. At the time of encoding, the sender does a
thorough security check to ascertain that all points have been dealt with in a desired
order. The message is then transmitted to the receiver with the required voice
articulations and pauses so as to heighten the impact. Finally, the response of the
receiver should be viewed empathetic ally. Once all these factors have been
understood, it proves easy to prevail upon the receiver. There could, however, be
moments when, in spite of efforts being made to make the interaction informative
and meaningful, all communication links fall apart and the process ends in a
meaningless rumble of words and sounds. This disturbing or distracting factor is
what we refer to as Noise. This may be on the part of the sender or the receiver; it
can be voluntary or involuntary.
Noise can be defined as a physical sound or a mental disturbance that disrupts the
flow of communication as the sender or the receiver perforce gets distracted by it.
According to this definition, noise can be classified into two categories:
Physical noise is that sound which emanates from the surroundings and hampers'
the listening process, e.g. while speaking on the telephone, disturbances might
hinder the smooth transmission of message or just at the time when the sender
wishes to transmit an important point, there might be a queer squeaking sound.
Physical noise is not all that difficult to manage. It can be done away with at the time
of communication by ensuring that all channels are in proper functioning order. For
example, often, companies have a soundproof room for discussions.
While care may be taken to eliminate possibilities of physical noise, problems arise at
the time when psychological noise plagues either the sender or the receiver.
Whenever there is psychological noise, it results in (un)welcome ideas or thoughts
crowding the mind, which are of more relevance than the' ensuing communication
to either of the participants. Listening, as a result, is hampered and responses are not
well formulated. Some of the common forms of noise are mental turbulence,
preoccupation, ego hang-ups, anxiety, tiredness, pre-conceived ideas and notions.
These are mostly involuntary and no cause can be assigned to them.
FACE TO FACE COMMUNICATION:
In face to face communication we enjoy the opportunity to ask questions and
to participate. Face to lace communication is sometimes supplemented by public
hidden systems that permit manager to speak directly to workers in the workshop
when two or more individuals engage in face to face communication the opportunity
exist to utilize multiple information channels which have a high information
potential'. It should be noted that participant‘s ar.: not restricted to verbal channels
to a single direction except by individual or organizational choice. In a sense the
multiple nature of face to face channels in a form of automatic redundancy which
Low cost some individual and some organizational international
choose to restrict channel choice, message content and single directions where such a
choice has proved effective and there is full awareness of its consequences.
It includes pictures, graphs, diagram charts etc. organization make extensive
use of pictures such a blue prints progress charts, maps, visual aids in training
programmers, scale models of products and similar devices, the use of such means
of communication is increasing in training and education as well as inorganisational
communication pictures can provide powerful visual images as suggested by the
proverb "A picture is worth a thousand words". Infact many companies have
designed their advertisement copies in which only pictures are used ,#rfd no wards
are spoken to be more effective, however pictures should be combine with well
chosen words and action to tell the complete message.
Audio-visual communication that may use of telecast short films on the
cinema screen and video tapes is the latest medium of communication. It a
combination of sight and sound. It may make as written words also.
Audio-visual communication is founds suitable form as publicity, mass
propaganda and mass education, large business laws frequently make use of this
techniques to educate their works and to populars their products. The working of a
new product can be effectively demonstrated through audio visuals. Audio
communication is suitable mostly tor mass publicity and mass educations.
SILENCE: Here we do not communicate through words, sign and signals, alone we
communicate through the silence also. Elegant than words is not a meaningless
usage. It contains in it the essence of generations of experience is not unusual to
come across a situation in which nothing can express ones response is effectively as
Silence can effectively communicate a number of responses. Two stranger talk
together or to each other for a few moments and they become silent. There is a
communication gap between the two. The most effective use of silence can be made
by giving a slight pause before or after as important point during a speech. Silence
can effectively convey certain aspects such as disapproval, anger or defence.
DEVELOPING LISTENING SKILLS
"It's a pity that Raman didn't receive the promotion he wanted, but he has one big
fault: he doesn't know how to listen." This remark was made by a department head
in a manufacturing firm. Listening is a skill, an art necessary for success in life and
Do you know that we devote about 40 to 45 per cent of our working hours to
listening? And do you know that, if you have not taken steps to improve this skill,
you listen at only 25 per cent efficiency?
For a long time most persons assumed that listening was a natural trait, but
practically, not all people are good listeners. Evidence indicates that many persons
do not know how to listen - that listening is a skill that must be developed. In
Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Marc Antony realizes that persons don't listen readily,
for he begins his famous oration by saying, "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me
your ears." As you will learn in the following pages, listening effectively is hard
work. It involves far more than sitting passively and absorbing others' words. It
occurs far more frequently than speaking, reading, or writing and is just as
demanding and important.
What Listening is
Johnson defines listening as "the ability to understand and respond effectively to
Thus, we can state at the outset that hearing is not listening Listening requires more
than hearing; it requires understanding of the communication received. Davis states
it this way:
"Hearing is with the ears, but listening is with the mind."
Industrial firms have recognized the importance of the listening skill to manag-ers
for some time. Dr. Earl Planty, in his role as executive counselor at Johnson and
Johnson, has said: "By far the most effective method by which executives can tap
ideas of subordinates is sympathetic listening in the many day-to-day informal
contacts within and outside the work place. There is no system that will do the job in
an easier manner. Nothing can equal an executive's willingness to listen."
The benefits of applied listening skills are impressive. Good listeners make a
company a more effective organization. They have better rapport with others, they
get more out of meetings and are more effective in conferences, and they are better at
understanding the needs of others.
Common Faults of Listening
Research studies shows that our listening efficiency is no better than 25 to 30 per
cent. That means the considerable information is lost in the listening process. Why?
Some reasons follow1. Prejudice against the speaker - At times we have conflict in our mind as to the
speaker. Whatever he speaks seems to be colored and we practically don't listen
what he says.
2. Rehearsing - Your whole attention is on designing and preparing your next
comment. You look interested, but your mind is going a mile a minute because you
are thinking about what to say next. Some people rehearse whole chains of
responses: I'll say, then he'll say, and so on.
3. Judging negatively - Labeling people can be extremely limiting. If you prejudge
somebody as incompetent or uninformed, you don't pay much attention to what that
person says. A basic rule of listening is that judgments should only be made after
you have heard and evaluated the content of the message.
4. Identifying - When using this block, you take everything people tell you and refer
it back to your own experience. They want to tell you about a toothache, but that
reminds you of your oral surgery for receding gums. You launch into your story
before they can finish theirs.
5. Advising - You are the great problem solver. You don't have to hear more than a
few sentences before you begin searching for the right advice. However, while you
are coming up with suggestions and convincing someone to just try it, you may miss
what is most important.
6. Sparring - This block has you arguing and debating with people who never feel
heard because you are so quick to disagree. In fact, your main focus is on finding
things to disagree with.
7. Being Right - Being right means you will go to great lengths (twist the facts, start
shouting, make excuses or accusations, call up past sins) to -avoid being wrong. You
can't listen to criticism, you can't be corrected, and you can't take suggestions to
8. Derailing - This listening block involves suddenly changing the subject. You
derail the train of conversation when you get uncomfortable or bored with a topic.
Another way of derailing is by joking.
9. Placating - Right. . . Absolutely. . . I know. . . Of course you are. . .Incredible ...
Really? You want to be nice, pleasant, supportive. You want people to like you. So
you agree with everything.
10. Dreaming - When we dream, we pretend to listen but really tune the other
person out while we drift about in our interior fantasies. Instead of disciplining
ourselves to truly concentrate on the input, we turn the channel to a more
11. Thinking speed - Most of us speak between 60 to 180 words per minute, and
people have capacity to think at the rate of 500 to 800 words per Minute. The
difference leaves us with the great deal of mental spare time. While it is possible to
use this time to explore the speaker's ideas, we most often let our mind wander to
other matters - from the unfinished business just mentioned to romantic fantasies.
12. Premature evaluation - It often happens that we interrupt the speakers before
they complete their thought, or finish their sentence, or state their conclusions.
Directly as a result of our rapid thinking speed, we race ahead of what we feel is the
conclusion. We anticipate. We arrive at the concluding thought quickly although
often that is quite different from what the speaker intended.
13. Semantic stereotypes - As certain kind of people bother us, so too do certain
words. When these words are repeated time and again, they cause annoyance in the
mind and effective listening is impaired.
14. Delivery - A monotonous delivery by the speaker can put listeners to sleep or
cause them to loose interest.
15.External distractions - The entire physical environment effects the listening.
Among the negative factors are noisy fans, poor or glaring lights, distracting
background music, overheated or cold rooms, a conversation going on nearby, and
TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE LISTENING SKILL
The ability to listen more effectively may be acquired through discipline and
practice. As a listener you must be physically relaxed and mentally alert to receive
and understand the message. Effective listening requires sustained concentration
(regardless of the length of the message), attention to the main ideas presented, notetaking (if the conditions are appropriate), and no emotional blocks to the message by
the listener. You cannot listen passively and expect to retain the message. If you
want to be an effective listener, you must give the communicator of the message
sufficient attention and make an effort to understand his viewpoint. Here are some
practical suggestions for effective listening, which, if followed, can appreciably
increase the effectiveness of this communicative skill.
1. Realize that listening is hard work - You must appreciate the art of listening, and
make conscious effort to listen others.
2. Prepare to listen - To receive the message clearly, the receiver must have the
correct mental attitude. In your daily communications, establish a permissive
environment for each communicator. .
3. Have positive attitude - If you have to do it, do it with a positive attitude.
4. Resist distractions - Tune out internal and external distractions by facing and
maintaining contact with the speaker. If you experience some negative environment
factors, you can sometimes move to another location in the room. Good listeners
adjust quickly to any kind of abnormal.
5. Listen to understand, not refute -Respect the viewpoint of those you disagree
with. Try to understand the points they emphasize and why they have such feelings
(training, background, etc.). Don't allow your personal biases and attitudes to
influence your listening to the message.
6. Keep an open mind - A good listener doesn't feel threatened or insulted, or need
to resist messages that contradict his beliefs, attitudes, ideas, or personal values. Try
to identify and rationalize the words or phrases most upsetting to your means.
7. Find an area of interest - Good listeners are interested and attentive. They find
ways to make the message relevant to themselves and/ or their jobs. Make your
listening efficient by asking yourself 'what is he saying that I can use? Does he have
any worthwhile ideas? Is he conveying any workable approaches or solutions? G. K
Chesterton once said, There is no such-thing as an uninteresting subject; there are
only uninteresting people.
8. Concentrate on the context - Search out main ideas. Construct a mental outline of
where speaker is going. Listen for transition and progression of ideas. If need be,
you may reinforce the mental outline by physically taking down the notes.
9. Capitalize on thought - speed - Most of us think at about four times faster than
the communicator speaks. It is almost impossible to slow down our thinking speed.
What do you do with the excess thinking time while someone is speaking? The good
listener uses thought-speed to advantage by applying spare thinking time to what is
being said. Your greatest handicap may be not capitalizing on thought-speed.
Through listening training, it can be converted into your greatest asset.
10. Combine verbal delivery with nonverbal cues - F. S. Pearls, author of Gestalt
Theory Vibration, said "Don't listen to the words_ just listen to what the voice tells
you, what the movements tell you, what the posture tells you what the image tells
11. Show some empathy - Empathy means placing yourself in the shoes of speaker
and try understand his viewpoint from there. If we show some empathy, we create a
climate that encourages others to communicate honestly and openly. Therefore, try
to see the communicator's point of view.
12. Hold your fire - Be patient. Don't interrupt. Don't become over-stimulated, too
excited, or excited too soon, by what the speaker says. Be sure you understand what
the speaker means; that is, withhold your evaluation until your comprehension is
complete. Mentally arguing with a communi-cator is one of the principal reasons so
little listening takes place in some discussions. Don't argue. If you win, you lose.
13. Listen critically and delay judgment - Good listeners delay making a judgment
about the communicator's personality, the principal points of the message, and the
response. Ask questions and listen critically to the answers. Then, at the appropriate
time, judgment can be passed in an enlightened manner.
Approaches to Listening
Just as a carpenter or a chef uses different tools to tackle a job, listeners can take
advantage of several skills for listening and responding to messages at work.
Different approaches to listening are discussed below-:
Passive listening - Sometimes the best approach to listening is to stay out of the way
and encourage the speaker to keep going: "Uh-huh", //really,/, "Tell me more", and
so on. Non-verbal cues like eye contact, attentive posture, and appropriate facial
expressions are an important part of the passive listening, enerally this approach is
used when there is one to one conversation or the speaker is giving a formal
Questioning - Sincere questions are genuine request for information: "when did you
find that fuel was leaking from the barrel?", "When did you inform your manager?",
and the like. These questions may be used to gather facts and details, clarify
meanings, and encourage a speaker to elaborate.
Paraphrasing - Paraphrasing occurs when a listener restate the speaker's ideas in his
own words in order to ensure that he has understood them correctly. This is often
preceded by phrases such as, "Let me make sure I understand what you are
saying...", "or "in other words you are saying..." and the like. We often think that we
understand other person but we may be wrong at times. Paraphrasing is a practical
technique that can highlight misunderstandings.
Here are some hints and tips to make you a better listener:
1. Listen carefully to what the speaker says. Pick out the key words in any
information. It's easier to remember one or two important words than a whole
sentence. If you're taking a message for someone it's easier to write down key words
to help you remember the message than it is to try to write everything out. You can
add to your message after you've finished listening to the information.
2. Give each new stage in a set of instructions a number, it will help you remember
3. Repeat the instructions or the information you've been given back to the person
who gave them to you. If you've got anything wrong the person will correct you and
the repetition will help you to remember.
4. Ask questions about anything that you are unsure of, or replay the recorded
5. Go through the complete sequence in your mind so that it is clear. If you're taking
a message for someone else you might want to rewrite it using complete sentences so
that it will make sense to the reader.
6. If you are with someone you need to do some extra things while you are listening,
because you are part of a two-way process and you want to encourage the other
person. Look interested in what they are saying Maintain eye contact
If the person is giving you directions, pay attention to the direction they are
pointing. Gesture can be very important and can often make the speaker's meaning
The Secrets to Listening Well
"Listening is as powerful a means of communication and influence as to talk well." John Marshall
There must be a lot of frustrated people out there, a lot of people who feel like they
aren't listened to, a lot of people throwing up their arms and saying, "You just don't
get it, do you?"
There seems to be a growing realization of the importance of listening and
communication skills in business. After all, lack of attention and respectful listening
can be costly - leading to mistakes, poor service, misaligned goals, wasted time and
lack of teamwork. You can't sell unless you understand your customer's problem;
you can't manage unless you understand your employee's motivation; and you can't
gain team consensus unless you understand each team member's feelings about the
issue at hand. In all of these cases, you must listen to others.
However, listening is less important than how you listen. By listening in a way that
demonstrates understanding and respect, you cause rapport to develop, and that is
the true foundation from which you can sell, manage or influence others. "I like to
listen. I have learned a great deal from listening carefully. Most people never listen."
- Ernest Hemingway Following are some keys to listening well:
Give 100% Attention: Prove you care by suspending all other activities.
Respond: Responses can be both verbal and nonverbal (nods, expressing interest)
but must prove you received the message, and more importantly, prove it had an
impact on you. Speak at approximately the same energy level as the other
person...then they'll know they really got through and don't have to keep
Prove understanding: To say "I understand" is not enough. People need some
sort of evidence or proof of understanding. Prove your understanding by
occasionally restating the gist of their idea or by asking a question, which proves
you, know the main idea. The important point is not to repeat what they've said
to prove you were listening, but to prove you understand. The difference in these
two intentions transmits remarkably different messages when you are
Prove respect: Prove you take other views seriously. It seldom helps to tell
people, "I appreciate your position" or "I know how you feel." You have to prove
it by being willing to communicate with others at their level of understanding
and attitude. We do this naturally by adjusting our tone of vice, rate of speech
and choice of words to show that we are trying to imagine being where they are
at the moment.
Nonverbal messages communicate emotions
It forms the bulk of our communication. Most of that communication is about
emotional information, which in turn is a powerful motivator in human behavior.
We base our feelings and emotional responses not so much upon what another
person says, but upon what another person does.
Because of nonverbal communication, you cannot not communicate
The very attempt to mask one's communication communicates something in and of
itself. If you are playing poker with someone who has been talking normally, but
who suddenly stops talking and goes "stone-faced," that person has communicated
something. It may be a very good hand, or a very bad hand, but at the least the
poker player has communicated a desire to hide what is there. Long periods of
silence at the supper table communicate as clearly as any words that something may
Nonverbal communication is strongly related to verbal communication
Nonverbal cues substitute for, contradict, emphasize, or regulate verbal messages.
For instance, if someone asks us which way the restroom is, we may simply point
down the hall. We may compliment someone's new haircut while our faces give
away the real feeling of dismay we have. We may describe a fish we caught with a
motion of our hands to emphasize the monster-like proportions. And most certainly
we regulate the flow of conversation nonverbally by raising an index finger, nodding
and leaning forward, raising eyebrows, and/ or changing eye contact.
Problems of studying nonverbal communication
Studying nonverbal communication presents a whole range of challenges that are
unique to its nature. They include:
Nonverbal cues can be ambiguous
No dictionary can accurately classify them. Their meaning varies not only by culture
and context, but by degree of intention, i.e., you may not be intending to
communicate (in the absence of nerve disorders, people seldom talk out loud when
they don't intend to). A random gesture may be assumed to have meaning when
none at all was intended. Plus, some people who may feel emotion strongly
nevertheless find that their bodies simply do not respond appropriately, i.e.,
someone who is feeling happy may not necessarily smile.
Nonverbal cues are continuous
This is practically related to the last point. It is possible to stop talking, but it is
generally not possible to stop nonverbal cues. Also, spoken language has a structure
that makes it easier to tell when a subject has changed, for instance, or to analyze its
grammar. Nonverbal does not lend itself to this kind of analysis.
Nonverbal cues are multichannel
While watching someone's eyes, you may miss something significant in a hand
gesture. Everything is happening at once, and therefore it may be confusing to try to
keep up with everything. Most of us simply do not do so, at least not consciously.
This has both advantages and disadvantages. Because we interpret nonverbal cues
subconsciously and in a "right-brained", holistic fashion, it can happen quickly and
fairly accurately. However, because it is not conscious and more "right-brained" it is
difficult to put one's finger on exactly why one got a certain impression from
someone, or even to put it into "left-brained" wording.
Nonverbal cues are culture-bound
Evidence suggests that humans of all cultures smile when happy and frown when
unhappy. A few other gestures seem to be universal. However, most nonverbal
symbols seem to be even further disconnected from any "essential meaning" than
verbal symbols. Gestures seen as positive in one culture (like the thumbs-up gesture
in the USA) may be seen as obscene in another culture.
Categories of nonverbal communications
The major categories of nonverbal communications include the following:
Personal Space: This category refers to the distance which people feel comfortable
approaching others or having others approach them. People from certain countries,
such as parts of Latin America or the Middle East often feel comfortable standing
closer to each other, while persons of Northern European descent tend to prefer a
relatively greater distance. Different distances are also intuitively assigned for
situations involving intimate relations, ordinary personal relationships (e.g., friends),
social relations (e.g., co-workers or salespeople), or in public places (e.g., in parks,
restaurants, or on the street.)
Eye Contact: This rich dimension speaks volumes. The Spanish woman in the
Nineteenth Century combined eye language with the aid of a fan to say what was
not permissible to express explicitly. Eye contact modifies the meaning of other
nonverbal behaviors. For example, people on elevators or crowds can adjust their
sense of personal space if they agree to limit eye contact. What happens if this
convention isn't followed? This issue of eye contact is another important aspect of
Modern American business culture values a fair degree of eye contact in
interpersonal relations, and looking away is sensed as avoidance or even
deviousness. However, some cultures raise children to minimize eye contact,
especially with authority figures, lest one be perceived as arrogant or "uppity."
When cultures interact, this inhibition of gaze may be misinterpreted as "passive
aggressive" or worse.
Position: The position one takes vis-a-vis the other(s), along with the previous two
categories of distance between people and angle of eye contact all are subsumed
under a more general category of "proxemics" in the writings on nonverbal
Posture: A person's bodily stance communicates a rich variety of messages.
Paralanguage: "Non-lexical" vocal communications may be considered a type of
nonverbal communication, in its broadest sense, as it can suggest many emotional
nuances. This category includes a number of sub-categories: Inflection (rising,
falling, flat...) Pacing (rapid, slow, measured, changing...) Intensity (loud, soft,
breathy,...) Tone (nasal, operatic, growling, wheedling, whining...) Pitch (high,
medium, low, changes...) Pauses (meaningful, disorganized, shy, hesitant...)]
Facial Expression: The face is more highly developed as an organ of expression in
humans than any other animal. Some of these become quite habitual, almost fixed
into the chronic muscular structure of the face. For instance, in some parts of the
South, the regional pattern of holding the jaw tight creates a slight bulge in the
temples due to an overgrowth or "hypertrophy" of those jaw muscles that arise in
that area. This creates a characteristic appearance. The squint of people who live a lot
in the sun is another example. More transient expressions often reveal feelings that a
person is not intending to communicate or even aware of.
Gesture: There are many kinds of gestures: the different gestures have many
different meanings in different cultures, and what may be friendly in one country or
region can be an insult in another .
Touch: How one person touches another communicates a great deal of information:
Is a grip gentle or firm, and does one hold the other person on the back of the upper
arm, on the shoulder, or in the middle of the back. Is the gesture a push or a tug? Is
the touch closer to a pat, a rub, or a grabbing? People have different areas of
personal intimacy, and this refers not only to the sexual dimension, but also the
dimension of self-control. Many adolescents are particularly sensitive to any
touching that could be interpreted as patronizing or undue familiarity. Even the
angle of one's holding another's hand might suggest a hurrying or coercive implicit
attitude, or on the other hand, a respectful, gentle, permission-giving approach.
Locomotion: The style of physical movement in space also communicates a great
deal, as well as affecting the feelings of the person doing the moving. A related
variable is the time it takes to react to a stimulus, called "latency of response." Some
people seem to react to questions, interact in conversations, or are slower or faster
"on the uptake" than others.
Adornment: Our communications are also affected by a variety of other variables,
such as clothes, makeup, and accessories. These offer signals relating to context (e.g.
formal vs. informal), status, and individuality. The ways people carry cigarettes,
pipes, canes, or relate to their belts, suspenders, or glasses also suggests different
semiotic meanings. (Semiotics is the science of the emotional or psychological impact
of signs, appearances-not words-that's "semantics"-- but of how things look.).
Context: While this category is not actually a mode of nonverbal communication, the
setting up of a room or how one places oneself in that room is a powerfully
suggestive action. Where one sits in the group is often useful in diagnosing that
person's attitude toward the situation. Group leaders need to be especially alert to
the way the group room is organized.
Physiological Responses: This, too, is an exceptional category, because it cannot be
practiced voluntarily. Still, it's useful for therapists and group members to become
more aware of these subtle signs of emotion. It often helps to comment on these
observations, as it implicitly gives permission to the person experiencing the
emotion to more fully open to that feeling; or, sometimes, to more actively suppress
it. Either way, the existence of that signal is made explicit in the group process.
INTERPRETING NONVERBAL CUES
Immediacy cues communicate liking and pleasure. We move toward persons and
things we like and avoid or move away from those we dislike. Generally, we
instinctively decide whether we like someone or not and then later find "reasons" to
back up our feelings. We can summarize the nonverbal behaviors then by saying
that cues that move or lean or otherwise open up or go toward the other person
Cues that fall in this dimension include eye contact, mutual eye contact, touching,
leaning forward, and touching.
Arousal in this usage is similar to animation. That is, when we are interested in
communicating with someone else, we tend to be more animated. A flat tone of
voice and very little movement indicate a lack of interest.
Cues that fall in this dimension include eye contact, varied vocal cues, animated
facial expressions, leaning forward, movement in general.
These cues indicate something about the balance of power in a relationship. They
communicate information about relative or perceived status, position, and
For instance, a person of high status tends to have a relaxed body posture when
interacting with a person of lower status. High-status people tend to have more
space around them, such as bigger offices, and more "barriers" such as more
hallways, doors, and gatekeepers such as secretaries.
Furniture, clothing, and location also tend to communicate in this dimension.
IMPROVING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Don't try to interpret cues isolated from other such cues, from the verbal
communication, or from the physical or emotional context. As we've said in class,
someone's arms being crossed may indicate nothing more than physical discomfort
from a cold room.
Look for clusters
This is the nonverbal context itself. See if the arms being crossed are accompanied by
a resistance to eye contact and a flat tone of voice.
Consider past experience
We can more accurately interpret the behavior of people we know. For one thing, we
notice changes in behavior more than the behavior itself. Unless we know someone,
we can't know that something has changed. For another thing, we interpret patterns
of behavior. Your mother may always cry when you come home from school with an
A, and so you learn that this represent happiness in that particular situation.
Practice perception checking
This is basically the art of asking questions. For instance, you come home and
announce to your significant other that you have received a great promotion that
requires you to move to another state. Your announcement is met with silence.
Rather than assume that s/he is upset, ask, "Does your silence mean that you're
opposed to the move?" You may find out that s/he is simply stunned at the
opportunity. Recognize that you are interpreting observed behavior, not reading a
mind, and check out your observation.
SIX WAYS TO IMPROVE YOUR NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
It is not only what you say in the classroom that is important, but it's how you say it
that can make the difference to students. Nonverbal messages are an essential
component of communication. Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore
• Eye contact
• Facial expressions
Posture and body orientation
Eye contact, an important channel of interpersonal communication, helps regulate
the flow of communication. And it signals interest in others. Furthermore, eye
contact with audiences increases the speaker's credibility. Teachers who make eye
contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth and
Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:
Thus, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm
and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and students will react favorably and
If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and
unanimated. A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention,
makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of
Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and
indicate that you are listening.
Posture and body orientation:
You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit.
Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students
that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Furthermore, interpersonal
closeness results when you and your students face each other. Speaking with your
back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates
disinterest to your class.
Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with students. You
should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading students' space. Some of
• Leg swinging
• Gaze aversion
Typically, in large college classes space invasion is not a problem. In fact, there is
usually too much distance. To counteract this, move around the classroom to
increase interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to make
better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak.
This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as
For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice.
One of the major criticisms is of instructors who speak in a monotone. Listeners
perceive these instructors as boring and dull. Students report that they learn less and
lose interest more quickly when listening to teachers who have not learned to
modulate their voices.
Humor is often overlooked as a teaching tool, and it is too often not encouraged in
college classrooms. Laughter releases stress and tension for both instructor and
You should develop the ability to laugh at yourself and encourage students to do the
same. It fosters a friendly environment that facilitates learning.
Obviously, adequate knowledge of the subject matter is crucial to your success;
however, it's not the only crucial element. Creating a climate that facilitates learning
and retention demands good nonverbal and verbal skills. To improve your
nonverbal skills, record your speaking on video tape. Then ask a colleague in
communications to suggest refinements.
EFFECT OF CULTURE ON BUSINESS
Responding effectively to different cultures when preparing for business
communication is a key business survival strategy in a global economy, and
permeates nearly all aspects of business afterward. Culture affects all areas of
business communications, including contract negotiations, production
operations, product sourcing, marketing campaigns and human resources
Definition of Culture
Culture is a set of attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and customs. Members of a
community teach one another these learned cultural cues so that it becomes an
ingrained, accepted part of their society. Common cultural elements include
social structure, language, religion and communication. Beliefs about the role
of business and how business activities should be carried out fall into this
understanding of culture, since business partners interact within their own
cultural context. Examples of cultural preferences in business might include
the pacing of negotiations, level of formality between business partners and
subtle versus direct conversation about money.
Modern technology, including the Internet, telephones, fax machines and cell
phones, has facilitated more rapid communication between businesses around
the world. While this greatly expands a business‘s opportunity for growth and
profitability, it does increase the chance that a communication misstep can
result in an offended client or business partner. Such miscommunications can
lead to the loss of partnerships and millions, if not billions, of dollars.
Culture in Business
Culture affects the way people think about business in their own society. An
awareness of cultural attitudes toward business will help you communicate
efficiently and effectively when working with people from other cultures. For
example, Asian cultures, including Japan and China, promote teamwork and
cooperation in business environments while Western businesses promote
individual action and responsibility. Understanding these values will help
you to create an effective communication strategy with partners from these
Effects on Communication
Culture directly affects business communication, both verbal and nonverbal.
Some cultures, including Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, place
high significance to the words actually spoken. Other cultures, including
Japan and Arab cultures, still place significance on the spoken word, but also
place great significance on the context of the conversation. Silence carries
significance in all cultures, and this might be interpreted in different ways
during cross-cultural business meetings.
Ignoring culture in business communication can lead to problems and
communication disruptions. Internal business communication can be
disrupted or misinterpreted if workers don‘t share the same understanding of
goals, expectations and processes. Understanding a culture can help
businesses anticipate potential challenges or barriers in the adoption of new
policies or processes before efforts break down. For example, some business
cultures may thrive in an exchange and dialogue-based communication
system while other cultures (for example, Japanese and Arab cultures) rely
more heavily on subtext. If new information or ideas are suddenly imposed
on employees accustomed to a more collaborative work culture, there may be
a lack of buy-in and the project will fail.
Some businesses may choose to pursue professional training in business
communication with an emphasis on cultural understanding. For example, the
Global Business Communication training program offered by the University
of Colorado includes training on cross-cultural awareness for international
communication skills and practice sustainable business communication skills.
The Role of Culture & Communication in Business
Culture is a shared set of values and perceptions -- and a very powerful
concept. Culture can be limited to small groups, such as an office or a
company, or it can be wide enough to span continents as is the case when
people refer to "Western Culture," which encompasses the commonalities of
numerous nations. Each individual runs into culture in our towns, regions,
nations, ethnic backgrounds and of course, work. Business intersects with
culture at many junctures and a smart businessperson considers all of these
when making important decisions.
America is a country of immigrants. As such, people of widely varied races
and ethnic backgrounds form the modern workforce. While America certainly
has elements of an overarching American culture, it is equally characterizes by
the variations of its various ethnicities and subcultures. Employers and
employees must respect the cultural variations, and the different perceptions
and human needs they create. This ranges from being sensitive when
discussing religion, culture and politics to being thoughtful about scheduling
and allowing for people's time off to accommodate their holidays and
celebrations. It also includes working with people for whom English may not
be a first language and trying to help them succeed in your workplace.
Every company has a culture and they are far from uniform. When dealing
with clients, vendors and business partners, you have to consider the
company culture when addressing its representatives. For example, your
office may be small, relaxed and friendly, but your client's culture may be
very formal and traditional. Starting an email with a "Hey, Bob..." could be
seen very poorly. Similarly, when making a sales pitch, a strong emphasis on
personalities and understanding may not go over well with a formal
accompanied with written reports will get you further.
Company cultures give everyone in the organization a common platform and
approach for their work. The shared outlooks of a company's culture
determine employees' attitudes, effectiveness and sense of team. Some
cultures develop around the way a company works, and other times, leaders
work to shape and implement a company culture. Creating a strong and
effective company culture stems largely from the communication strategies of
owners and top management. Companies who want a creative and proactive
company culture not only have to communicate this to employees, but to
reinforce it in their daily communication styles. For example, managers of
empowered company cultures often say things like, "Great thinking -- can you
take the lead on implementing that?", "How would you solve this problem?"
and "I'd like you to come up with three great ideas and come show them to
Culture And Marketing
When companies interact with their customer bases, they have to consider
that not every market works the same way. The marketing and sales
approaches that work in an upscale suburb might be completely ineffective
and even inappropriate to an inner-city area with ethnic minorities or a rural
area with a different socio-economic composition. Particularly in retail sectors,
companies have to construct their marketing and communication strategies to
be culturally sensitive and appealing to a numerous ethnic groups and
demographics. This may include using Spanish billboards in some areas
orChinese signage in stores in other areas as well as changing certain stores'
product mixes to meet the needs and tastes of the local populations.
Working with overseas clients, business partners, vendors and offices means
understanding the cultures with which you're working. To sell effectively or
create a strong working platform, you have to make sure good
communication is actually occurring and communication only occurs when
both parties reach a common understanding. When meeting with foreign
clients, be sure to develop presentations that mesh with their business culture.
Also be prepared to interact in a way that shows respect for their ways of
doing business. Effective international communication usually involves some
careful preparation by studying a culture as well as a lot of face-to-face
communication, which may include video conferences
MANAGING ORGANIZATION COMMUNICATION
FORMAL COMMUNICATION: Formal communication as the very name implies is
the deliberately created officially prescribed path for flow communication between
the various positions of in the organization. It is deliberate attempt to regulate the
flow of organizational communication so as to make it orderly and there by to
ensure that information flows smoothly. The officially prescribed communication
network may be designed on the basis of a single channel or multiple channels as
a)SINGLE CHAIN: Single chain communication network exists between a superior
and his subordinate since these may be a number of levels in an organization, each
individual within those levels is both Superior as well as subordinate except the
person at the top or bottom. Communication flows downward or upward through
each successive level. Communication flow through a chain may be orderly and easy
to control but is very time consuming. Often we find such a communication network
in bureaucratic organizations.
b) WHEEL: In wheel network all subordinate under one superior communicate
through him only as he is the hub of the wheel. They are not allowed to
communication among themselves. Thus there is no horizontal communication. In
this network, problem of co-ordination is the main drawback.
c) CIRCULAR: In circle network, the communication moves in a circle each person
With his adjoining two persons. In this network, communication flow is slow.
d) FREE FLOW: In this network, each person can communicate with others freely. In
this network, Communication flow infact but problem of coordination exists. This is
followed in free-form organization or in tasks force.
e)INVERTED-V: In this network, an individual is also to communicate with his
immediate superior as well as his superiors superior. In this case the subject matter
of communication is prescribe.
In each a network communication travels faster.
INFORMAL COMMUINICATION/GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION
The informal channels of communication also known as 'grapevine' is the result of
any official action, but of the operation of social forces at workplace. The term
'grapevine' arose during the day of U.S. civil war. At that time intelligence telephone
lines were string loosely from tree in a manner of grapevine and the message there
on was often disorted, hence any rumour was said to be from the grapevine. To day
the term applies to all informal communication while formal communication is the
method by which people carry on social, non-programmed activities within the
formal boundaries of the system.
Grapevine is more active when:
There is high organizational excitement such as policy changes, like
automation, computerization etc. or personnel changes.
The information is new rather state.
People are physically located close enough to communicate with one another.
People cluster in groups along the grapevine, that is they have trust among
GRAPEVINE NETWORK: There are fewer types of pattern through which
grapevine travels, they are.
a) Single Stand: In single stand network, the individual communication with other
individuals through intervening persons.
b) GOSSIP: In probability network, the individual communicates randomly with
other individual according to the law of probability.
c) PROBABILITY: In probability network, the individual communicate randomly
with other individual according to the law of probability.
d) CLUSTER: In cluster network, the individual communicates with only those
individual whom he trust out of these information networks, the cluster is the most
ACCURACY IN GRAPEVINE
Usually there is a perception that grapevine is inaccurate. This happens because
grapevine tends to be associated with rumor, another form of formal
communication, which more often tends to be in accurate. However contrary to this
perception, the accuracy level is very high in grapevine. Sometimes major portion of
grapevine may be true but inaccurate part may make the whole grape wise meaning
INTRA- PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Jntrapersonal communication is
individual and personal communication where the process take place within an
individual. An individual may be isolated from others by not communicating but
cannot stop communicating with himself or herself continuously. It is a common
practice that before communicating with others an individual communicates with
him to understand and estimate the action of the receiver.
The way we talk to over selves and the way we use language has much to do withy
our happiness, our relationship with others and our success. We talk to our selves,
more than any body else because our thought race to about 400 words per minute. It
is virtually impossible to shut off our national conversation. India personal
communication depends on the persons age, psychological maturity, nature of
personality, external environment, psychologist and doctors first that everybody
should spare time to concentrate on them, in the form of meditation.
India communication is the most significant part of human life it refers and guides
mans regular life and influences his behavior with others. It helps to become more
aware of themselves which is essential for effective.
INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION: It is the next io Intra personal
communication in which the communication process between persons, take the form
of conversation otherwise known face-face, communication people at home, at the
workplace, in public gathering within enquires and topics of mutual interest, Inter
personal communication result from human bonds, may be among family members,
colleagues, social relations, neighbor, per group etc. Inter personnel relations,
provide basic frame work for building human relations and a strong society,, work
environment and conflicts free organization. This concept of interpersonal relations
and different models of it such fact to face conversation, telephone conversation etc.
Exchange theory provides a conceptual frame work by considering what is being
exchanged in interpersonal relations. This concept holds that interpersonal motives
depend on the reward value gained from the relationship and that individuals
involved in a relations need to feel that each is contributing equally i.e. other
rewards are equal to what is given. If over a period of time one person feels he or she
is contributing too much or too little to a relationship that person-is likely to
discontinue-that relationship. In this theory, one was view interpersonal acts as
commodities to be exchanged. Such commodities would include information,
expertise, status and love, as well as money.
Example: If A invites B to dinner, B my attempt to repay A's effort and expense by
unferring status on A. This might take the form of thanking A and remarking about
the excellent food and perhaps asking for the recipe in order to show how pleased B
was with the dinner. Eventually however B may need to reciprocate in some manner
perhaps by asking A to dinner.
Example: A manager allow his or her subordinate to break some company rules of
little consequence like taking unactivised break if they above completed a job. When
a comes up where a little extra effort is needed from - the workers, the manager is in
a position to ask them for extra effort since they have received something from the
manager in exchange.
JOHARI WINDOW - MODEL FRONTIER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION:
The 'Johari window' is a theoretical conceptualization developed by 'Joe Luft (1961).
We use it here as a focus of our discussion on the information from between two
persons. Imagine window frame. Inside the frames everything there is to know
about you i.e. your opinions feelings, likes and dislikes, goals, needs etc.
not aware of everything about yourself. You learn more about yourself all the time.
Others with whom you have relationships do not have full knowledge of you either.
The Johari window is a model for examining those areas of a person which are
known and those areas which are not known to the person and others. The johari
window divides knowledge about an individual into four areas according to the
degree of self-knowledge other have of the individuals.
AREAS FO THE JOHARI WINDOW
The 'ARENA' is those aspects of a person of which both the individual and others
are aware. This might be termed as 'open area'. It represents the image are presents
to other. One's arena is often largely defined by the role and activities one pursues.
The second area the "BUND SPOT' area might better be walled the 'bad-breath area'.
This is the area where one is unaware oneself though others are aware. The third
area is 'facade' this area has to do with a persons few troubles, negative, feelings
about self etc. which the person is afraid to show others for fear they might him or
her. Finally the fourth part of an individual that which is completely unknown i.e.
"unknown area" part of an individual that which is completely unknown i.e.
"unknown area" part of the person has not been revealed because the person has not
put himself or herself in situations of reveal it. For example: If one has been under
extreme stress, how one would react under extreme stress is unknown both to
oneself and others.
These four areas are inter related and mav chonped in size in the process of
interpersonal relations and personal growth.
Transactional Analysis provides a useful framework for focusing attention on how
exchanges take place.
Bune (1964) suggests that there are three basic ways that individual use to relate to
others. These modes of behavior are called the parent, the Adult and Child Sine they
are roughly analogous to these roles.
PARENT EGO STATE: The parent mode of communication is learned from one's
parents people record the attitudes, values and moral of their parents during their
childhood at a time when they one in no position to question or evaluate their
parents idea. Young children observe their parents behavior how the parents relate
to them etc. When situations arise which touch on one's parent, the parent ego state
is likely to be activated. It is generally easy to recognize parent communication. If the
tone of voice is moralistic, if the person shakes a finger at the listener, if authority is
used instead of reasoning and if the speed is sprinkled with "shoulder" it is very
likely the parent that is also may over whelm the adult.
ADULT EGO STATE: The adult ego state is that part of the individual which is
relating-oriented and problem-centered, the adult attempts to take differs
experiences as data and rationally deal with them. The objective of the maturing
individual in transactional analysis terms is to free oneself both form the Childs
feelings of helplessness an dependency and the parents edicts which over everything
from sex to work.
Perhaps the best indicator of the Adult state is the ability to cope responsibility with
stress. As we shall see later most peoples adult are contaminated with child and/or
parent ego states so that often what seems to be an adult communication
(reasonable, responsible etc) may infact also contain child or parent message.
CHILD EGO STATE: The child ego state contains ail the impulse that can naturally
to a young child. It also contains the memories of childhood experiences and how
one respond to them. The child has experienced situations where the individual was
helpless and dependent, which may have led the child to conclude that he or she is
not satisfied or comfortable. The child also contains the playfulness and curiosity
that are so obviously a part of the young child life. Characteristics of the child which
are easily recognized are rebelliousness, curiosity, playfulness etc.
The Adult is the only ego state which is interested in and receptive to information.
The child is primarily interested in fulfilling the wants. If sender message in an
attempt to convey its needs. The parent assume role of the sender in presenting its
controlling message. It is the adult which receiving processes and feed back
information in an attempt to understand the other person.
Basic Interpersonal International
UNIT - III
As we tend to see, managers who are so strongly, focused on the task and the
achievement of company objectives as prescribed by the external system that they
are largely unaware of these intrapersonal variables. The unaware managers are
likely to view ideas concerning motivation as pointing the ways to get the
subordinate to perform at a higher level. The implication for these managers is that
there is something that the manager can do which will "magically" get the
subordinates to produce like crazy because the subordinate now want to achieve the
company objectives. That is when many managers speaks of motivating subordinate
they really mean changing the subordinates motives, while changing the motivation
of others is possible, it is difficult to receive of such change as these managers have
in mind unless they have much great control over the environment of the
It is much feasible for managers to understand the subordinate presents motives
gather than to change their motives. If managers understand subordinates motives
and accepts them as un changeable they may be able to influence the behavior of the
subordinates. The integration of individual and organizational objectives is one of
the primary issues manager in today world.
INTRA PERSONAL PERCEPTION UPON COMMUNICATION: When people are
unaware, they interact with others in ways which often lead to communication
breakdowns people guess from inference debut others motives. If these motives are
expressed in a confused way, they are likely to be misinterpreted. The
misinterpretation or in accurate perception can happen for a number of reasons.
First the same interpersonal act may be motivated by one of several different
motives. The impact of their personal act depends somewhat on how one perceives
the motivation underlying the act.
For example: If Jeo invited Fred his boss to dinner this might be interpreted by Fred
as an act of friendship or as paying or repaying a social obligation or it might be
interpreted by Fred as an attempt6 to influence him.
Second reason for inaccurate interpersonal perception is that the way the
interpersonal act is perceived which depends on the perceives as well as act.
Example: If Fred feels uncomfortable being close to other people have more likely to
treat the invitation to dinner as an attempt to influence his rather than as an
expression of positive feeling by Joe. If Fred is the type of person whose is concerned
about influencing and manipulating others, he is more likely to see others as trying
to manipulating him. We tend to interpret other peoples actions in term of our own
Third reason for in accurate interpersonal perception is that we tend to interpret
interpersonal actions in terms of our image or stereo type of the person with whom
we are interacting. We use the information of misinformation we have accumulate
about the group which that person.
Managing Motivation to influence inter personal communication: As we tend to
see, managers who are so strongly, focused on the task and the achievement of
company objectives as prescribed by the external system that they are largely
unaware of these intrapersonal variables. The unaware managers are likely to view
ideas concerning motivation as pointing the ways to get the subordinate to perform
at a higher level. The implication for these managers is that there is some thing that
the manager can do which will "magically" get the subordinates to produce like
crazy because the subordinate now want to achieve the company objectives. This is
when many managers speaks of motivating subordinate they really mean changing
the subordinates motives, while changing the motivation of others is possible, it is
difficult to receive of such a change as these managers have in mind unless they
have much great control over the environment of the subordinates.
It is much feasible for managers to understand the subordinates present motives
rather that to change their motives. If managers understand subordinates motives
and accepts them a as unchangeable, they may be able to influence the behavior of
the subordinates. The integration of individual and organizational objectives is one
of the primary issues manager in today world.
INTRA PERSONAL PERCEPTION UPON COMMUNICATION: When people are
unaware, they interact with others in ways which often lead to communication
breakdowns, people guess from inference about others motives. If these motives are
expressed in a confused way, they are likely to be misinterpreted. The
misinterpretation or in accurate perception was happen for a number of reasons.
First the same interpersonal act may be motivated by one of several different
motives. The impact of the interpersonal depends somewhat on how one perceives
the motivation underlying the act.
For Example: If Jeo invited Fred his boss to dinner this might be interpreted by Fred
as an act of friendship or as paying or repaying a social obligation or it might be
interpreted by Fred as an attempt to influence him.
Several reason for inaccurate interpersonal perception is that the way the
interpersonal is perceived which depends on the perceives as well as act.
Example: If Fred feels un comfortable being close to other people he is more likely to
treat the invitation to dinner as an attempt to influence him, rather than as an
expression of positive feeling by Joe. If Fred is the type of person who is concerned
about influencing and manipulation gathers, he is more likely to see others as trying
to manipulating him. We tend to interpret other peoples actions in term of our own
Third reason for inaccurate interpersonal perception is that we tend to interpret
interpersonal actions in terms of our image or stereo type of the person with whom
we are interacting we use the information of misinformation we have accumulate
about the group which that person belongs as means of interpreting his or her
motives. If we have stereotype of union members which says that all they want to do
is to avoid work, that they want to makes a lot of money without really contributing
to the compe. Then we will bend to interpret their actions in terms of this image.
Infact the image may be so strong that we will have to distort or ignore information
we have about the particulars union member with whom we are interacting, in order
to continue to perceive that person as our stereotype describes him or her.
Eventually as we continue to interact with the person, we may accumulate
enough information about him or her to force us to reject the stereotype, usually we
simply admit that we were wrong in assuming that the particular person involved fit
the stereotype. Rarely we do examine the validity of the stereotype.
ROLE OF EMOTIONS IN INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION:
Lack of awareness of emotion can lead to breakdowns in communication. This is
because feelings influence interpersonal perception and inter personal motives.
Infact the expression of any interpersonal communication reflects the individuals
feeling. If people are unaware of their feelings they are unaware of a significant
aspect of what they are communicating.
In addition to the fact that expressing feeling as they occur tends to reduce
irrationality and confusion the expression of ones feelings acts to bring other feelings
to consciousness. That is when we have repressed feelings for most as receives, there
are a lot of feelings which we have not expressed. When we express one, this
expression tends to bring others to awareness and there is a possibility of more
straight forward communication.
The identification and constructive use of negative emotions pose special
problems in interpretational communication they are - fear and anger.
FEAR IN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Fear is the anticipation of
physical or psychological pain. If one is paying attention to what might happen
rather than to what is presently happen one's ability to respond to the situation is
In order to understand how fear inhibits performance and development let us
examine a common fear provoking situations. A manager is afraid of making
presentation to committees or other groups. If the fear is great, the manager is likely
to perform poorly. The avoidance of a fear producing situation relieves the fear and
thus is rewarding. The only way of reducing the fear is by speaking to a group and
performing well. In that event the manager will be reinforced for this action and will
be less likely to avoid the situation. By speaking on numerous occasions, the
manners ability as a speaker should improve, yielding additional re-enforcement
and thus speaking to a group and decreasing fear.
Anger in interpersonal communication: The modern in our cultures and certainly in
the culture of business is to avoids the expression of anger or control ones anger.
This may be detrimental in many ways even in business. If the person cannot
directly express anger, it is likely to be expressed indirectly. The manager who is
angry at the boss but afraid to express this anger may take it out on a subordinate.
This is called displaced aggression, some may take it out on themselves. This is
especially true of people with low self confidence who tend to attribute relationship
problems to their own inadequacies. Being angry at oneself of course only
contributes to lower self-confidence. Finally the individual may simply internalize
anger. The failure express anger, however may increase tension to a point where it
effects task performance adversely. The danger with the expression of anger is not
that it will fail to have an impact on the listener, but that the listener may act in a
destructive or negative manner rather than attempt to constructively change the
anger producing situations.
A communication style might best defined as a specialized set of interpersonal
behaviors which are used in situation. The communication process describes in
elemental terms "what" take place when set of behaviors involved in the elemental
A communication style differs from a specific communication action in two
1. Each communication style represents a category of communication behaviors
which have related purpose and similar approaches.
2. A particular style will be used with consistency by a person for similar
There are six different types of communications styles.
1. The Controlling Style: The controlling style is one in which the communication
constrains and directs the actions or thought of others. The controlling style is
essentially one way, with any feedback being basically for the purpose of
classification, communicators using this style tend to permulate their ideas prior to
discussion and then gain the compliance of others. They do not like to consider
alternatives which others may propose. They persuade others by showing the
incentives which may give from a given course of action. They often engage in the
process of selling themselves and their status to others. By virtue of their power, the
communication tell others what the others will or will not do direct threats or
promises do not apply or are not effective such a communicator may manipulate the
receiver into the desired action. Since the disappointment that follows for the
receives usually damage future communication, manipulation is usually reserved
for short term relationship. Which we are using controlling style. We are taking the
parent role of transactional Analysis and inviting a child response on the part of the
person with whom we are communicating. The directive aspect of the management
process often walls for the use of the controlling style.
2.The Equalitarian Style: The equalitarian style is characterize a two way flow of
exchange in which the influence feedback and forth between people. Here the
communication does not assume personal superiority or expertise but receives
information as well as giving it. The communicator shows genuine interest in the
ideas of others. Decisions are often based upon a consensus rather than being
unilateral in nature. The atmospheric established by the equilibrium style is relaxed
and often information.
3. Structuring Style: The structuring style is used by the communication who is
oriented toward establishing order organization, scheduling and structure through
the communication process. This communicator influences others by discussing with
them the goals, standards, schedules, rules or procedures that seem to apply to the
situation. Structuring communications rarely involve the expression of strong
emotion. The communications usually are objective in nature.
4. The Dynamic Style: The dynamic style is employed by a communicator who is
highly active and aggressive.
The communication tends 1.0 be brief and to the
point. It is frank and open with an absence of evasion. The communications o- the
dynamic style are not deep and philosophical but are oriented to the pragmatic,
immediate problems confronted.
They rarely deal with plans or strategies of
the distant future. This approach to communication is more at home in the distant
future. This approach to communication is more at home in the fact moving business
than in the halls of the ivy-covered university.
5. The Relinquish Style: The relinquish style involve a subordination of ones
position to that of another person. The communicator defers to the desires of other
person. A communication takes a receptive rather than a directive position and
shows interest in the contributions of others. The communication shows preference
for a supporting role rather than for a directing one.
6. The With-drawal Style: The withdrawal style involves an avoid an interaction. It
is almost a mis representation to refer to the person using this pattern
Infact the users do not wish to communicate but prefer to
withdraw from others. They do not wish to influence others and prefer not to be
influenced. In a discussion withdrawal may take the form of diversionary tactics to
get away from the topic. The diversionary approaches may include joking about the
BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION
The problem of communication arises be causes there are various obstacles which
may entirely present a communication, filter part of it out or give it incorrect
meaning. These obstacles are knows as 'communication barriers'. They are discussed
under various groups as follows:
SEMAT1C BARRIERS: Semantics is the science of meanings as contrasted with
phonetics, the science of sounds. All communications are symbolic, that is these use
symbols (words, pictures, etc) that suggest certain meanings, semantic barriers arise
from limitations in the symbols with which we communicate.
1. Symbols with different meanings: Communication symbols usually have a
variety of meanings and we have to choose one meaning from many. In 500 most
common English words have an average of 28 definitions each. Moreover a
particular word may give contradictory meaning in different parts of the country.
2. Badly expressed message: Lack of clarity and precision in a message makes it
badly expressed. Poor chosen and empty words and phrases etc. are so common
faults found in this case.
3. Faulty translations: livery manager receiver various type of communication from
superior and he must translation information destined for subordinate, into
language suitable to each. Hence the message has to be put into words appropriate
to the framework in which the receiver operates or it must be accompanied by an
interpretation which be understood by the receiver. Here faulty translations to
impaired efficiency and heavy costs.
4.Unclassified assumptions: There are certain excommunicated assumptions which
under le practically all meanings. Though a message appears to be specific, its
underlying assumptions may not be clear to the receiver.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
An activity as complex as communication is bound to suffer from setbacks if
conditions contrary to the smooth functioning of the process emerge. They are
referred to as barriers because they create impediments in the progress of the
Identification of these barriers is extremely important. According to the role
observed by the two participants, let us categorize the barriers as:
Sender-oriented barriers could be voluntary or involuntary. At any cost, efforts
should be made on the part of the sender to identify and remove them. As the sender
is the originator of communication, he should be extremely careful not to erect
barriers. If his interaction gives rise to or indicates that there are barriers, the
communication comes to a grinding halt. Some of the barriers that are senderoriented are as follows:
Badly Expressed Message.
Not being well versed in the topic under discussion can create problems of this
nature. The sender may not be able to structure his ideas accurately and efficiently.
What he wishes to say and what he finally imparts may not be the same. The
discrepancy emerges as soon as the words are uttered. In fact, one of the important
criteria at the time of initializing a piece of communication is that ideas should be
concrete and the message should be well structured. The receiver should not feel
that the interaction is a waste of time. The moment this feeling crops up, the listener
totally switches off and thus ceases the process of effective communication.