Koppula. Chandra Sekher
QIS College of Engg .
Discusses cross-cultural communication as a process of
becoming aware of another culture's habits, actions and reasons
behind behaviors’; and explores low-context, high-context, front
stage and backstage cultures, along with the differences between
them. Basic principles (conversational, presentation and written)
are used to illustrate how cultures vary in communication style.
Examples of attitude, priorities and behaviors’ which are
influenced by culture are explained using factors of age, family,
money and material possessions, space, time, priorities and gifts.
A Study on
Cross cultural Communications
Mini Project Report in Managerial Communication Submitted to JNTU, Kakinada
in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of the Degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
(Reg. No. 13491E0037).
DEPARTMENT OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
QIS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
An ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institution and Accredited by NBA
(Affiliated to JNTU, Kakinada and Approved by AICTE)
Vengamukkapalem, Pondur Road
ONGOLE –523 272.
Need for the study
Scope of the study
Review of literature
Cross Cultural (geographic) barriers
Improving cross-cultural communication
Cross Cultural Communication
Discusses cross-cultural communication as a process of becoming aware of another culture's habits,
actions and reasons behind behaviors’; and explores low-context, high-context, front stage and backstage
cultures, along with the differences between them. Basic principles (conversational, presentation and
written) are used to illustrate how cultures vary in communication style. Examples of attitude, priorities
and behaviors’ which are influenced by culture are explained using factors of age, family, money and
material possessions, space, time, priorities and gifts.
Key words: Communications, Demographics, Lifestyles, National Cultures
Communicating across cultures can be a difficult experience. All successful communication
results from one person understanding the meaning and intention of what another person has
said. The skills associated with effective and rewarding cross-cultural communication can seem
elusive to many people who lack experience of this form of interaction. The information
contained in this fact sheet is designed to initiate and/or guide your cross-cultural experiences.
The resources and contacts listed are intended as a starting point for further learning.
Culture is a set of attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and customs. Members of a community teach one
another these learned cultural cues so that it becomes an ingrained, accepted part of their
society. Common cultural elements include social structure, language, religion and
communication. Beliefs about the role of business and how business activities should be carried
out fall into this understanding of culture, since business partners interact within their own
cultural context. Examples of cultural preferences in business might include the pacing of
negotiations, level of formality between business partners and subtle versus direct conversation
Need for the Study:
Assistance to achieve their potential including skill development, cultural adjustment, English language
proficiency, computer literacy, information literacy etc.;
Scope of the Study:
The process of adapting to or adopting a different culture. – refers to membership of a group linked by
race, nationality, language or a common cultural
To know that be complete, explicit and pay attention to the other person’s response.
Explain the alert for different meanings.
To Evaluate Examine Avoid metaphors, colloquialisms and jargon. Define any jargon
that you must use.
To Study Paraphrase and seek verification of understanding. Ask the listener to confirm
information or directions in their own words.
Review of literature:
Responding effectively to different cultures when preparing for business communication is a
key business survival strategy in a global economy, and permeates nearly all aspects of business
afterward. Culture affects all areas of business communications, including contract negotiations,
production operations, and product sourcing, marketing campaigns and human resources
Culture in Business
Culture affects the way people think about business in their own society. An awareness of
cultural attitudes toward business will help you communicate efficiently and effectively when
working with people from other cultures. For example, Asian cultures, including Japan and
China, promote teamwork and cooperation in business environments while Western businesses
promote individual action and responsibility. Understanding these values will help you to
create an effective communication strategy with partners from these regions.
Effects on Communication
Culture directly affects business communication, both verbal and nonverbal. Some cultures,
including Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, place high significance to the words
actually spoken. Other cultures, including Japan and Arab cultures, still place significance on
the spoken word, but also place great significance on the context of the conversation. Silence
carries significance in all cultures, and this might be interpreted in different ways during crosscultural business meetings.
Ignoring culture in business communication can lead to problems and communication
disruptions. Internal business communication can be disrupted or misinterpreted if workers
don’t share the same understanding of goals, expectations and processes. Understanding a
culture can help businesses anticipate potential challenges or barriers in the adoption of new
policies or processes before efforts break down. For example, some business cultures may thrive
in an exchange and dialogue-based communication system while other cultures (for example,
Japanese and Arab cultures) rely more heavily on subtext. If new information or ideas are
suddenly imposed on employees accustomed to a more collaborative work culture, there may
be a lack of buy-in and the project will fail.
Some businesses may choose to pursue professional training in business communication with
an emphasis on cultural understanding. For example, the Global Business Communication
training program offered by the University of Colorado includes training on cross-cultural
awareness for international business settings. Participants dissect cultural case studies, learn
communication skills and practice sustainable business communication skills.
The Role of Culture & Communication in Business
Culture is a shared set of values and perceptions -- and a very powerful concept. Culture can be
limited to small groups, such as an office or a company, or it can be wide enough to span
continents as is the case when people refer to "Western Culture," which encompasses the
commonalities of numerous nations. Each individual runs into culture in our towns, regions,
nations, ethnic backgrounds and of course, work. Business intersects with culture at many
junctures and a smart businessperson considers all of these when making important decisions.
America is a country of immigrants. As such, people of widely varied races and ethnic
backgrounds form the modern workforce. While America certainly has elements of an
overarching American culture, it is equally characterizes by the variations of its various
ethnicities and subcultures. Employers and employees must respect the cultural variations, and
the different perceptions and human needs they create. This ranges from being sensitive when
discussing religion, culture and politics to being thoughtful about scheduling and allowing for
people's time off to accommodate their holidays and celebrations. It also includes working with
people for whom English may not be a first language and trying to help them succeed in your
Every company has a culture and they are far from uniform. When dealing with clients,
vendors and business partners, you have to consider the company culture when addressing its
representatives. For example, your office may be small, relaxed and friendly, but your client's
culture may be very formal and traditional. Starting an email with a "Hey, Bob..." could be seen
very poorly. Similarly, when making a sales pitch, a strong emphasis on personalities and
understanding may not go over well with a formal company. Instead, a very well organized
PowerPoint presentation accompanied with written reports will get you further.
Culture And Marketing
When companies interact with their customer bases, they have to consider that not every
market works the same way. The marketing and sales approaches that work in an upscale
suburb might be completely ineffective and even inappropriate to an inner-city area with ethnic
minorities or a rural area with a different socio-economic composition. Particularly in retail
sectors, companies have to construct their marketing and communication strategies to be
culturally sensitive and appealing to a numerous ethnic groups and demographics. This may
include using Spanish billboards in some areas or Chinese signage in stores in other areas as
well as changing certain stores' product mixes to meet the needs and tastes of the local
Working with overseas clients, business partners, vendors and offices means understanding the
cultures with which you're working. To sell effectively or create a strong working platform, you
have to make sure good communication is actually occurring and communication only occurs
when both parties reach a common understanding. When meeting with foreign clients, be sure
to develop presentations that mesh with their business culture. Also be prepared to interact in a
way that shows respect for their ways of doing business. Effective international communication
usually involves some careful preparation by studying a culture as well as a lot of face-to-face
communication, which may include video conferences
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Managerial-Communication # References
Cross Cultural (geographic) barriers:
Culture is a shared set of values and attributes of a group; it is the sum total of the ways
Of living built up by a group and transmitted from one generation to another. Culture is so
Much a part of an individual's manner of talking, behaving and thinking, that communication
Style and competence are influenced by it.
Some of the significant differences between cultures are:
(a) National Character/ Basic Personality.
(c) Values and norms of behavior
(d) Social relationships
(e) Concepts of time
(f) Concepts of space
(g) Non verbal communication
Words, colors and symbols have different meanings in different cultures. For
In England, an invitation for dinner 8 pm would see most guests arriving at about 8.15; in
Germany punctually is king; in Greece, 9 to 9.30 might be the norm; in India Even laterif at all.
In most parts of the world nodding your head means agreement, shaking your head means
no-except in some parts of India, where the reverse is true.
When the Japanese say "Yes", they mean, "Yes, I am listening". The Americans May
take it to mean, "Yes, I agree".
Improving cross-cultural communication:
a. Enhance message clarity
b. Message content
c. Language clarity
d. Delivery style
Enhance message comprehension
Minimize communication breakdowns
Mastering Business Communication Woollcott& Unwind -, McMillan
Business Communication Raisher: - Aitbs
Business Communication - Vandana Khetarpal, MK Sehgal, Excel Books
In many cultures, it is not usual to ask questions of teachers and service providers. However,
when issues are raised, the expectations of both parties will often differ in relation to acceptable
outcomes and the level of concern displayed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Managerial-Communication # References.
Cross-cultural Communication Author(s):Phillip W. Balsmeier, Anita K. Heck Citation:
Phillip W. Balsmeier, Anita K. Heck, (1994) "Cross-cultural Communication", Cross
Cultural Management: An International Journal, Vol. 1 Iss: 2, pp.13 – 21
10.1108/eb010152 (Permanent URL)