The Dictionary
of Substances
and their Effects
Second Edition
The Dictionary
of Substances
and their Effects
Second Edition
EDITOR
S Gangolli, Consultant,MRC Toxicology Unit, UK
EDITOR...
PRODUCTIONTEAM
Ken Wilkinson (Staff Editor)
Richard Ellis
Sally Faint
JulieHetherington
Alan Skull
The publishers make no ...
Contents
Volume 1
Foreword
Introduction
Guide to Content
A-B Compounds
Abbreviations
Glossary of Medical and BiologicalTer...
Guide to Content
The data for each chemical in DOSE are organised as follows:
DOSE No.
Chemical name
Structure/ line formu...
Dose No.
Each of the 4123 compounds in DOSE is identified by a unique, sequential alphanumeric
DOSE No. For example,the fi...
Uses
Principal uses of the substances are given, with information on other significant uses in
industrial processes.
Occur...
The airborne limits of permitted concentrations of hazardous chemicals represent conditions
under which it is believed tha...
The threshold limit values for the USA have been taken from the Threshold Limit Values and
Biological Exposure Indices, 19...
approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for
supply [Chemicals(Hazard Inform...
Toxicity to other species
Toxicity to species other than mammals, birds, invertebrates and fish (e.g. reptiles,
amphibians...
Carbonaceousinhibition
Another major biogeochemical process is the recycling of carbon via the decomposition of
complex or...
Mammalian and avian toxicity
Studies on mammalian species are carried out to determine the potential toxicity of
substance...
Irritancy
Chemical substances which cause irritation (itching, inflammation)to skin, eye and mucous
membranes on immediate...
Legislation
Any form of legislation, medical (food and drugs) or environmental from European,
American and worldwide sourc...
Note
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)has only assessed published information in compiling
The Dictionary of Substances...
0 1 ochratoxin A
CI
C20H18C1N06 Mol. Wt. 403.82 CAS Registry No. 303-47-9
Synonyms (-)-ochratoxin A; (R)-N-[(5-chloro-3,4-...
Carcinogenicity and chronic effects
No adequate evidence for carcinogenicity to humans or animals, IARC classification gro...
Other effects
Other adverse effects (human)
The geographical distribution of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Bulgaria and th...
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
Klopman, G. et a1Mutat. Res. 1990,228, 1-50.
Ueno, Y. et a1Cancer Res. 197...
Environmentalfate
Abiotic removal
Estimated volatilisation tl/2 43 hr for model river water, 19.5days for model pond water...
0 3 1-0ctadecanethiol
C18H38S Mol. Wt. 286.57 CAS Registry No. 2885-00-9
Synonyms l-mercaptooctadecane; octadecylmercaptan...
Other effects
Other adverse effects (human)
Extremely destructive to tissue of the mucous membrane and upper respiratory t...
06 octafluoroisobutene
C4FS Mol. Wt. 200.03 CAS Registry No.382-21-8
Synonyms perfluoroisobutylene; octafluoro-sec-butene;...
07 octafluoropropane
C3F8 Mol. Wt. 188.02 CAS Registry No. 76-19-7
Synonyms Freon 218; Genetron 218; perfluoropropane; pro...
Environmental fate
Degradation studies
Biodegradability2.4% of ThOD in activated sludge in 24 hr (3).
Mammalian & avian to...
OccupationaI exposure
DE-MAK 500 pprn (2350mg m-3)
FR-VME 300 ppm (1450mg m-3)
JP-OEL300 ppm (1400mg m-3)
SE-LEVL200 pprn ...
Metabolism and toxicokinetics
Following inhalation, exposure of rats to 14C-octaneat concentrations up to 350 ppm for 2 hr...
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
S. 1. No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances)Regulations 1991,HMSO,...
011 tert-octanethiol
CgHMS Mol. Wt. 146.30 CAS Registry No.141-59-3
Synonyms tert-octyl mercaptan; 2,4,4-trirnethyl-2-pent...
Ecotoxicity
Fish toxicity
Not toxic to bluegill sunfish at saturated concentrations at ambient temperature (1).
LC50 (48hr...
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Dowden, B. E Proc. L. Acad. Sci. 1960,23,77....
Bioaccumulation
The calculated bioconcentration factor is 18-110(7).
Environmental fate
Nitrification inhibition
IC50 (25d...
Other comments
Residues have been identified in drinking water (25).
Used as a plant growth regulator in combination with ...
Physical properties
M. Pt. -38.6"C
Partitioncoefficient log Po, 2.90 Volatility v.p. 1mmHg at 32.8"C;v.den.4.49
Solubility...
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Lyman, W. K. et a1Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods Environmental Behaviou...
016 2-octanone
CH CH3
C8H160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 CAS Registry No. 111-13-7
Synonyms hexyl methyl ketone; methyl hexyl ketone
E...
Genotoxicity
SalrnoneIIa typhirnuriurn TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538without metabolic activation negative (10).
Esch...
018 I-octen-3-01
C8H160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 CAS Registry No. 3391-86-4
Synonyms amyl vinyl carbinol
EINECS NO.222-226-0
Uses A...
Physical properties
B. Pt. 120°Cat 0.01mmHg
Solubility Water: 500 mg 1-1 at 25°C. Organicsolvents:ethyl acetate,hexane, me...
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
The Agrochemicals Handbook 3rd ed., 1991,The Royal Societyof Chemistry, London, UK.
Corning, D. R. ...
Sensitisation
In vitro mouse lymphoma cells,DNA damage negative (polymer unspecified) (6),
Other effects
Other adverse eff...
Mammalian & avian toxicity
Acute data
LD50 oral mouse 2060 mg kg-1 (3).
Legis1ation
The log Po, value exceeds the European...
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Asilbekova, D. T. et a1Khirn. Prir. Soedin. 1985, (6),760-766 (Russ.)(Chern.Abstr. 104,203835q)....
Other effects
Any other adverse effects
Oestrogenic activity of 4-octylphenol was demonstrated in a number of in uitro ass...
Mammalian & avian toxicity
Acute data
LD50 oral rat 4.6 g kg-1 (3).
LegisIation
Included in Schedule 6 (Releaseinto Land: ...
p-estradiol, estriol or estrone were administered subcutaneously to intact 9 rats 48 hr before treatment with 7,12-
dimeth...
ox ofurace
NCOCH2CI
I
C14H16CIN03 Mol. Wt. 281.74 CAS Registry No. 58810-48-3
Synonyms (+)-(a)-2-chloro-N-2,6-xylylacetami...
Other effects
Any other adverse effects
When administered at 1-100mg kg-1 intraperitoneally to a"rats for 7 days, the comp...
Mammalian & avian toxicity
Acute data
LD50 oral rat 5 g kg-1 (2).
LD50 oral rabbit 5 g kg-1 (2).
LD50 intravenous rabbit 6...
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S
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The Dictionary of Substances and Their Effects (DOSE): Volume 06 O-S

  1. 1. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects Second Edition
  2. 2. The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects Second Edition EDITOR S Gangolli, Consultant,MRC Toxicology Unit, UK EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Dr D Anderson, BIBRA InternationaZ, UK Dr J Chadwick, Health and Safety Executive, UK Professor L Ebdon, University of Plymouth, UK Dr D Cammon, CuIzfornia €PA, USA Professor L King, University of’Surrey, UK Dr R McClellan, ChemicalIndustry Institute of Toxicology,USA Professor I Rowland, University of Ulster,UK Dr J Solb6, Unilever,UK Dr T Sugimura, National Cancer Centre,Japan Professor P van Bladeren, TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, The Netherlands RSeCAOVAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY
  3. 3. PRODUCTIONTEAM Ken Wilkinson (Staff Editor) Richard Ellis Sally Faint JulieHetherington Alan Skull The publishers make no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. Volume 6 ISBN 0-85404-833-2 Seven-volumeset ISBN 0-85404-803-0 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 0The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999 All rights reserved Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review as permitted under the terms of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in anyform or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of The Royal Society of Chemistry, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organisation outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to The Royal Society of Chemistry at the address printed on this page. Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 OWF, UK Typeset by Land & Unwin (DataSciences)Ltd, Bugbrooke, UK Printed and bound by Bookcraft (Bath)Ltd., UK
  4. 4. Contents Volume 1 Foreword Introduction Guide to Content A-B Compounds Abbreviations Glossary of Medical and BiologicalTerms Glossary of Organism Names Volume 2 Guide to Content C Compounds Volume 3 Guide to Content D Compounds Volume 4 Guide to Content E-J Compounds Volume 5 Guide to Content K-N Compounds Volume 6 Guide to Content 0-S Compounds Volume 7 Guide to Content T-2 Compounds Index of ChemicalNames and Synonyms Index of CAS Registry Numbers Index of Molecular Formulae vii ix xi 1-862 863-865 867-881 882-889 vii 1-865 vii 1-832 vii 1-892 vii 1-953 vii 1-952 vii 1-712 713-914 915-956 957-998
  5. 5. Guide to Content The data for each chemical in DOSE are organised as follows: DOSE No. Chemical name Structure/ line formula Molecular formula Molecular weight CASRegistry No. Synonyms EINECSNo. RTECS No. Uses Occurrence PhysicaI properties Melting point Boiling point Flash point Specific gravity Partition coefficient Volatility Solubility Occupational exposure Limit values UN number HAZCHEM code Conveyance classification Supply classification Risk phrases Safety,phrases Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity Invertebrate toxicity Toxicity to other species Bioaccumulation Environmentalfate Nitrification inhibition Carbonaceous inhibition Anaerobic effects Degradation studies Abiotic removal Adsorption and retention Mammalian and avian toxicity Acute data Sub-acuteand sub-chronic data Carcinogenicityand chronic effects Teratogenicity and reproductive effects Metabolism and toxicokinetics Irritancy Sensitisation Genotoxicity Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Any other adverse effects Legislation Other comments References These headings only appear in an item when data have been identified for that heading. The user can, therefore, assume that the absence of a heading means that no relevant data were retrieved from the sources examined. vii Guideto Content
  6. 6. Dose No. Each of the 4123 compounds in DOSE is identified by a unique, sequential alphanumeric DOSE No. For example,the first compound in DOSE, A-a-C,has DOSE No. AI;the last entry, zoxazolamine,has DOSE No. 225. Chemical name In general, the chemical name is the common name of the substance, for example nitrobenzene. If it is not possible to allocate a precise chemical name (i.e.if the substance is of unknown or variablecomposition,or consists of biological materials), a short phrase appears instead, for example chlorinated parafins (CI2,60%). Molecular formula This is the elemental composition of the compound. The elements appear alphabetically for inorganic compounds, i.e. Ag2C03, C12Cr, etc, but for organic compounds, carbon and hydrogen content are shown first followed by the other elements in alphabetical order, i.e. CbHsBr. Molecular weight This is directly calculated from the molecular formula. No molecular weights are given for polymers. CAS Registry No. The CAS Registry No. is a number sequence adopted by the Chemical Abstracts Service (American Chemical Society, Columbus, Ohio, USA) to uniquely identify specific chemical substances. The number contains no information relating to the chemical structure of a substance and is, in effect, a catalogue number relating to one of the millions of unique chemical substancesrecorded in the CASRegistry.New numbers are assigned sequentiallyto each new compound identified by Chemical Abstracts Service. This information is also provided in the full index of CASRegistry Numbers available at the end of Volume 7. Synonyms For common chemicals, several chemical names and numerous trade names may be applied to describe the chemical in question. Many of these names are identified to aid users on the range of names which have been used to describe each substance. EINECS No. This number is assigned by the European Commission to each record in the EINECS (European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances)inventory. The numbers are in the format XXX-XXX-X, for example,202-726-0 for nitrobenzene. RTECS No. The RTECS (Registryof Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances)number is a unique identifier assigned by NIOSH (NationalInstitute of OccupationalSafety and Health in the US) to every substance in the RTECS database. The number is in the format of two alphabetic characters followed by seven numeric characters,for example,D A 6475000for nitrobenzene. Guide to Content viii
  7. 7. Uses Principal uses of the substances are given, with information on other significant uses in industrial processes. Occurrence Natural occurrences,whether in plants, animals or fungi are reported. Physical properties Melting/Boiling point These data are derived from various sources. Flash point The flash point is the lowest temperature at which the vapours of a volatile combustible substance will sustain combustion in air when exposed to a flame. The flash point information is derived from various sources. Where possible the method of determination of the flash point is given. Specific gravity (density) The specific gravity of each substance has been derived from a variety of sources. Where possible the data have been standardised. Partition coefficient Partition coefficients, important for structure-activity relationship considerations, particularly in the aquatic environment, are indicated. Ideally the n-octanollwater partition coefficient is quoted. The major data source for this measurement is: Sangster,J J. Phys. Chem.Ref. Data 1989,18(3),1111-1229 Where no reference is quoted, it can be assumed that the information was derived from this source. VolatiIity The vapour pressure and vapour density are quoted where available. Where possible, the data have been standardised. Solubility Solubility data derived from several sources are quoted for both water and organic solvents where available. OccupationaI exposure Limit values This field contains the occupational exposure limit values (or threshold limit values) from France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, UK and USA. ix Guide to Content
  8. 8. The airborne limits of permitted concentrations of hazardous chemicals represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect. These limits are subject to periodic revision and vary between different countries. The term threshold limit relates primarily to the USA, but equivalent terms are available in most industrialised countries. The data relates to concentrations of substances expressed in parts per million (ppm)and milligrams per cubic meter (mgw - ~ ) . French exposure limits are published by the French Ministry in Charge of Labour and presented in the report Valeurs lirnites d'exposition professionneIZe aux agents chirniques en France (ND 1945-153-93).The values in DOSE have been taken from the 1998 edition. The FR-VLE values are short-term limits (15minutes), and FR-VME values are long-term limits (8hours). German data currently include the national MAK values where available. The MAK value (Maximale Arbeitsplatz-Konzentration) is defined as the maximum permissible concentration of a chemical compound present in the air within a working area which, according to current knowledge, does not impair the health of the employee or cause undue annoyance. Under those conditions, exposure can be repeated and of long duration over a daily period of eight hours, constituting an average working week of 40 hours. MAK values are published by the Geschaftsstelle der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bonn, in "Maximum Concentrations at the Workplace and Biological Tolerance Values for Working Materials." The values in DOSE have been taken from the 1998edition. Japanese exposure limits are those recommended by the Japanese Society of Occupational Health. Unless otherwise indicated, these values are long-term exposure limits (the mean exposure concentration at or below which adverse health effects caused by the substance do not appear in most workers, working 8 hours a day, 40 hours a week under a moderate workload).The values in DOSE were published in 1997. Swedish data can include short-term exposure limit, a level limit, or a ceiling limit. The values in DOSE were adopted in 1996. In the UK occupational limits relating to airborne substances hazardous to health are published by the Health and Safety Executive annually in Guidance Note EH40. The values in the DOSE items have been taken from the 1999edition. There are Maximum Exposure Limits (MEL)in the UK which are subject to regulation and which should not normally be exceeded. They derive from Regulations, Approved Codes of Practice, European Community Directives, or from the Health and Safety Commission. In addition, there are Occupational Exposure Standards (OES) which are considered to represent good practice and realistic criteria for the control of exposure. In an analogous fashion to the USA Threshold Limits, there are long-term limits, expressed as time-weighted average concentrations over an 8-hour working day, designed to protect workers against the effects of long-term exposure. The short-term exposure limit is for a time-weighted average of 15minutes. For those substances for which no short-term limit is listed, it is recommended that a figure of three times the long-term exposure limit averaged over a 15-minute period be used as a guideline for controlling exposure to short-term excursions. Guide to Content X
  9. 9. The threshold limit values for the USA have been taken from the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 1999 produced by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, USA. The limits relate to Threshold Limit - Time Weighted Average, Threshold Limit - Short Term Exposure Limit and Threshold Limit - Ceiling Limit. The Threshold.Limit Value - Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA)allows a time-weighted average concentration for a normal %hour working day and a 40-hour working week, to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day, without adverse effect.The Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) is defined as a 15-minute, time- weighted average which should not be exceeded at any time during a work day, even if the 8-hour time-weighted average is within the TLV. It is designed to protect workers from chemicals which may cause irritancy, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of sufficient degree to cause the likelihood of accidental injury. Many STELs have been deleted pending further toxicological assessment. With Threshold Limit - Ceiling Values (TLV-C)the concentration should not be exceeded during any part of the working day. UN number The United Nations Number is a four-figure code used to identify hazardous chemicals and is used for identification of chemicalstransported internationally by road, rail, sea and air. In the UK this number is also called the “SubstanceIdentification Number” or ”SINumber”. HAZCHEMcode The Hazchem Code is used to instruct United Kingdom emergency services on equipment, evacuation and other methods of dealing with transportation incidents. It is administered by the Chemical Industries Association. Conveyance classification The information presented for the transportation of substances dangerous for conveyance by road is derived from the UKs Approved Carriage List, Health and Safety Commission, UK. Supply classification The information presented for the supply of substances is derived from the UK’s Approved Supply List: information approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply [Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations 1999(CHIP99)*]Health and Safety Commission, UK. Risk and safety phrases Risk and safety phrases used in connection with DOSE items are approved phrases for describing the risks involved in the use of hazardous chemicals and have validity in the United Kingdom and throughout the countries of the European Community. The approved texts have designated R (Risk) and S (Safety)numbers from which it is possible to provide translations for all approved languages adopted by the European Community. The risk and safety phrases quoted in DOSE relate to the UK’s Approved Supply List: information *At the time of going to press the Health and Safety Commission,UK announced that an amendment (Amendment No. 2) to the CHIP 99 regulations is intended to come into force on 1January 2000. The supply classificationsand the risk and safety phrases reported in this edition of DOSE do not include any changeswhich are proposed in Amendment No. 2 to CHIP 99. These changes are incorporated in the updates to the electronicversions of DOSE released after 1January 2000. xi Guide to Content
  10. 10. approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply [Chemicals(Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations, 1999(CHIP99)]Health and Safety Commission, UK. The risk and safety phrases should be used to describe the hazards of chemicals on data sheets for use and supply; for labelling of containers, storage drums, tanks etc., and for labelling of articles specified as dangerous for conveyance by road. (Seealso footnote on page xi.) Ecotoxicity Information is presented on the effects of chemicals on various ecosystems. Results of studies carried out on aquatic species, primarily fish and invertebrates, but also fresh water and marine microorganisms and plants are reported. Persistence and potential for accumulation in the environment and any available information on the harmful effects to non-target species, i.e. the unintentional exposure of terrestrial and/or aquatic species to a toxic substance is given. Ecotoxicology can be defined as that science involved in the study of the production of harmful effects by substances entering the natural environment, especially effects on populations, communities and ecosystems; or as the study of the effects of chemicals on ecosystems and their non-human components. An essential part of the ecotoxicology is the assessment of movement of potentially toxic imbalance through environmental compartments and through food webs. Ecotoxicology, unlike human toxicology, is more concerned with the effects to populations than to individuals. Human toxicology is based on the extrapolation of data from many species to one species man, whereas ecotoxicology necessitates the extrapolation from a few speciesto many, or from limited field data to entire ecosystems. Ecotoxicology must not be confused with environmental toxicology which is the direct effects of environmental chemicals to humans. The term environmental toxicology should only be applied to the study of direct effects of environmental chemicals on human beings. Although the main thrust of preventative toxicology is in the area of human health, it is becoming increasinglyevident that human health is intimately connected with conditions in the natural environment. Chemicals released into the environment far from human habitation may become a health hazard for humans through food chain accumulation. Other chemicals may adversely affect crop growth or kill economically important fish stocks or bird life. Fishtoxicity LC50 values, with duration of exposure, are quoted for two species of freshwater and one marine species if available. Any additional information on bioassay type (static or flow through) and water condition (pH, temperature, hardness or oxygen content) is reported. Invertebrate toxicity LC50 values with duration of exposure, are quoted for molluscs and crustaceans. EC50 values, i.e. concentrations which will immobilise 50% of an exposed population, are given for microbes, algae and bacteria. Values which will inhibit microbial or algal growth are reported. Duration of exposure is given when available. Guide to Content xii
  11. 11. Toxicity to other species Toxicity to species other than mammals, birds, invertebrates and fish (e.g. reptiles, amphibians, plants, seaweeds), is reported here. LD50, LC50 and EC50 values are given with duration of exposure, concentration and as much supplementary information as possible. Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation, biomagnification and bioconcentration data are quoted primarily for fish, invertebrates, bacteria and algae. Bioaccumulation is the progressive increase in the amount of a chemical in an organism or part of an organism which occurs because the rate of intake exceeds the organism’s ability to remove the substance from its body. Bioconcentration is a process leading to a higher concentration of a chemical in an organism than in its environment. Lastly, biomagnification is a sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher concentrations are attained in organisms at higher trophic levels,i.e. at higher levels in the food chain. EnvironmentalFate Degradation data are used to assess the persistence of a chemical substance in the environment, in water, soil and air. If the substance does not persist, information on the degradation products is also desirable. Intermediates may be either harmless or toxic substances which will themselves persist. Degradation occurs via two major routes, microbial degradation utilising microorganisms from a variety of habitats and decomposition by chemical methods. Microbial degradation is associated with the production of elemental carbon, nitrogen and sulfur from complexmolecules. Standard biodegradation tests estimate the importance of microbial biodegradation as a persistence factor. Most tests use relatively dense microbial populations adapted to the compound being studied. Rapid degradation results in these tests implies that the compound will degrade under most environmental conditions, although specialised environments where degradation would not occur can exist. Compounds which are not readily degradable are likely to persist over a wide range of environmental situations. Chemical degradation processes include photolysis, hydrolysis, oxidation and removal by reversible/irreversible binding to sediment. Factors which influence degradation rates, such as duration of exposure, temperature, pH, salinity,concentrations of test substance, microbial populations, and other nutrients, must alsobe taken into account. Due care must also be given when metabolism results in the production of substances that are more toxic than their parents. Nitrification inhibition The nitrogen cycle is the major biogeochemical process in the production of nitrogen, an essential element contained in amino acids and proteins. Nitrogen is an essential element in microorganisms, higher plants and animals. Interference in the production of nitrogen from more complex molecules can be determined by standard tests using nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The degree of inhibition can be used to estimate the environmental impact of the test chemical. xiii Guide to Content
  12. 12. Carbonaceousinhibition Another major biogeochemical process is the recycling of carbon via the decomposition of complex organic matter by bacteria and fungi. In nature the process is important in the cycling of elements and nutrients in ecosystems. The degradation sequence occurs in stages, cellulose -+ cellobiose 3 glucose -+organic acids and carbon dioxide. Chemical inhibition of microbial processes at all or any of these stages is reported here. Anaerobic effects Anaerobic microbial degradation of organic compounds occurs in the absence of oxygen and is an important degradation process in both the natural environment and in waste treatment plants. Data on the effects of chemicals on anaerobic systems are reported here. An important method uses anaerobic digestion tests which compare the production of methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic microbes in a sludge sample with and without added test material. Methane production is at the end of the food chain process used by a wide range of anaerobic microorganisms. Degradation studies This section focuses on microbial degradation in both soil and water under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The half-life of the chemical substance in the environment is reported with its degradation products where possible, giving an indication of the degree of its persistence. Water pollution factors: BOD (biochemical/biological oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ThOD (theoretical oxygen demand) are stated, where available. BOD estimates the extent of natural purification which would occur if a substance were discharged into rivers, lakes or the sea. COD is a quicker chemical method for this determination which uses potassium dichromate or permanganate to establish the extent of oxidation likely to occur. ThOD measures the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water. When organic molecules contain other elements nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus, the ThOD depends on the final oxidation stage of these elements. Abiotic removal Information on chemical decomposition processes is contained in this section. The energy from the sun is able to break carbon-carbon, and carbon-hydrogen bonds, cause photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide and atomic oxygen and photolytically produce significant amounts of hydroxyl radicals. Hydrolysis occurs when a substance present in water is able to react with the hydrogen or hydroxyl ions of the water. Therefore the extent of photolytic and oxidative reactions occurring in the atmosphere and hydrolysis in water can be used as a measure of environmental pollution likely to arise from exposure to a substance. Removal by activated carbon is also reported. Adsorption and retention The environmental impact of a chemical substance is determined by its ability to move through the environment. This movement depends on the affinity of the chemical toward particulate matter: soil and sediment. Chemicalswhich have a high affinity for adsorption are less readily transported in the gaseous phase or in solution, and therefore can accumulate in a particular medium. Chemical substances which are not readily adsorbed are transported through soil, air and aquatic systems. Guide to Content xiv
  13. 13. Mammalian and avian toxicity Studies on mammalian species are carried out to determine the potential toxicity of substances to humans. Avian species are studied primarily to assess the environmental impact on the ecosystem,however data from avian studies are also used for assessing human toxicity.This is specifically applied to pesticides, with neurotoxicology studies. Procedures involve undertaking a series of established exposure studies on a particular substance using specific routes, oral, inhalation, dermal or injection for variable durations. Exposure durations include acute or single exposure to a given concentration of substance. Sub-acute or sub-chronic exposure, i.e. repeat doses over an intermediate time period, up to 4 weeks for sub-acute and 90 day/l3 week (in rodents) or 1 year (in dogs) for sub-chronic studies. Chronic/long-term studies involve exposure to specific concentrations of chemical for a duration of 18 month-2 years. A variety of species are used in toxicity testing, most commonly rodents (rats, mice, hamsters) and rabbits, but tests can also be carried out on monkeys, domestic animals and birds. Acute data Single exposure studies quoting LD50, LCLO,LDLo,TCLOand TDLOdata. Sub-acute and sub-chronicdata Results of repeat doses, intermediate duration studies are quoted. Priority is given to reporting the adverse effects on the gastro-intestinal, hepatic, circulatory, cardiopulmonary, immune, renal and central nervous systems. Carcinogenicityand chronic effects Information on the carcinogenicity of substances unequivocally proven to cause cancer in humans and laboratory animals, together with equivocal data from carcinogenicityassays in laboratory animals are reported. Additionally, treatment-related chronic adverse effects are reported. Criteria for inclusion required the study to report the species, duration of exposure, concentration and target organ(s);sex is also given where available. Teratogenicity and reproductive effects The results of studies carried out in intact animal and in vitro systems to determine the potential for teratogenic, foetotoxic and reproductive damage are reported here. Criteria for inclusion required the species, duration of exposure, concentration and details of the effect in relation to fertility to be stated. Adverse effects reported in this section include sexual organ dysfunction, developmental changes (to embryos and foetuses), malformations, increases in spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, impotence, menstrual disorders and neurotoxic effects on offspring. Metabolism and toxicokinetics Data are quoted on the metabolic fate of the substance in mammals, and includes adsorption, distribution, storage and excretion.Mechanisms of anabolic or catabolic metabolism, enzyme activation and half-lives within the body are reported when available. Additionally findings from in vitvo studies are reported. xv Guideto Content
  14. 14. Irritancy Chemical substances which cause irritation (itching, inflammation)to skin, eye and mucous membranes on immediate contact in either humans or experimental animals are reported here. Exposure can be intentional in human or animal experiments, or unintentional via exposure at work or accidentto humans. Sensitisation Sensitisation occurs where an initial accidental or intentional exposure to a large or small concentration of substance causes no reaction or irritant effects. However, repeat or prolonged exposure to even minute amounts of a sensitising chemical causes increasingly acute allergic reactions. Genotoxicity Genotoxicity testing is carried out to determine the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic potential of a chemical substance.A standard seriesof tests are carried out under controlled laboratory conditions on an established set of test organisms. A hierarchical system using bacteria, yeasts, cultured human and mammalian cells, in vivo cytogenetictests in mammals and plant genetics is used to assess the genotoxic potential of the substance under study. Bacteria, unlike mammals, lack the necessary oxidative enzyme systems for metabolising foreign compoundsto the electrophilicmetabolitescapable of reacting with DNA. Therefore,bacteria are treated with the substance under study in the presence of a post-mitochondial supernatant (S9) prepared from the livers of mammals (usually rats). This fraction is supplemented with essential co-factors to form the S9 mix necessary for activation. DOSE reports published studies: giving the test organisms, whether metabolic activation (S9) was required, and the result, positive or negative. Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Adverse effects to humans from single or repeat exposures to a substance are given. The section includes results of epidemiological studies, smaller less comprehensive studies of people exposed through their work environment and accidental exposure of a single, few or many individuals. Any other adverse effects Adverse effectsto organisms or animals other than man are reported here. Guide to Content xvi
  15. 15. Legislation Any form of legislation, medical (food and drugs) or environmental from European, American and worldwide sources is reported. Other comments All other relevant information, including chemical instability and incompatibility, reviews, phytotoxicity and toxic effectsassociated with impurities, is contained in this section. References Contains referencesto data from above sections. Indexes The most convenient means of accessing a chemical in DOSE is via one of the indexes at the back of Volume 7. DOSE contains three indexes:chemical name and synonyms, CAS Registry Numbers and molecular formulae. Index of chemical names and synonyms Contains the name of the chemical used in DOSE together with a number of synonyms for that chemical.All names are arranged alphabetically. Index of CAS RegistryNumbers Contains a list of the CAS Registry Numbers of the chemicals in DOSE in ascending order. This number is linked to the preferred DOSE name for that chemicaland its DOSE number. Index of molecularformulae Contains a list of the molecular formulae of the chemicals in DOSE in alphabetical order for inorganic compounds, i.e. AgZC03, C12Cr, etc., but for organic compounds, carbon and hydrogen content are shown first followed by the other elements in alphabetical order, i.e. C6H5Br. This number is linked to the preferred DOSE name for that chemical and its DOSE number. xvii Guide to Content
  16. 16. Note The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)has only assessed published information in compiling The Dictionary of Substances and their Effects. However, the RSC would welcome any relevant information on the chemicals that is not readily accessible, but in the public domain, for inclusion when the items in DOSE are updated. If you have any relevant information, please contact: Chemical Databank Production Royal Society of Chemistry Thomas Graham House SciencePark Cambridge CB4 OWF UK Telephone: +44 (0)1223420066 Fax: +44 (0)1223423429 Document Delivery The Library and Information Centre (LIC)of the RSC offers a Document Delivery Service for items in chemistry and related subjects. Contact: Library and Information Centre, the Royal Society of Chemistry, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1V OBN, UK. Telephone: +44 (0)2074378656 Fax: +44 (0)2072879798 Email:library@rsc.org Guide to Content xviii
  17. 17. 0 1 ochratoxin A CI C20H18C1N06 Mol. Wt. 403.82 CAS Registry No. 303-47-9 Synonyms (-)-ochratoxin A; (R)-N-[(5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-oxo-lH-2-benzopyran- 7-yl)carbonyl]phenylalanine;N-[[(3X-5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-0x0-7-isochromanyl]carbonyl]- 3-phenyl-~-alanine; (-)-N-[(5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methy1-l-oxo-7-isochromanyl)carbonyl]-3-phenylalanine EINECS NO.206-143-7 OccurrenceToxic metabolite produced by Aspergillus and Penicilliurn species. Residues have been identified in cereals and other foods and feeds of plant origin and some cured meats (1). RTECS No. AY 4375000 Physical properties M. Pt. 169°C Solubility Organic solvents: chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol, xylene Occupational exposure UN No. 3172 Ecotoxicity Invertebrate toxicity EC50 (15 min) Photobacterium phosphoreum 16ppm, Microtox test (2). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral duck, chicken, turkey, quail 0.3,3.3,5.9,16.5 mg kg-1, respectively (3-5). LD50 oral rat, mouse 20,46 mg kg-1, respectively (6,7). LD50 intraperitoneal rat, mouse 13/40mg kg-1, respectively (8). LD50 intravenous rat, mouse 13,30mg kg-1, respectively (8). In rats, mice, dogs and pigs both acute and chronic effects are localised to the kidney, in which necrosis of the proximal tubular epithelium occurs (9). Sub-acute and sub-chronic data Intramuscular chicken (24day) 0.25 or 0.5mg kg-1 day-1 for 10days induced an increase in urine flow rate, decreased urine osmolarity, increased excretion of sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, increased water consumption and faecal moisture, and caused a relative alkalosis when measured immediately after 10 days of administration. These effects were not observed 2 wk later (10). Oral dog (14day) 0.1 or 0.2 mg k g l day-1 caused necrosis of the lymphoid tissues in the lymph nodules of the ileum, colon and rectum (11). Oral rat (17day) 1mg kg-1 diet significantly decreased cytochrome P450in the kidney after 17days. This effect was not observed after 7 days treatment. Cytochrome P450 was not affected in the liver (12).
  18. 18. Carcinogenicity and chronic effects No adequate evidence for carcinogenicity to humans or animals, IARC classification group 3 (13). Oral mouse (49wk) 40 mg kg-1 diet for 44 wk. Hepatic-celltumours (well-differentiatedtrabecular adenomas) were found in 5/9 treated mice compared with 0/10 among controls.Hyperplastic liver nodules were found in 1/9 treated mice and 2/10 controls.Solid renal-celltumours occurred in 2/9 treated mice and 0/10 controls. Cysticadenomas of the kidney were found in cell-treatedmice and 0/10 controls (14). Subcutaneousmouse (81wk) 10pg animal-1 2 x wk-1 for 36 wk. No tumour was observed in treated or control mice (15). Subcutaneous rat (87wk) 2.5mg kg-12 x wk-1 far 17wk; 2/10 treated rats and 2/10 controls developed fibrosarcomasat the site of injection (16). Gavage rat (2yr) 0,21,70 or 210 pg kg-15 day wk-1 for 9/15or 24 months. Clear evidence of carcinogenicactivity was shown by substantially increasedincidencesof uncommon tubular cell adenomas and tubular cell carcinomasof the kidney in r 3 and 9 rats. Increased incidencesand multiplicity of fibroadenomas of the mammary gland were also observed in 9 rats. OchratoxinA administration also caused non-neoplastic renal changes including tubular cell hyperplasia, tubular cell proliferation,cytoplasmicalteration, karyomegaly, and degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium (17). Teratogenicity and reproductive effects Subcutaneous rat, single dose of 0.5-5.0 mg kg-1 on 1of day 4-10 of gestation.The minimum toxic dose was 1.75 mg kg-1, which caused decreased foetalweight and various foetal malformations. Higher doses caused foetal resorption. Ochratoxin A was most effectivewhen given on day 5 or 6 of gestation (18). Intraperitoneal mouse, 2 mg kg-1 induced craniofacial malformations when administered on day 8 of gestation but not when given on day 10(19). Oral or intraperitoneal mouse, 3-5 mg kg-1 day-1 on days 15-17of gestation caused cerebralnecrosisin most foetuses (20). Intraperitoneal mouse, single dose 5 mg kg-1 on 1of days 7-12 of gestation caused increases in prenatal mortality and in foetal malformations and a decrease in foetal weight. The highest number of malformations was seen in foetusesof animals treated on day 8 of gestation (35%dead or absorbed, 58%grossly malformed, 87% with skeletalmalformations) (21). Intraperitoneal mouse single dose of 0-7 mg kg-1 on 1day between days 8 and 13of gestation. The newborn mice with severe microcephalydied a short time after birth. The surviving offspring were examined at 6 wk of age.In all treated groups, body and brain weights were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Administration on days 9, 10and 11of gestation had the greatest effect (22). Metabolism and toxicokinetics In rats, ochratoxin A is absorbed through the stomach wall and jejunum. It is distributed principally to the liver, muscle and kidneys (23-27). Ochratoxin A is metabolised to phenylalanine and a less toxic isocoumarin derivative (ochratoxin-a)by the microbial flora of the colon and by carboxypeptidase A and a-chymotrypsin (27-29). Plasma tl/Z -60 hr. Excretionoccurs via the faeces and urine (speciesunspecified) (30). Following oral or intraperitoneal administration to mice,biliary excretionand enterohepatic circulationof ochratoxinA was demonstrated (31). Genotoxicity CASE structure-activity methodology predicted it to be marginally positive for mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium (32). Bacillus subtilis rec assay negative (33). In vitro primary rat hepatocytes,unscheduled DNA synthesis negative (34). In vitro Chinesehamster L5178Y cells, tk+/tk- negative (34). In vitro human lymphocytes,chromosomalaberrations positive (35). In vitro mouse mammary carcinoma cells,induction of mutations negative (36). 2
  19. 19. Other effects Other adverse effects (human) The geographical distribution of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Bulgaria and the former Yugoslavia correlates with the incidence of mortality due to urothelial urinary tract tumours (31,37,38). In an endemic area for Balkan nephropathy, 7%of the population had ochratoxin A in the blood compared with none in control group from another area (39). Ochratoxin A has been reported to affect immune function both at the level of antibody synthesis and Natural Killer cell activity (40). Any other adverse effects In vitro hepatoma cells, ochratoxin A inhibited nucleic acid and protein synthesis by competing with phenylalanine at the phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase active site (41). Aspartame, at tenfold higher concentrations than ochratoxin A (100-1000PM) was found partially to protect against the ochratoxin A-induced inhibition of protein synthesis in monkey kidney cells (Verocells),and more efficientlywhen added 24 hr prior to the toxin (IC5034 p ~ )than together (I& 22 p ~ )(42). When incubated with fresh renal cortex slices from rats, ochratoxin A inhibited p-aminohippurate uptake, thus altering renal formation (43). Other comments Physicalproperties, occurrence,analysis,carcinogenicity,mammalian toxicity and mutagenicity reviewed (1). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. lARC Monograph 1983,31,191-206. Kaiser, K. L. E. et a1 Water Pollut. Res. 1.Can. 1991,26(3),361-431. Nature (London)1965,205,1112. Actn Pkarmacol. Toxicol.1971,21,492. Poult. Sci. 1976,55,786. Food Cosmet. Toxicof.1968,6,479. Toxicol.Lett. 1985,25, 1. Galtier, P. et a1Ann. Rech. Vet.1974,5,233-247. Krogh, P. Adv. Vet. Sci. Cornp.Med. 1976,20, 147-170. Glahn, R. P. et a1Poult. Sci. 1989,68(9),1205-1212. Kitchen, D. N. et a1 Vet.Pathol. 1977,14261-272. Peraica, M. et a1 Vet.Arh. 1989,59(1),25-29. IARC Monograph 1987,Suppl. 7,271-272. Kanisawa, M. et a1 Gann 1978,69,599-600. Dickens, F. et a1Rep. Br. Cmp. Cancer Campaign 1968,46,108. Purchase, I. F. H. et a1Food Comet. Toxicol.1971,9,681-682. National ToxicologyProgram Researchand Testing Division 1989,Report No. TR-358, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Mayura, K. et a1Toxicologist1982,2, 74. Hood, R. D. et a1Teratology 1978,17,25-29. Szczech,G. M. et a1 Toxicol.Appl. Pkarmacol. 1981,57,127-137. Hayes, A. W. et a1Teratology 1974,9,93-98. Fukui, Y.et a1Environ. Med. 1988,32,153-157. Kumagai, S. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1988,26(9),753-758. Kumagai, S.et a1Toxicol.Appl. Pharmacol. 1982,64,94-102. Lillehaj, E. B. et a1Mycopathologia 1979,68,175-177. Cheng, F. C. et a1Food Comet. Toxicol. 1977,15,199-204. Gaultier, P. et a1Ann. Rech. Vet. 1974,5,319-328. Gaultier, P. et a1Ann. Rech. Vet.1976,7,91-98. Pitout, M. J. et a1Biochem. Pkarmacol. 1969,18,485-491. Gaultier, P. et a1Ann. Rech. Vet. 1974,5,311-318. Chernozemsky, I. N. et a1Int. I.Cancer 1977,19,1-11. 3
  20. 20. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. Klopman, G. et a1Mutat. Res. 1990,228, 1-50. Ueno, Y. et a1Cancer Res. 1976,36,445-451. Bendelle, A. M. et a1Food Chern. Toxicol.1985,23,911-918. Manolova, I. et a1Mutat. Res. 1990,23(2),143-149. Umeda, M. et a1Gann 1977,68,619-625. Stojanov,I. S. et a1Neoplasma 1977,24,625-632. Radovanovice, Z. et a1Arch. Geschwulstforsch. 1979,49,444-447. Krogh, P. et a1Environmental Carcinogens. Selected Methods of Analysis. Mycotoxins 1983, 5, 247-253, IARC Scientific Publication No.44, Lyon, France. Lea, T. et a1Mycopathologia 1989,107(2-3),153-159. Creppy, E. -E. et a1 Toxicol.Lett. 1980, 5, 375-380. Baudrimont, I. et a1Arch. Toxicol.1997, 71(5),290-298. Berndt, W. 0.et a1Toxicology1979,12,5-17 0 2 octachloronaphthalene CI CI CI CI clOclS Mol. Wt. 403.73 CAS Registry No. 2234-13-1 Synonyms perchloronaphthalene; Pepna EINECS NO.218-778-7 Uses Waterproofingagent. Fireproof additive in plastics. Additive for cutting oils. RTECS No. QK 0250000 Physical properties M. Pt. 197.5"C B. Pt. 440°C Specific gravity 2.00 Partition coefficient log Po, 8.4 (1) Volatility v.p. 1 x 10-8 mmHg at 25°C ;v.den. 13.9 Solubility Water:0.08 pg 1-1 at 22°C. Organic solvents:benzene, cyclohexane,carbon tetrachloride, ethanol Occupationalexposure FR-VME 0.1 mg m-3 SE-LEVL 0.2mg m-3 UK-LTEL 0.1 mg m-3 US-TWA 0.1 mg m-3 SE-STEL0.6 mg m-3 UK-STEL 0.3mg m-3 US-STEL 0.3mg m-3 Ecotoxicity Bioaccumulation Bioconcentrationfactors for guppy and trout 0 and 330, respectively. The large molecular size may inhibit membrane permeation resulting in low bioaccumulation (1,Z). 4
  21. 21. Environmentalfate Abiotic removal Estimated volatilisation tl/2 43 hr for model river water, 19.5days for model pond water (3,4). Reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, estimated tl/2 -440 days (5). Adsorption and retention Estimated KO, of 750,000-1,600,000indicated the octachloronaphthalene will be essentially immobile in soil and will partition to sediment and be suspended in water (3). Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Exposure may cause acne-like skin rash. It may also cause liver injury,resulting in such effectsas fatigue, dark urine, yellow jaundice and possibly death (6). Any other adverse effects Singledose of 44 mg kg-* to cf rats (route unspecified) induced 1.5-foldincrease in hepatic cytochrome P450, 18- fold increase in benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and 18-foldincrease in 9-chlorobiphenyl hydroxylase activities (7). Legislation The log Po, value exceeds the European Community recommended level of 3.0 (6th and 7th Amendments) (8). Limited under EC Directiveon Drinking Water Quality 80/778/EEC. Pesticides:maximum admissible concentration 0.1 pg1-1 (9). Other comments Contaminant of polychlorinated biphenyls. Detected in wastewater from aluminium smelting plant (l0,ll). Reviews on human health effects,experimental toxicology,physico-chemical properties listed (12). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Operhuizen, A. et a1 Chemosphere 1985,14,1871-1896. Oliver, B. G. et a1 Environ. Sci. Technol. 1985,19,842-849. Lyman, W. K. et a1Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods Environmental Behaviour of Organic Compounds 1982, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. Swann, R. L. et a1Res. Rev. 1983,85, 23. Atkinson, R. lnt./. Chem. Kinet. 1987,19,799-828. Mackison, F. W. et a1(Eds.)Occupational Health Guidlinesfor Chemical Hazards 1981, DHHS (NIOSH)Publication No.81-123, Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA. Compbell,M. A. et a1 Toxicology 1982, 22(2), 123. 1967 Directive on Classification,Packaging, and Labelling of Dangerous Substances 67/548/EEC; 6th Amendment EEC Directive 79/832/EEC;7th Amendment EEC Directive 91/32/EEC 1991, HMSO, London, UK. S. 1.No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991, HMSO, London, UK. ECAO; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Documentfor Chlorinated Naphthalenes 1980, US EPA-440/5-80-031, Washington, DC, USA. Vogelgesang,J, Z. Wasser Abwmer Forsch. 1986,19, 140-144. ECETOC Technical Report No. 71 1996, European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte 6), 8-1160 Brussels,Belgium 5
  22. 22. 0 3 1-0ctadecanethiol C18H38S Mol. Wt. 286.57 CAS Registry No. 2885-00-9 Synonyms l-mercaptooctadecane; octadecylmercaptan EINECS NO.220-744-1 Uses In manufacture of electrodes.Chain-transfer agent in preparation of acrylicpolymers. Lubricatingoil additive. RTECS No. RG 0500000 PhysicaI properties M. Pt. 29-31°C B. Pt. 204-210°C at 11mmHg Flash point 185°C Specific gravity 0.8475 at 20°C Solubility Organic solvents: diethyl ether Mammalian & avian toxicity Irritancy Irritating to the skin.Vapour or mist is irritating to the eyes,mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract (speciesunspecified) (1). Other comments Reviewson human health effects,experimental toxicology,physico-chemicalproperties listed (2). References 1. 2. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.)Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2,2635, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. ECETOC Technical Report No. 72 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicologyand Toxicology of Chemicals, 4Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte6), B-1160 Brussels, Belgium 04 octadecyItrichlorosiIane CI8H3,C13Si Mol. Wt. 387.94 CAS Registry No. 112-04-9 Synonyms trichlorooctadecylsilane EINECS NO.203-930-7 Uses In preparation of silica gel-based stationary phase for chromatography. RTECS No. VV 4680000 Physical properties B. Pt. 380°C Flash point 89°C Specific gravity 0.984 at 25°C Occupational exposure UN No. 1800 HAZCHEM Code 4X Conveyance classification corrosive substance 6
  23. 23. Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Extremely destructive to tissue of the mucous membrane and upper respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Inhalation may be fatal as a result of spasm, inflammation and oedema of the larynx and bronchi, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary oedema (1). References 1. Lenga, R. E. (Ed,)Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2,2637, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA 05 octafluoro-2-butene CF3CF=CFCF3 C4FS Mol. Wt. 200.03 CAS Registry No. 360-89-4 Synonyms octafluorobut-2-ene; 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,4-octafluoro-2-butene;perfluorobut-2-ene; perfluoro-2-butene; EINECS NO.206-640-9 Uses Manufacture of polymers. Refrigerant. RC-318 RTECS No. EM 8980000 PhysicaI properties M. Pt. -135°C B. Pt. 1.2"C Specific gravity 1.5297 Occupationalexposure UN No. 2422 Conveyance classification non-flammable non-toxic gas Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LCL, (4hr) inhalation rat 6100 ppm (1). Genotoxicity Drosophila melanogaster sex-linked recessive lethal assay positive (2). References 1. 2. DuPont de Nemours and Co. Technical Sheet 25 July 1967. Foltz, V.C. et a1Environ. Res. 1974,7,275 7
  24. 24. 06 octafluoroisobutene C4FS Mol. Wt. 200.03 CAS Registry No.382-21-8 Synonyms perfluoroisobutylene; octafluoro-sec-butene; octafluoroisobutylene Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LC50(0.25minutes) nose-only inhalation rats 361ppm (1). LC50(10 minutes) nose-only inhalation rats 17ppm (1). LC50(6hr) inhalation rat 500ppb (2). LC50(2hr) inhalation rabbit 1200 ppb (3). LC50(2 hr) inhalation guinea pig 1050ppb (3). LCL,(2 hr) inhalation mouse 10mg m-3 (4). A post-exposure latency period of -8 hr exists in rats exposed by inhalation for 10minutes to 100mg m-3 before the onset of overt pulmonary oedema. Exerciseperformed during the post-perfluoroisobutylene period did not potentiate the toxic response, but when overt pulmonary oedema was pre-existent, exercisehad a potentiating effect (5). Irritancy Marked irritation of conjunctivae,throat, and lungs in human acute exposure (6). Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Deadly poison by inhalation. May cause pulmonary oedema or death after a latent period of 6-8 hr (7,5). Other comments Perfluoroisobutylene is a pyrolysis product of polytetrafluoroethene (7). In rats exposed to inhalation exposures of 10-250pg 1-1, doubling the inhaled dose produced a 1.3-1.8-fold increase in uptake, with a corresponding decrease in percentage retained (5). N-Acetylcysteineadministered orally to rats 4-8 hr before exposure to perfluoroisobutylene protects against the toxiceffects of this gas. The duration of protection in vivo has been related to the duration of increased plasma thiol levels (7). Respirators containing activated carbon filters remove perfluoroisobutylene from workplace air (8). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Smith, L. W. et a1Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1982,5(3),295-303. Deichmann, W. 8. Toxicology of Driigs and Chemicals 1969,Academic Press,New York, NY, USA, p. 310. Biol. Med. 1968, 57,247. Gig.Tr.Prof. Zabol. 1961, 5(3), 3. Maidment, M. P. et a11.Appl. Toxicol. 1992,12(6),393-400. Lewis, R. J. Sax’s Dangerous Properfies ofkdustrial Materials 1992, Vol. 111,Van Nostrand Remhold, New York, NY, USA, p. 2616. Lailey, A. F. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 1997,16(4),212-216. Hall, C. R. et a1Chem. Ind. 1989, (5),145-146 8
  25. 25. 07 octafluoropropane C3F8 Mol. Wt. 188.02 CAS Registry No. 76-19-7 Synonyms Freon 218; Genetron 218; perfluoropropane; profluorane; R 218 EINECS NO.200-941-9 Uses Blowing agent. Etchant in manufacturing semi-conductors.Propellant. Working fluid for heat pumps and refrigerators. Physical properties M. Pt. -183°C B. Pt. -36°C Occupational exposure UN No. 2424 HAZCHEM Code 2RE Conveyance classification non-flammable non-toxic gas Mammalian & avian toxicity Sub-acute and sub-chronic data Injection of 0.15 ml of gas into the anterior chamber of rabbits and cats eyes produced an octafluoropropane bubble that persisted for 22 days. Corneal oedema was induced which persisted after the gas bubble disappeared (1). References 1. Foulks, G. N. et a1Arch. Ophthn/rnol. (Chicagol 1987,105(2), 256-259 08 octanal CH3(CH&C H0 CSH160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 CAS Registry No. 124-13-0 Synonyms C-8 aldehyde; capryl aldehyde; caprylic aldehyde; n-octyl aldehyde; octanaldehyde EINECS NO.204-683-8 Uses Organic synthesis. In perfumery.Flavouring agent. OccurrenceIn plant oils, cooked meat and fish, milk and dairy products. Residues have been identified in drinking water (1). RTECS No. RG 7780000 Physical properties M. Pt. 12-15°C water at 4°C Solubility Organic solvents: acetone,benzene, diethyl ether, ethanol, propylene glycol, fixed oils B. Pt. 171°C Flash point 51°C (closedcup) Specific gravity 0.821at 20°C with respect to Partition coefficient log Po, 2.65 (2) Volatility v.p.850 mmHg at 25°C ;v.den. 4.41 Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 (14day) guppy 230 mg 1-1 (2). 9
  26. 26. Environmental fate Degradation studies Biodegradability2.4% of ThOD in activated sludge in 24 hr (3). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral redwing blackbird >110mg kg-1 (4). LD50 oral rat 5600 mg kg-1 (5). LD50 dermal rat 6400mg kg-1 (5). Teratogenicity and reproductiveeffects Low teratogenicitywhen injected suprablastodermally (72 hr) in chick embryos (6). Irritancy Dermal rabbit (24 hr) 500 mg caused mild irritation, 100 mg instilled into rabbit eye caused mild irritation (exposureunspecified) (7,8). Other effects Otheradverse effects (human) High degree of membrane-damaging activity to human lung lymphoblasts (9). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Melton, R. G. et a1Identification and Analysis oforganic Pollutants in Water 1982,Ch. 36, Keth, L. H. (Ed.),AM Arbor, MI, USA. Deneer, J. W. et a1Aquat. Toxicol.1988,12(2),185-192. Gerhold, R. M. et a11.Water Pollut. Control Fed. 1966,38,562. Schafer, E. W. et a1Arch. Environ. Contarn. Toxicol. 1983,12, 355-382. Opdyke, D. L. J. Food Comet. Toxicol. 1973,11,95. Forsmidt, P. et a1Teratology 1979,19,26A. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.) Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2,2647,Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Opdyke, D. L. J. Food Comet. Toxicol.1973,11,1079. Theluctam, M. et a1Toxicology 1980,15,203 0 9 octane CH3(CH2)6CH3 Mol. Wt. 114.23C8H18 CAS Registry No. 111-65-9 Synonyms n-octane EINECS NO.203-892-1 Uses Solvent.Organic synthesis. Fuel additive. Blowing agent. OccurrenceAroma component of plant oils, cooked meat and fish, and dairy products. In paraffin fraction of petroleum. Residueshave been detected in natural and drinking waters and in human milk (1). RTECS No. RG 8400000 Physical properties M. Pt. -57°C B. Pt. 125-127°C Flash point 22°C (open cup) water at 4°C Solubility Water: 0.7 mg 1-1 at 20°C. Organicsolvents:benzene, diethyl ether,ethanol, petroleum ether Specific gravity 0.7036 at 20°C with respect to Partitioncoefficient log Po, 5.15 Volatility v.p. 10mmHg at 19.2"C ;v.den. 3.86 10
  27. 27. OccupationaI exposure DE-MAK 500 pprn (2350mg m-3) FR-VME 300 ppm (1450mg m-3) JP-OEL300 ppm (1400mg m-3) SE-LEVL200 pprn (900mg m-3) US-TWA 300 pprn UN No. 1262 HAZCHEM Code 3CiE Conveyance classification flammable liquid Supply classification highly flammable Risk phrases Highly flammable (R11) Safety phrases Keep out of reach of children (if sold to general public) -Keep container in a well ventilated place - Keep away from sources of ignition -No smoking -Do not empty into drains -Take precautionary measures against static discharges (S2,S9, S16, S29,S33) SE-STEL 300 pprn (1400mg m-3) Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity Coho salmon (96hr) no mortality at 100ppm in artificialsea water (2). Invertebrate toxicity EC50 (30min) Photobacterium phosphoreum 890 ppm, Microtoxtest (3). EC50 (48hr) Daphnia magna 0.38mg 1-1 (4). Bioaccumulation Calculated bioconcentrationfactorsof 780-5100indicatethat environmentalaccumulation would be significant(5). Environmental fate Nitrification inhibition 50% inhibition of ammonia consumption (25days) Nitrosomonas sp. 45 mg 1-1 (6). Anaerobic effects 50%toxic inhibition (50days) methanogenic bacterial culture 2 mg 1-1 (6). Degradation studies Catabolised by Pseudomonas sp. PG-I at substrate concentrations up 0.3%. Growth was inhibited at higher concentrations (7). ThOD3.5(8). BOD352.33 mg 0 2 1-1 in hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria culture in seawater at 25°C (9). Abiotic removal Estimated volatilisation tl/2 5.6 hr in model river water at 25°C and for model pond water 30 days (10,ll). Reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, estimated tl/2 1.8days (12). Adsorption and retention Estimated KO, of 5500-15,600indicate that adsorption to soil and sediments would he significant (5). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LC50 (90 min) inhalation mouse >13,700ppm (13). Inhalation mouse 6000-13,700pprn caused central nervous system depression in 30-90 min, 16,000 pprn caused respiratory arrest in 1/4 animals within 5 min, and 32,000pprn caused respiratory arrest in 4/4 animals in 3 min (13). LDL, intravenous mouse 430 mg kg-1 (14). Sub-acute and sub-chronic data Intraperitoneal rat 1ml kg-1 day-1 for 7 days resulted in decreased body weight, liver enlargement and loss of drug metabolising capacity (15). 11
  28. 28. Metabolism and toxicokinetics Following inhalation, exposure of rats to 14C-octaneat concentrations up to 350 ppm for 2 hr resulted in >95% of the absorbed octane being excreted about equally via the kidneys and as exhaled 14CO2within 20 hr (16). Poorly absorbed through rat skin (17). The greatest affinity for octane was seen in the adipose tissue (18). Metabolised to 1-octanol through a cytochrome P450 oxidase system. Undergoes further metabolism by oxidation to a 1-octanoic acid or by ccnjugation to form glucuronide (19). Irritancy Irritating to the eyes, upper respiratory tract and mucous membranes (20,21). Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Acts as a simple asphyxiant (22). Aspiration of the liquid into the lungs caused convulsion and rapid death from asphyxiation, respiratory paralysis or cardiac arrest (23). LegisIation Included in Schedule 6 (Release into Land: Prescribed Substances) Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991 (24). The log Po, value exceeds the European community recommended level of 3.0 (6th and 7th Amendments) (25). Other comments Physical properties, occurrence and environmental fate reviewed (1). Physical properties, use, toxicity and safety precautions reviewed (26-28). Autoignition temperature 206°C. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Howard, P. H. Handbook of Envirut;mntal Fate and Exposure Datafor Organic Chemicals 1993,4,450-461, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA. Morrow, J. E. Report 1974,EPA-660/3-73-018. Kaiser, K. L. E. et a1 Water Pollut. Res. J. Can. 1991,26(3),361-431. Vighi,M. et a1Chernosphere 1987,16(5),1043-1051. Lyman, W. K. et a1Handbook of Chemical Property Estiniation Methods Environmental Behaviour of Organic Compounds 1982, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. Blum, D. J. W. et a1Res. 1.Water Pollut. Control Fed. 1991,63(3),198-207. Cameotra, S.S. et a11.Biosci. 1990,15(4),313-322. Jamison,V. W. et a1Proc. 3rd lnt. Biodegrad. Symp. 1976. Zobell, C. E. et a1Z. Allg. Mikrobiol. 1966,6(3),143-162. MacKay, D. et a1Enuiron. Sci. Technol. 1975,9(13). EXAMS li Computer Simulation 1987,US EPA, Athens, GA, USA. Atkinson, R. et a1lnt. J. Chem. Kinet. 1982,14,781-788. Swann, H. E. Am. lnd. Hyg. Assoc. I. 1974,35,511. Acta Pharm. Toxicol. 1975,37,56. Shapiro, S. et a1J. Am. Chem. SOC.1982,10,2301-2305. Dahl, A. R. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1989,100(2),334-341. Tsiruta, H. lnd. Health 1982,20,335-345. Fiserova-Bergerova, V. et a1Drug Metab. Rev. 1984,15,1033-1070. Williams, R. T. Detoxication Mechanisms 2nd ed., 1959,46-87,JohnWiley & Sons,New York, NY, USA. Oettel, H. Arch. Exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 1936,183,641-696. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.)Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988, 2,2639, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Lewis, R. J. Sax's Dangerous Properties oflndustrial Materials 8th ed., 1992,2,2619, Von Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA. Gerarde, H. W. Arch. Environ. Health 1963,6,329-341. 12
  29. 29. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. S. 1. No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances)Regulations 1991,HMSO, London, UK. 1967 Directive on Classification, Packaging, and Labelling of Dangerous Substances 67/548/EEC;6th Amendnzent EEC Directive 79/831/EEC;7thAmendment EEC Directive 91/32/EEC 1991,HMSO, London, UK. Chemical Safety Data Sheets 1989,1,265-267,The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK. ECETOC Technical Report No. 72 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicologyand Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte 6), B-1160 Brussels,Belgium. Snyder, R. (Ed.)Ethel Browning's Toxicity and Metabolism of Industrial Solvents 2nd ed., 1987,1, 307-311,Elsevier,Amsterdam, Netherlands 010 1-octanethiol C8Hl8S Mol. Wt. 146.30 CAS Registry No. 111-88-6 Synonyms 1-mercaptooctane; 1-octylthiol; n-octyl mercaptan EINECS NO.203-918-1 Uses Polymerisation chain transfer agent. Organic synthesis. RTECS No. RG 9740000 Physical properties M. Pt. 492°C B. Pt. 197-200°C Flash point 69°C (open cup) water at 4°C Solubility Organic solvents: diethyl ether, ethanol Specific gravity 0.8433 at 20°C with respect to Volatility v.p. 1.55mm3g at 37.7"C ;v.den. 5.0 Mammalian & avian toxicity Sub-acuteand sub-chronic data Dermal mouse (2 wk) direct application 3 x wk-1 caused an increase in epidermal weight and thickness (1). Sensitisation Reported to be a moderate skin sensitiser in guinea pigs (2). Other comments Reviews on human health effects, experimental toxicology, physico-chemical properties listed (3). References 1. 2. 3. Brooks, S. C. et a1Cancer Res. 1957,17(2),149. Cirstea, M. Rev. Roum. Physiol. 1972,9(6),485. ECETOC Technical Report No. 71 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicologyand Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte6),8-1160 Brussels,Belgium 13
  30. 30. 011 tert-octanethiol CgHMS Mol. Wt. 146.30 CAS Registry No.141-59-3 Synonyms tert-octyl mercaptan; 2,4,4-trirnethyl-2-pentanethiol EINECS NO.205-490-1 Uses Organicsynthesis. RTECS No. SA 3260000 Physical properties B.Pt. 154-166°C Flash point 40.5"C Specific gravity 0.848 Volatility v.den.5.0 Occupational exposure UN No. 3023 HAZCHEM Code 3 W E Conveyance classification toxic substance, danger of fire (flammable liquid) Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 85mg kg-1 (1). LC50 inhalation rat, mouse 47/51ppm, respectively (exposure unspecified) (1). LD50 intraperitoneal rat 13mg kg-1 (1). References 1. Fairchild, E.J. et a1lnd. Hyg. J. 1958,19,171 012 octanoic acid C5H1602 Mol. Wt. 144.21 CAS Registry No. 124-07-2 Synonyms caprylicacid; l-heptanecarboxylicacid; n-octanoic acid; octanylicacid; octic acid; octylic acid EINECS NO.204-677-5 Uses Manufacture of dyestuffs,drugs, fungicides,perfumes and flavours. OccurrenceAroma component of plants, cooked meat and fish,wines, milk and dairy products. Secondary product in ethanolic fermentation. RTECS No. RH 0175000 Physical properties M. Pt. 16-16.5"C B. Pt. 237°C Flash point 132°C Specific gravity 0.910at 20°C with respect to water at 4°C Partition coefficient log Po, 3.05 Volatility v.p. 1 mmHg at 92°C;v.den.5.0 Solubility Water: 0.0689g 100ml-1. Organic solvents:glacial aceticacid, acetone,carbon disulfide, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol, petroleum ether 14
  31. 31. Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity Not toxic to bluegill sunfish at saturated concentrations at ambient temperature (1). LC50 (48hr) red killifish47 mg 1-1 in fresh water, 150mg 1-1 in seawater (2). Invertebratetoxicity LC50 (48hr) Hyale pfumufosa130mg 1-1 (2). Decreased growth rate of Saccharomycescerevisiaeand Kluyveromyces marxianus during ethanolic fermentation at 16mg 1-1 at 30°C(3). Environmentalfate Degradationstudies BOD5 1.28mg 1-1 0 2 for substrate concentration of 2.9 mg 1-1 (4). Biodegradation in activated sludge 9.8% of ThODafter 6 hr, 20%of ThODafter 12hr, 33%of ThOD after 24 hr (5). Abiotic removal Adsorption by powdered activated carbon 50 mg g-1 carbon at 100mg 1-1 (sodium salt) (6). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 10,000 mg kg-1 (7). LDL, dermal rabbit 650 mg kg-1 (8). LD50 intravenous mouse 600 mg kg-1 (9). Sub-acute and sub-chronicdata Oral (duration unspecified) dog, 1-5%diet caused diarrhoea (10). Teratogenicityand reproductiveeffects Subcutaneous mouse, 0 or 600 mg kg-1 on day 8 of gestation did not cause any foetotoxicor teratogeniceffects (11). Metabolismand toxicokinetics Lactateprecursor in suckling rat liver but not in rat muscle in in vitro studies (12). Irritancy Dermal rabbit (24hr) 10mg caused severe irritation (8). Rated 9, on numerical scale of 1-10, in 24 hr rabbit eye irritancy test (13). Cenotoxicity Salmonella fyphimuriumTA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535with and without metabolic activation negative (14,15). Saccharomycescerevisiaewith and without metabolicactivation negative (15). Trifurus helveficuschromosomal aberrations positive (16). Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Extremely destructive to tissue of the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract (17). Legislation The log Po, value exceedsthe European Community recommended level of 3.0 (6th and 7th Amendments) (18). Other comments Reviewson human health effects,experimental toxicology,physico-chemicalproperties listed (19).
  32. 32. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Dowden, B. E Proc. L. Acad. Sci. 1960,23,77. Omitsuka, S. et a1 Chernosphere1989,18(7-8),1621-1631. Viegas, C. A. et a1Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1989,55(1),21-28. Hammond, M. W. et a1Environ. Sci. Technol.1972,6(8),732-735. Maloney,G. W. et a11.WaterPollut. Control Fed. 1969,41(2),Part 2, RWR33. US Dept of Interior, - FWPCA Summay Report -Advanced Water Treatment 1968,WP-20-AWTR-19. Henner, I? M. et a1Food Comet. Toxicol.1964,2, 327. Smyth, H. F. et a1Am. fnd.Hyg. Assoc. I. 1962,23,95-107. Oro, L. et a1Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol.1961,18, 141-152. Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology2nd ed., 1963,2, Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, USA. Nau, H. et a1Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.1986,6,669-676. Dombrovski, G. J. et a1Pediatr. Res. 1991,30(4),331-336. Grant, W. M. Toxicologyof the Eye 2nd ed., 1974,1170,Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, USA. Zeiger, E. et a1Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 1988,11(Suppl. 12),1-158. Littor Bionetics Inc.Mutagenic Evaluation of Compound FDA 75-38.000124-07-02,CaprylicAcid 98% 1976,MTIS No. PB257 872. Lentein, I? et a1 Chromosoma1973,40, 1-41. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.)Sigma-Aldrich Libray ofChemica1Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2, 2641, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. 1967 Directive on Classification,Packaging,and hbelling of Dangerous Substances 67/548/EEC; 6th Amendment EEC Directive 79/832/EEC; 7th Amendment EEC Directive 92/32/EEC 1991,HMSO, London, UK. ECETOC Technical Report No. 72 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicologyand Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte6),B-1160 Brussels, Belgium 013 I-octanol Mol. Wt. 130.23 CAS Registry No. 111-87-5 Synonyms alcohol C-8; caprylic alcohol; Dytomol M-83; Epal8; heptyl carbinol; 1-hydroxyoctane; octilin; octyl alcohol; Lipol L8 EINECS NO.203-917-6 Uses Solvent. Anaesthetic. Plant growth regulation. Manufacture of perfumes. Occurrence Aroma component of plants, cooked meat and fish, milk and dairy products. C8Hl8O RTECS No. RH 6550000 Physical properties M. Pt. -16°C B. Pt. 196°C Flash point 81°C Specific gravity 0.827at 20°C with respect to water at 4°C Partitioncoefficient log Po, 3.07 Volatility v.p. 1mmHg at 54°C;v.den. 4.48 Solubility Water:300 mg 1-1 at 20°C. Organic solvents: chloroform, diethyl ether, ethanol Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 (48hr) fathead minnow, golden orfe 6/16mg 1-1, respectively (1-3). Invertebrate toxicity EC50 (48hr) Duphnia mugna 23 mg 1-1 (3). LC50 (48hr) Nitocru spinipes 60 mg 1-1 (3). EC50 (30min) Photobucferium phosphoreum 3.7-7.3ppm Microtox test (4). Toxicitythreshold for Microcystis ueruginosa 1.9mg 1-1, Scenedesmus quadricuuda 6.3 mg 1-1, Enfosipkonsulcatum 44 mg 1-1 (5,6). 16
  33. 33. Bioaccumulation The calculated bioconcentration factor is 18-110(7). Environmental fate Nitrification inhibition IC50 (25days) Nitrosomonas 67 mg 1-1 (2). Carbonaceousinhibition IC50 (5 days) aerobic heterotrophs isolated from activated sludge 200 mg 1-1 (2). Anaerobic effects IC50 (50days) methanogenic bacterial culture 370 mg 1-1 (2). Degradation studies ThOD 2.95 mg 0 2 1-1, BOD5 1.088mg 0 2 1-1 (8). COD98% ofThOD(9). Abiotic removal Estimated volatilisation t1/2 1.8days in model river water, 82 days in model pond water (7,lO). 68% removal by reverse osmosis from waste water at a concentration of 1.3mg 1-1 (11). Reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere tl/2 -1.3 days (12). Adsorption and retention Calculated KO, of 137-983indicate that 1-octanol will adsorb moderately to some soils and sediments (7). Mammalian €?avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral mouse 1800mg kg-1 (13). LCL, (4 hr) inhalation rat 5600 mg m-3 (14). LD50 intravenous mouse 69 mg kg-1 (15). Teratogenicityand reproductive effects Inhalation rat, 150mg m-3 7 hr day-1 on days 1-19produced no teratogenic effects, no maternal toxicity and no foetotoxicity (16). Gavage rats (6-15days gestation) 0,1,5 and 10mmol kg-1, maternal but no developmental toxicity observed (17). Irritancy Dermal rabbit (24hr) 500 mg caused mild irritation (18). Irritating to the mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract (19). Sensitisation Reported to cause allergic skin reaction in man (19). Genotoxicity In vivo rat bone marrow, chromosomal aberrations and polyploidy positive (20). Other effects Any other adverse effects EC50 in vitro rat heart cells, inhibition of sodium-calcium exchange 23 mg 1-1 (21). LegisIation Limited under EC Directive on Drinking Water Quality 80/778/EEC. Pesticides: maximum admissible concentration 0.1 pg 1-1 (22). Included in Schedule 6 (Release into Land: Prescribed Substances) Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991 (23). The log Po, value exceeds the European Community recommended level of 3.0 (6th and 7th Amendments) (24). 17
  34. 34. Other comments Residues have been identified in drinking water (25). Used as a plant growth regulator in combination with l-decanol(26). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Mortimer, J. K. et a1Environ. Sci. Technol.1987,21(2),149-155. Blum, D. J. W. et a1Res. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 1991,63(3),198-207. Vaishnov, D. D. et a1Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.1990,19(3),624-628. Kaiser, K. L. E. et a1Water Pollut. Res. 1.Can. 1991,26(3),361-431. Bringmann, G. et a1 GWF,Gas-Wasserfach:WasserlAbwasser 1976,117(9). Bringmann, G. et a1 Water Res. 1980, 14,231-241. Lyman, W. K. et a1Handbook of ChemicalProperty Estimation Methods Environmental Behaviour of Organic Compounds 1982, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. Meink, F. et a1 Les Eaux ResiduairesIndustrielle 1970. Dore, M. et a1Trib.CEBEDEAU 1975,28(374),3-11. EXAMS II Computer Simulation 1987,US EPA, Athens, GA, USA. Duvel, W. A. et a11.WaterPollut. Control Fed. 1957,47(1). Atkinson, R. Int. 1.Chem. Kinet. 1987,19,799-828. Hyg. Sanit. 1966,31,310. Report 1988,US EPA, 8EHO-1088-0762,Office of Pesticides and ToxicSubstances, Washington, DC, USA. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 1962,135,330. Nelson, B. K. et a1 Toxicol.Ind. Health 1990,6(3-41,373-387. Hellwig, J. et a1Food Chem. Toxicol.1997,35(5),489-500. Opdyke, D. L. J. Food Cosmet. Toxicol.1973,11,1079. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.) Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2,2642, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Barilyak, I. R. et a1Tsitol. Genet. 1988,22(2), 49-52. Haworth, R. A. et a1Circ.Res. 1989,65(4),1021-1028. EC Directive Relating to the Quality of Water Intendedfor Human Consumption 1982,80/778/EEC, Officefor Official Publications of the European Communities, 2 rue Mercier, L-2985 Luxembourg. S. 1. No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991,HMSO,London, UK. 1967 Directive on Classification, Packaging,and Labelling of Dangerous Substances 67/548/EEC; 6th Amendment EEC Directive 79/831/EEC; 7thAmendment EEC Directive 91/32/EEC 1991,HMSO, London, UK. Howard, P. H. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Datafor Organic Chemicals 1993,4,462-467, Lewis Publishers Inc., M1,USA. The PesticideManual 9th ed., 1991,231,BritishCrop Protection Council, Farnham, UK 014 2-octanol CsH1sO Mol. Wt. 130.23 CAS Registry No. 123-96-6 Synonyms capryl alcohol; sec-caprylicalcohol; l-methyl-l-heptanol; methylhexylcarbinol; 2-hydroxy-n- octane; 2-octyl alcohol; sec-octylalcohol EINECS NO.204-667-0 Uses Organic synthesis. Solvent. Fragrance ingredient. Anti-foaming agent Occurrence Isolated from geranium oil. Traces have been identified in some dairy products and in natural waters (1). RTECSNo. RH 0795000 18
  35. 35. Physical properties M. Pt. -38.6"C Partitioncoefficient log Po, 2.90 Volatility v.p. 1mmHg at 32.8"C;v.den.4.49 Solubility Water: 0.96ml l-1. Organicsolvents:diethyl ether, ethanol B. Pt. 178.5"C Flash point 60°C Specific gravity 0.8264at 20°C with respect to water at 4°C Erotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 rainbow trout <lo0 pg 1-1 (exposureunspecified)(2). Bioaccumulation Calculated bioconcentrationfactors of 12-70indicatethat environmentalaccumulationshould not be significant(3). Environmentalfate Degradation studies Biodegradationby activated sludge 1.1%of ThOD after 6 hr, 2.9% of ThOD after 12hr, 2.7 of ThOD after 24 hr (4). Abiotic removal Volatilisationtl/2 1.3days from model river water 46 days from model pond water (3,5). Reactionwith hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere,estimated tl/2 -1.1 days (6). Adsorption and retention Calculated KO,of 92-720 indicate 2-octanolmay adsorb to some sediments and soils (3). Mammalian 81avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat, mouse >3200and 4000 mg kgl, respectively (7,8). LD50 intravenous mouse 66 mg kg-1 (9). Immersion of mouse tails into the liquid for 3 hr caused some deaths due to absorption (8). Sub-acute and sub-chronic data Inhalation rat (4.5month) 180-350mg m-3 2 hr day-1 6 days wk-1 caused mild reversible central nervous system disorders, depression of haemoglobin and erythrocytecount, and minor changes in the liver, kidneys and myocardium (8). Dermal rabbit, 2 ml day-1 for 6 days caused erythema, inflammationand crackingof the skin, which healed in 10- 12 days (8). Metabolism and toxicokinetics Absorbed by guinea pig skin (7). Irritancy Causes severeeye irritation (species unknown) (10). Legislation Included in Schedule 6 (Releaseinto Land: Prescribed Substances)Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991 (11). Other comments Physical properties, occurrenceand environmental fate reviewed (1). Reviews on human health effects,experimental toxicology, physico-chemicalproperties listed (12). References 1. Howard, I? H. Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Datafor Organic Chemicals 1993,4,468-473, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, USA. Spague,J. B. et a11.Mar. Xes. 1979,19(4), 269.2. 19
  36. 36. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Lyman, W. K. et a1Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods Environmental Behaviour of Organic Compounds 1982, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA. Gerhold, R. M. et a11.WaterPollut. Control Fed. 1966,38(4),562. EXAMS I1 Computer Simulation 1987,US EPA, Athens, GA, USA. Atkinson, R. lnt. 1.Chem. Kinet. 1987,19,799-828. Patty’s lndustrial Hygiene and Toxicology2nd ed., 1963,2, Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, USA. Zaeva, G. N. et a1Toxicol.New lnd. Chenz.Substances (Moscow)1963, 5, 51. Zagradmik, R. et a1Farmakol. Toksikol.(Moscow)1962,25, 618. Lenga, R. E. (Ed.)Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety Data 2nd ed., 1988,2,2643, Sigma-Aldrich, Milwaukee, WI, USA. S. 1.No. 472 The Environmental Protection (PrescribedProcesses and Substances) Regulations 1991,HMSO, London, UK. ECETOC TechnicalReport No. 71 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte 6),8-1160 Brussels, Belgium 015 3-octanol C8H180 Mol. Wt. 130.23 CAS Registry No. 589-98-0 EINECSNO.209-667-4 Uses In some toothpastes (1). Occurrence In rats, 3-octanolis a metabolite of n-octane (2). In aromas of many cooked and prepared foods. In many essential oils, including peppermint. RTECS No. RH 0855000 Physical properties B. Pt. 174-178°C Flash point 65°C Specific gravity 0.819 Ecotoxicity Toxicityto other species It is capable of blocking conduction of nervous impulses in bundles of a few axons from the sciatic nerves of the toad Bufo marinus (3). Other comments Can antagonise tremor produced by agents such as harmaline by blocking low threshold calcium channels in the inferior olive region of the rat brain (dose and route unspecified) (4). References 1. 2. 3. 4. Naganuma, T. et a1 Ger. Offen. DE3,618,86611 Dec 2986]P Appl. 85/125,821. Olson, C. T. et a1Toxicol.Lett. 1986,31(2),147-150. Requena, J. et a11.Membr. Biol. 1985,84(3),229-238 Sinton, C. Pfluegers Arch. 1989,414(1),31-36. 20
  37. 37. 016 2-octanone CH CH3 C8H160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 CAS Registry No. 111-13-7 Synonyms hexyl methyl ketone; methyl hexyl ketone EINECSNO.203-837-1 Uses Chemical intermediate. Occurrence Contributor to organoleptic properties of many fresh and cooked foods. In cigarette smoke. RTECS No. RH 1484000 Physical properties M. Pt. -16°C Partition coefficient log Po, 2.37 Solubility Water: 900 mg 1-1. Organic solvents: diethyl ether, ethanol B. Pt. 172-173°C Flash point 62°C Specific gravity 0.820 at 20°C with respect to water at 4°C Volatility v.p. 0.75mmHg at 20°C ;v.den. 4.43 Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 (96hr) fathead minnow 35.9 mg 1-1 (1). Invertebrate toxicity EC50 (5min) Photobacterium phosphoreurn 17.7ppm Microtox test (2). Environmental fate Degradation studies Can be biodegraded by cells in a mixed microbial culture in a saturable, concentration dependent manner (3). It can be hydroxylated and further oxidised by a thermophilic obligate methane oxidising bacteria H2-(type 1)to a mixture of alcohol, aldehyde, acids and ketones (4). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat, mouse 3.2,3.8 g kg-1, respectively (5,6). LD50 dermal rabbit >5g kg-1 (7). LDso intraperitoneal rat, mouse 800,1600 mg kg-1, respectively (5). Sub-acute and sub-chronic data Guinea pigs lost weight after receiving the compound dermally for 2 wk by occluded application (dose unspecified) (5). Oral rats receiving 20 mg kg-1 for 16days showed an increase in serum lipid concentration. The compound has been reported to lower serum cholesterol in both rats and mice (8,9). Metabolism and toxicokinetics Compound can be absorbed through guinea pig skin (5). Irritancy Slight irritation to rabbit eye, and skin (5,7). Non-irritant to human skin (7). Sensitisation Negative in sensitisation tests (7). 21
  38. 38. Genotoxicity SalrnoneIIa typhirnuriurn TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538without metabolic activation negative (10). Escherichia coli WP2 and WP2uvrA without metabolic activation negative (10). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Vaishnav, D. D. et a1Arch. Environ. Contarn. Toxicol.1990, 19(4),624-628. Kaiser, K. L. E. et a1 Water Pollut. Res. 1.Can. 1991,26(3),361-431. Vaishnav, D. D. Toxic.Assess. 1986,1(2),227-246. Imai, T. et a1Appl. Environ. Microbial. 1986,52(6),1403-6. Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 4th rev. ed., 1994,1810-1812,JohnWiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. BDH Hazard Data Sheets, 1990, Merck Ltd., Poole, Dorset, UK. Opdyke, D. L. J. Food Cosrnet. Toxicol.1975, 13,86. Hall, I. H. et a1J. Med. Chern. 1976,19,1257-1261. Carlson, G.L. et all. Med. Chern. 1975,18,1024-1026. McMahon, R. E. Cancer Res. 1979,39,682-693 017 4-octanone CAS Registry No. 589-63-9C8H160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 EINECS NO.209-655-9 Uses Chemical intermediate. Occurrence Contributor to organolepticproperties of many fresh and prepared foods. A pheromone secretedby speciessuch as blue duiker (1). Physical properties M. Pt. 164-167°C B. Pt. 165-168°Cat 760 mmHg Specific gravity 0.819 at 20°C Solubility Organic solvents:soluble carbon tetrachloride, miscible with diethyl ether, ethanol Mammalian & avian toxicity Metabolism and toxicokinetics It is thought that the compound may be metabolised in a variety of species to 2,5-diketones, which may produce neuropathies (2). Other cornments A pollutant in river water (3). References 1. 2. 3. Burger, B. V. et a1Z. Naturforsch., C: Biosci. 1987,42(11-12),1355-1357. Misumi, J. et a1Br. J. Ind. Med. 1984,41(4),526-532 He, Z. et a1Fenxi Huaxue 1986,14(2),93-97 (Ch.)(Chern.Abstr. 105,66005~). 22
  39. 39. 018 I-octen-3-01 C8H160 Mol. Wt. 128.21 CAS Registry No. 3391-86-4 Synonyms amyl vinyl carbinol EINECS NO.222-226-0 Uses As an attractant of insects including mosquito and tsetse fly (1). Occurrence Contributor to organoleptic properties of many fresh and prepared foods. In urine of several species. RTECS No. RH 3300000 Physical properties B. Pt. 84435°C at 25 mmHg Flash point 61°C Specific gravity 0.830 Environmental fate Abiotic removal Can be removed from brewery waste gases by scrubbing with detergent (2). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 340 mg kg-1 (3). LD50 dermal rabbit 3.3g kg-1 (3). LD50 intravenous mouse 56 mg kg-1 (4). Other comments Present in mouse urine during pregnancy and lactation (5). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Vale, G. A. Bull. Entomol. Res. 1988,78(1),31-49. Drawert, F. et a1Monatsschr. Bmuwiss. 1984,37(10),429-434 (Ger.)(Chem.Abstr. 102,100093a). Food Comet. Toxicol. 1976,14,681. Army Armament Res. Deu. Command Chem. Syst. Lab. NIOSH NX 02545. Jemiolo, B. et a11.Chem. Ecol. 1987,13(9),1941-1956 019 octhilinone CllHlSNOS Mol. Wt. 213.34 CAS Registry No. 26530-20-1 Synonyms 2-octyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone; 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one; Kathon; RH-893; Pancil; SkaneM-8 EINECS NO.247-761-7 Uses Fungicide, particularly for mildews. Biocideused for wound dressing in trees, in cooling-towers and in leather preparation. RTECS No. NX 8156900 23
  40. 40. Physical properties B. Pt. 120°Cat 0.01mmHg Solubility Water: 500 mg 1-1 at 25°C. Organicsolvents:ethyl acetate,hexane, methanol, toluene Partition coefficient log KO, 2.45at 24°C Volatility v.p. 3.675 x 10-5 at 25°C Occupational exposure DE-MAK 0.05 mg m-3 (inhalablefraction of aerosol) Supply classification toxic, dangerous for the environment Risk phrases Harmful if swallowed -Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin -Causes burns -May cause sensitisationby skin contact-Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effectsin the aquatic environment (R22,R23/24, R34, R43, R50/53) Safety phrases Keep locked up and out of the reach of children (if sold to general public) - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice -Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection -In case of accidentor if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (showlabel where possible)- This material and/or its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to specialinstructions/safety data sheet (S1/2, S26, S36/37/39, s45, S60, S61) Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 (96hr) rainbow trout, fathead minnow, channel catfish,bluegill sunfish 0.065,0.140,0.177,0.196 mg 1-1, respectively (1). Invertebrate toxicity LC50 Daphnia magna 0.180 mg 1-1 (1). Environmental fate Degradation studies When present in tannery effluent,the compound can be at least partly degraded by activated sludge over a 72 hr period (2). Mammalian & avian toxicity Sub-acute and sub-chronic data LD50 oral rat 550-1470 mg kg-1 (1,3). LD50 dermal rabbit 4.22 ml kg-1 (1). LC50 (4hr) inhalation rat 0.58mg 1-1 (1). Irritancy 500 mg (24 hr) applied to rabbit skin caused irritation, 100mg (duration unspecified) applied to rabbit eye caused severeirritation (3). LegisIation Limited under EC Directiveon DrinkingWater Quality 80/778/EEC. Pesticides:maximum admissible concentration0.1pg 1-1 (4). Included in Schedule 6 (Releaseinto Land:Prescribed Substances)Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991 (5). WHO Toxicity Class I11 (6). Other comments Allergenicproperties reviewed (7). 24
  41. 41. References 1. 2. 3. 4. The Agrochemicals Handbook 3rd ed., 1991,The Royal Societyof Chemistry, London, UK. Corning, D. R. Rev. Tech. Znd. Cuir 1982,74(2),44-6,49-53(Fr.) (Ckem.Abstr. 96,222628g). Lewis, R. J. SaxS Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials 8th ed., 1992,Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, USA. EC Directive Relating to the Quality of Water Intendedfor Human Consumption 1982,80/778/EEC, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2 rue Mercier, L-2985Luxembourg. S. 1.No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991,HMSO, London, UK. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classifcation 2998-2999 WHO/PCS/98.21. Hansen, M. K. Faerg Lack Scand. 1987,33(5),81-83 (Swed.) (Ckem.Abstr. 108,50660j) 5. 6. 7. 020 octoxynol CAS Registry No. 9002-93-1 Synonyms polyethylene glycol mono(4-octylphenyl)ether; a-[4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenyl]- o-hydroxypoly(oxy-l,2-ethanediyl);mono[p-(l,l,3,3-tetrarnethylbutyl)phenyl]etherpolyethylene glycol; poly(oxyethy1ene)p-tert-octylphenylether; ortho-gynol; Triton TX 100; Triton X100; TX 100; Hydro1SW; octoxanil RTECS No. MD 0907700 Uses Surfactant. Spermatocide. PhysicaI properties Specific gravity 1.0595at 25°Cwith respect to water at 4°C Solubility Water:miscible.Organic solvents:acetone,benzene, ethanol, toluene Environmental fate Abiotic removal Removal from wastewater in a two-stage sorption process by filtration through beds of silica gel and activated carbon (1). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 1800mg kg-1 (polymer unspecified) (2). LD50 intravenous mouse 1200mg kg-1 (polymer unspecified) (3). Teratogenicity and reproductive effects Gavage mouse 800 mg of TritonX-100 kg-1 day-1 on days 6-13of gestation. No maternal or foetal toxicity was observed (4). Irritancy 1mg instilled into rabbit eye caused moderate irritation (polymer and exposure unspecified) (2). Dermal human (3day) 2mg caused mild irritation (polymer unspecified) (5). 25
  42. 42. Sensitisation In vitro mouse lymphoma cells,DNA damage negative (polymer unspecified) (6), Other effects Other adverse effects (human) Inhibited the E rosetting formed between human T-lymphocytesand sheep red blood cells in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner (7). References 1. 2. 3. Boll. Chim. Farmaceut. 1962,101,173. 4. 5. 6. 7. Weng, B. et a1Diundu Yu Huanbao 1987, 7(2),38-39. (Ch.)(Chem.Abstr. 107,12308~). Proc. Sci. Sect. Toilet Goods Assoc. 1953, 20,16. Hardin, 8.D. et a1Teratog., Curcinog., Mutagen. 1987, 7,29-48. Drill, V. A. et a1Eds. Cutaneous Toxicity 1977,127, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. Garberg,I? et a1Mutat. Res. 1985,203,155-176. Schwartze,G. 2.Gesurnte Hyg. Ihre Grenzgeb. 1989, 35(6),364-366 (Ger.)(Chern.Abstr. 111,168780~) 021 octyl cyanide C9H17N Mol. Wt. 139.24 CAS Registry No. 2243-27-8 Synonyms nonanenitrile; 1-cyanooctane; pelargononitrile EINECS NO.218-808-9 Occurrence In shale oil. RTECS No. RA 6606000 Physical properties M. Pt. -34.2"C B. Pt. 224°C Flash point 81°C Specificgravity 0.8178 at 20°C with respect to water at 4°C Partition coefficient log Po, 3.12 (1) SolubilityOrganic solvents:carbon tetrachloride,diethyl ether, ethanol Occupational exposure SE-CEIL5 mg m-3 (asCN) UK-LTEL5 mg m-3 (asCN) Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity LC50 (96hr) fathead minnow 3600 mg 1-1 (1). Environmental fate Degradation studies Utilised as sole carbon and nitrogen sourceby Pseudomonas fluorescens (2). 26
  43. 43. Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral mouse 2060 mg kg-1 (3). Legis1ation The log Po, value exceeds the European Community recommended level 3.0 (6th and 7th amendments) (4). References 1. 2. 3. 4. Protic, M. et a1Aquat. Toxicol.1989,14(1), 47-64. Aislabie, J. et a1Appl. Environ. Microbial. 1988, 54(9), 2197-2220. Tanii, H. et a1Arch. Toxicol. 1984,55,47. 1967 Directive on Classification, Packaging,nnd Labelling of Dangerous Substances 67/548/EEC; 6th Amendment EEC Directive 79/831/EEC;7th Amendment EEC Directive 91/32/EEC 1991, HMSO, London, UK 0 2 2 octyl decyl phthalate C26H4204 Mol. Wt. 418.62 CAS Registry No. 119-07-3 Synonyms 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, decyl octyl diester; n-decyl n-octyl phthalate; n-octyl n-decyl phthalate EINECS NO.204-295-9 Uses In preparation of plastics. Occurrence In some plants such as the seeds of Acanthopaxsessiflorus (1). RTECS No. TI 0550000 Physical properties M. Pt. -50°C with respect to water at 20°C B. Pt. 239°C at 4 mmHg Flash point 235°C (closed or open cup) Specific gravity 0.980 at 20°C Occupational exposure SE-LEVL 3 mg m-3 SE-STEL5 mg m-3 Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 45 g kg-1 (2). Other comments As a pollutant of river water and sediment (3,4). Reviews on human health effects, experimental toxicology and physico-chemical properties listed (5). 27
  44. 44. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Asilbekova, D. T. et a1Khirn. Prir. Soedin. 1985, (6),760-766 (Russ.)(Chern.Abstr. 104,203835q). Am. lnd.Hyg. Assoc. 1.1979, 30,470. Peterson, J. C.I.Enuiron. Anal. Chern. 1984,18(4),237-252. Peterson, J. C. et a1J. Enuiron. Anal. Chern. 1982,12(3-4),277-291. ECETOC Technical Report No. 71 1996,European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, 4 Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse (Bte6),8-1160 Brussels, Belgium 023 tert-octyIphenoI OH I C-CH2C(CH3)3 I CH3 C14H220 Mol. Wt. 206.33 Synonyms (1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol EINECS NO.248-310-7 Uses Chemical intermediate. CAS Registry No. 27193-28-8 RTECS No. SM 5775000 PhysicaI properties M. Pt. 72-74°C B. Pt. 280-283°C Specific gravity 0.94 at 24°C with respect to water at 24°C Ecotoxicity Fish toxicity Exposure of maturing d rainbow trout to tert-octylphenol(O.5-65pg 1-1) caused a clear dose-related increase in vitellogenin production (a process normally dependent on endogenous oestrogens) (1). Juvenile 9 rainbow trout (hatch-day 22) 1-50pg 1-1 or (hatch-day 35) 1-30pg 1-1. Significantdifferencesin size of the exposed fish,related to treatment, were still apparent on day-108,86 days after cessation of treatment in the 1- 50 pg 1-1 experiments. These observations were confirmed in the 1-30pg 1-1 experiments in which significant changes in body weight and fork length were observed approximately 15days after exposure was terminated (2). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 intraperitoneal mouse 25 mg kg-1 (3). Teratogenicityand reproductive effects Oral administration to 9 mice of 2 ng g-1 day-1 during gestation days 11-17resulted in a reduction in daily sperm production and efficiencyof sperm production in Cr* offspring relative to control males (4). Subcutaneous neonatal rats (1day old) received 1mg 4-fert-octylphenol.No effect on the timing of vaginal opening was observed but 9/11 treated rats were in persistent vaginal oestrus at 3 months of age compared with 0/9 controls. Strong evidence was obtained that 4-feuf-octylphenolhas oestrogenic activity (blockingreproductive cyclicity)in vim in both neonatal and adult 9rats (5). 28
  45. 45. Other effects Any other adverse effects Oestrogenic activity of 4-octylphenol was demonstrated in a number of in uitro assays -proliferation of human breast tumour cells, gene transcription in transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts and vitellogenin gene expression in trout hepatocytes (effectiveat 2 mg 1-1 4-octylphenol). Octylphenol was around lOOOx less active than oestradiol in these assays (6). Other comments Environmental endocrine disruptor (7). Occurs in municipal wastewater treatment effluent and sludge (8). Compound is a product of anaerobic microbial degradation of octylphenol polyethoxylate (9). The long-term fate of compound in sewage contaminated groundwater has been reviewed (10). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Jobling, S.et a1Environ. Toxicol.Chem. 1996,15(2), 194-202. Coldham, N. G. et a1 Drug Mefnb. Dispos. 1998,26(4),347-354. NTIS lieport AD277-689, Natl. Tech. Inf. Ser.,Springfield, VA,USA. Vom Saal, F.S. et a1Toxicol. Ind. Healfh, 1998,14(1-2), 239-260. Blake, C. A. et a1Proc. Soc. Exp. Bid. Med. 1997,216(3),446-451. White, R. et a1 Endocrinology 1994,135, 175-182. IEH Assessment on Enuironmentnl Oestrogens: Consequences to Human Health and Wildlife1995, Institute for Environment and Health, Leicester,UK. Rogers, I. H.et a1Water Pollut. Res. J. Can. 1986,21(2), 187-204. Ball, H. A. et a1 Environ. Sci. Techno/.1989, 23(8),951-961. Barber, L. B. et a1Environ. Sci. Techno/.1988,22(2),205-211 024 octyltin chloride CH3(CH2)7SnCI3 CBH17C13Sn Mol. Wt. 338.29 CAS Registry No. 3091-25-6 Synonyms trichlorooctylstannane; octyltrichlorostannane; mono-n-octyltin trichloride EINECS NO.221-435-4 Uses Has antileukaemic and antiviral properties against Herpes (1,2). Chemical intermediate. RTECS No. WH 8590000 PhysicaI properties B. Pt. 102-110°C at 0.1 mmHg Solubility Organic solvents: aqueous methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, trichloromethane Occupational exposure DE-MAK0.1 mg m-3 (as Sn) (inhalable fraction of aerosol) SE-LEVL0.1mg m-3 (asSn) UK-LTEL 0.1mg m-3 (as Sn) US-TWA0.1mg m-3 (asSn) UN No. 2788 (liquid); 3146 (solid) SE-STEL0.2mg m-3 (as Sn) UK-STEL0.2 mg m-3 (as Sn) US-STEL0.2 mg m-3 (as Sn) HAZCHEM Code 2X (solid) Conveyance classification toxic substance 29
  46. 46. Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 4.6 g kg-1 (3). LegisIation Included in Schedule 6 (Releaseinto Land: Prescribed Substances)Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991(4). References 1. 2. 3. Arzneim-Forsch. 1969,19,934. 4. Sherman, L. R. et a1Appl. Organornet. Chern. 1988,2(1),65-72. Ward, S. G. et a1Appl. Organornet. Chern. 1988,2(1), 47-52. S. 1. No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991, HMSO, London, UK 025 oestriol ,, HO V OH C18H2403 Mol. Wt. 288.39 CAS Registry No. 50-27-1 Synonyms 16at17/3-estriol; (16a,17/3)-estra-1,3,5(lO)-triene-3,16,17-triol; Estriol; follicularhormone hydrate; Ovestin; Theelol; tridestrin; trihydroxyestrin EINECSNO.200-022-2 Uses Used alone or with estrone and estradiol for treatment of symptoms associated with the climacteric. Occurrence Widely occurring natural steroid hormone. It has also been isolated from some plants, including flowers of Salix (1). RTECS No. KG 8225000 PhysicaI properties M. Pt. 284-285°C Solubility Organic solvents: acetone,chloroform, diethyl ether, l,$-dioxane, ethanol, pyridine, vegetable oils Specific gravity 1.27at 20°C Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat > 2000 mg kg-1 (2). Carcinogenicity and chronic effects Sufficientevidence for carcinogenicityto humans and animals, IARC classificationgroup 1(3). Subcutaneous implant mouse, 0.64-0.85mg pellet, implanted on day 22-24of life. Mammary tumours occurred in 18/18 9 and 25/30 a*mice compared with 28/34 9 and 10/83d controls (4). Subcutaneous implant hamster, 20 mg pellet reimplanted every 150days to ensure constant absorption for 318-601days. After a latent period of 396-593days 6/11 animals developed kidney tumours. No data on controls were reported (5). 30
  47. 47. p-estradiol, estriol or estrone were administered subcutaneously to intact 9 rats 48 hr before treatment with 7,12- dimethylbenzlaJanthraceneor procarbazine as 1-2070pellets weighing 5-7mg each. No mammary cancers occurred up to 370 days in untreated controls or in oestrogen-treatedrats. Higher doses of estriol (0.53-0.65mg pellet-1) had an inhibiting effect on carcinogen-inducedtumour development (6). Teratogenicity and reproductive effects Administration of 30 pg to rats on days 16-19of gestation induced partial feminisationof a"foetuses (7). Metabolism and toxicokinetics Following topical application of 10pg (on 2 cm-2 area skin),2.45% permeated through mouse skin in vitro. Permeation was accompanied by negligible cutaneous first-passmetabolism (8). Excretedin humans as conjugated and unconjugated 2-hydroxyestriolafter 2-hydroxylation (9). Genotoxicity In vitro human lymphocytes,aneuploidy negative (10). In vitro human lymphocytes,sister chromatid exchanges marginally positive (10). In vitro Chinese hamster ovary cells, sister chromatid exchangespositive (11). In vitvo Chinese hamster Don (22;XY)cells,induction of aneuploidy positive, a dose-response relationship could not be established (12). Other comments Use, occurrence,physical properties, analysis,carcinogenicityand mammalian toxicity reviewed (1). Estriol has about 1/10the activity of p-estradiolor estrone after subcutaneous administration (1). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. IARC Monograph 1979,21,327-341. Drugs in japan (Ethical Drugs) 1990,176. IARC Monograph 1987, Suppl. 7,200-28. Rudali, G. et a1 Eur.I.Cancer 1975,11,39-41. Kirkman, H. Null. CancerInst. Monogr. 1959,1,1-54. Lemon, H. M. CancerRes. 1975,35,1341-1353. Bruni, G. et a1Ann. Ostet., Ginecol.,Med. Perinat. 1975,96,83-90. Kao,J. et a1j. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1987,241(2),482-487. Gelbke, H. I? et a1I.Steroid Biochem. 1974, 5,l-7. Hill, A. et a1CancerRes. 1983,43,4114-4118. Kochhar, T. S. Experientia 1988,44(1),62-63. Wheeler, W. J. et a1Mufaf.Res. 1986,171(1),31-41 31
  48. 48. ox ofurace NCOCH2CI I C14H16CIN03 Mol. Wt. 281.74 CAS Registry No. 58810-48-3 Synonyms (+)-(a)-2-chloro-N-2,6-xylylacetamido-y-butyrolactone;(+)-2-chloro-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)- N-(tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl)-acetamide EINECS NO.261-451-9 Uses Systemicfungicide. RTECS No. AE 1300200 Physical properties M. Pt. 145-146°C Volatility v.p. 1.5x 10-7 at 20°C Solubility Water: 146mg 1-1 at 20°C. Organicsolvents:chloroform, cyclohexane, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate,isopropanol Specific gravity 1.37at 20°C Partition coefficient log Po, 1.39at 20°C Ecotoxicity Invertebratetoxicity Inhibits RNA synthesis and consequently DNA synthesis in Pkyfopkfhora nicotiana (1). LD50 oral > 58 pg bee-1 (2). EnvironmentaI fate Abiotic removal Decomposedby alkalis,with a hydrolysis t1/2 7 hr at pH 9 and 30°C (3). Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD5o oral d,9 rat 2.6,3.5mg kg-1, respectively (3). LD50 dermal rabbit >5g k g l (3). Sub-acute and sub-chronic data A 90-day feeding study in rats established a NOEL of 20 mg kg diet-1 (2) Irritancy Caused mild skin irritation and severe eye irritation in rabbits (dose and duration unspecified) (2). Sensitisation Not a skin sensitiser in guinea pig (3). 32
  49. 49. Other effects Any other adverse effects When administered at 1-100mg kg-1 intraperitoneally to a"rats for 7 days, the compound influenced xenobiotic biotransformation by the liver. 7-Ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase and aniline p-hydroxylase activities were reduced, but 7-ethoxycoumarin-0-deethylase activity was induced. Cytochrome P450was unaffected (4). Legislation Limited under EC Directive on Drinking Water Quality 80/778/EEC. Pesticides: maximum admissible concentration 0.1 pg1-1 (5). Included in Schedule 6 (Releaseinto Land: Prescribed Substances) Statutory Instrument No. 472,1991 (6). WHO Toxicity Class Table 5 (7). EPA Toxicity Class I11(2). AD1 0.03mg kg-1 body weight (2). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wollgiehn, R. et a1Tagungsber. -Akad. Landwirtschaftswiss. D. D. R. 1987,253,383-388. The Pesticide Manual 11th ed., 1997,The British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, UK. The Agrochernicals Handbook 3rd ed., 1991,The Royal Society of Chemistry, London, UK. Leslie, C. R. et a1Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1989,18(6),876-880. EC Directive Relating to the Quality of Water lntendedfor Human Consumption 1982,80/778/EEC, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2 rue Mercier, L-2985Luxembourg. S. 1.No. 472 The Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1991, HMSO, London, UK. The W H O Recommended Classifcation of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classifcation 2998-2999 WHO/PCS/98.21 6. 7. 027 Oil Orange SS C17H14N20 Mol. Wt. 262.31 CAS Registry No. 2646-17-5 Synonyms l-[(2-methylphenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenol;o-tolylazo-P-naphthol; toluene-2-azonaphthol-2; Lacquer Orange V; C.I. 12100; C.1. Solvent Orange 2 EINECS NO.220-162-8 Uses To colour varnishes, oils, fats, waxes and formerly cosmetics (1). RTECS No. QL 5425000 Physical properties M.Pt. 131°C Solubility Organic solvents: benzene, chloroform, ethanol 33
  50. 50. Mammalian & avian toxicity Acute data LD50 oral rat 5 g kg-1 (2). LD50 oral rabbit 5 g kg-1 (2). LD50 intravenous rabbit 60 mg kg-1 (2). LD50 intravenous dog 200 mg kg-1 (2). Carcinogenicityand chroniceffects No adequate evidence for carcinogenicity to humans, sufficient evidence for carcinogenicityto animals, IARC classificationgroup 2B (3). Mice fed 1g kg-* diet for 52 wk at intervals up to 9 0 awk developed high incidence of benign intestinal tumours Rats receiving300 mg kg diet1 for up to 40 wk developed an incidenceof tumours higher than in control (5). Mice injected subcutaneously twice weekly with 3 mg for 50 wk developed spindle cellsarcomas at the injection site along with intestinal, lung and mammary tumours (6). Rats receiving subcutaneous injections of 0.5-1 mg once a wk for 13months did not develop tumours (7). Bladder carcinomaswere produced in mice followingimplantation into bladder (8). (4). Other effects Any otheradverse effects Oral doses of 200 or 400 mg kg-1 to rats caused a decrease in haemoglobin production (9). Doses of 100or 200 mg kg-1 to dogs had a cathartic effect (10). Other comments Experimentaltoxicology reviewed (1). References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. IARC Monograph 1975,8,165-171. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1937,109,493. ZARC Monograph 1987,Suppl. 7,69. Bonser, G. M. et a1Br. 1.Cancer 1956,10,653-667. Allmark, M. G. et a11.Pharm. Pharmacol.1956,8,417-424. Bonser, G.M. et a1Nature (London)1954,174,879-880. Nelson, A. A. et a1Fed. Proc. 1957,16,367. Clayson, D. 8.et a1Br. 1.Cancer 1958,12,222-230. Willheim, R. et a1Gastroenterology 1953,23,l-19. Radomski et all. Pharmacol.Exp. Ther. 1956,118,322-327 34

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