Soil Is The Geologist S Word For Dirt
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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Soil is the loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter, called humus, overlying the bedrock of Earth’s surface.
  • 3.
    • Soil contains approximately
    • 45 % mineral
    • 25 % water
    • 25 % air
    • 5 % organic matter
  • 4.
    • 1. Parent Rock is the original rock which is broken down. The parent rock contributes the type of minerals found in the soil .
  • 5.
    • Climate may be the strongest factor effecting climate.
    • Temperature and precipitation will determine whether chemical or mechanical weathering will take place. Along with the type of plant and animal life present.
  • 6.
    • The primary source of organic matter in soil is plants, but animals also contribute. When organic matter is decomposed important nutrients are supplied to the soil.
  • 7.
    • The actions of microorganisms like fungi and bacteria and animals such as earthworms and moles, mix and move the soil and add to the enrichment process of forming the soil.
  • 8.
    • The slope of the land can influence the moisture and erosion of soil.
    • Steep slopes are often poorly developed because water is being run off and with no plant growth the erosion process quickens
  • 9.
    • In contrast, poorly drained low lying areas can be thick and dark It can be too wet and also have a lack of oxygen develop into a fertile soil.
  • 10.
    • It takes 100 years to form 1 inch of soil. The longer a soil has been forming, the thicker it becomes and the less it resembles the parent material.
  • 11.
    • The vertical differences, which become more pronounced as time passes, divide into zones or layers known as horizons.
    • This is called the soil profile.
  • 12.
    • There are 3 major divisions in the soil profile. The top is the A layer. High organic matter and humus are found here.
  • 13.
    • Soil layer B is enriched with clay minerals. Many subsoils have a zone of accumulation consisting of soluble minerals that have been leached or washed out from the topsoil. They can be red or brown in color as a result of the presence of iron oxides.
  • 14.
    • Layer C is directly above the parent rock or bedrock. This layer contains weathered parent material and no organic material.