Chapter 8 ffi

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Chapter 8 ffi

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 8 — Ropes, Webbing, and Knots
  2. 2. Compare and contrast the characteristics of life safety rope and utility rope. Learning Objective 1 8–2
  3. 3. Fire service rope is divided into two classifications. 8–3 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  4. 4. NFPA® 1983 classifies two additional types of ropes used in rescue. 8–4
  5. 5. NFPA® 1983 sets requirements and regulations for life safety rope. 8–5 (Cont.)
  6. 6. NFPA® 1983 sets requirements and regulations for life safety rope. 8–6
  7. 7. While NFPA® does not regulate utility rope it should be inspected regularly. 8–7
  8. 8. Synthetic and natural fiber rope are constructed from different materials. 8–8
  9. 9. Synthetic fiber ropes are made from a variety of materials and have many advantages and disadvantages. 8–9
  10. 10. Natural fiber ropes have distinct advantages and disadvantages. 8–10
  11. 11. REVIEW QUESTION What are the differences in the characteristics of life safety and utility rope? 8–11
  12. 12. Use only kernmantle rope construction for life safety operations. 8–12
  13. 13. Kernmantle rope is made of synthetic material and consists of two main components. 8–13 Braided covering or sheath (mantle) Core (kern) of main load- bearing strands
  14. 14. Kernmantle rope can be either dynamic or static and should be used in different circumstances. 8–14 Dynamic rope Static rope
  15. 15. Laid (twisted) rope can be either synthetic or natural and is used only for utility rope. 8–15 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  16. 16. Braided rope is less likely to twist than laid rope, but is still vulnerable. 8–16 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  17. 17. Braid-on-braid (double braided) is often confused with kernmantle. 8–17
  18. 18. Summarize basic guidelines for rope maintenance. Learning Objective 2 8–18
  19. 19. Explain reasons for placing rope out of service. Learning Objective 3 8–19
  20. 20. Four aspects of maintenance help keep rope ready to use when needed. 8–20
  21. 21. All rope must be inspected after use or at least once a year. 8–21
  22. 22. Inspect kernmantle rope by applying slight tension and feeling for irregularities. 8–22 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  23. 23. Untwist synthetic laid rope so each strand can be inspected. 8–23
  24. 24. Remove natural fiber laid rope at manufacturer’s end of service period. 8–24 (Cont.)
  25. 25. Remove natural fiber laid rope at manufacturer’s end of service period. 8–25
  26. 26. Ensure that rot does not spread to new rope. 8–26
  27. 27. Inspect braided rope visually and by touch. 8–27
  28. 28. Inspect braid-on-braid rope visually and by touch. 8–28
  29. 29. REVIEW QUESTION What are the basic guidelines for rope maintenance? 8–29
  30. 30. Avoid abrasion and unnecessary wear while using any type of rope. 8–30
  31. 31. Avoid sharp angles and bends, which can reduce rope strength up to 50%. 8–31
  32. 32. Protect rope ends from damage by taping or whipping them. 8–32
  33. 33. Avoid exposing rope to sustained loads. 8–33
  34. 34. Avoid exposing rope to rust, which can weaken rope within one or two weeks. 8–34
  35. 35. Prevent chemicals from coming into contact with any rope. 8–35
  36. 36. Reverse ends of the rope periodically to ensure an even wear. 8–36
  37. 37. Do not walk on rope, which can weaken it by bruising and grinding dirt into the strands. 8–37
  38. 38. Cleaning rope involves two basic steps. 8–38
  39. 39. Do not use bleaches or strong cleaners on synthetic fiber rope; wash in warm water and mild detergent. 8–39 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  40. 40. Dry synthetic fiber rope immediately after washing and rinsing. 8–40
  41. 41. Wipe or gently brush natural fiber rope, but do NOT use water. 8–41 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  42. 42. All life safety rope must be permanently identified with a rope log once purchased. 8–42 (Cont.)
  43. 43. All life safety rope must be permanently identified with a rope log once purchased. 8–43
  44. 44. Follow these general guidelines for storing rope. 8–44
  45. 45. Storing ropes in a bag provides several advantages. 8–45
  46. 46. REVIEW QUESTION Why would a rope need to be placed out of service? 8–46
  47. 47. Describe webbing and webbing construction. Learning Objective 4 8–47
  48. 48. Webbing comes as either flat or tubular in either spiral or chain weave. 8–48
  49. 49. Life safety webbing is used for four different purposes. 8–49
  50. 50. NFPA® 1983 provides standards for life safety webbing and describes three separate classes. 8–50 Class I and II Class III
  51. 51. Utility webbing is not regulated by a standard. 8–51
  52. 52. REVIEW QUESTION What are the two main uses for webbing? 8–52
  53. 53. Webbing care and maintenance procedures are similar to rope. 8–53
  54. 54. Webbing is stored in several ways. 8–54
  55. 55. Describe parts of a rope and considerations in tying a knot. Learning Objective 5 8–55
  56. 56. Describe knot characteristics and knot elements. Learning Objective 6 8–56
  57. 57. Knots play a critical part in fire fighting and are made up of three parts. 8–57 Working end Standing part Running part
  58. 58. Tighten all knots, remove all slack after tying (dressing), and use safety knots to ensure safety. 8–58 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  59. 59. All knots tied by firefighters follow these basic principles. 8–59
  60. 60. Three bends are created when tying a knot or hitch. 8–60
  61. 61. REVIEW QUESTION What are the three parts of a knot? 8–61
  62. 62. Describe characteristics of knots commonly used in the fire service. Learning Objective 7 8–62
  63. 63. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–63 (Cont.) CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  64. 64. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–64 (Cont.)
  65. 65. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–65 (Cont.)
  66. 66. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–66 (Cont.)
  67. 67. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–67 (Cont.)
  68. 68. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–68
  69. 69. REVIEW QUESTION What are the three main elements of a knot that can be combined to create knots and hitches? 8–69
  70. 70. Select commonly used rope hardware for specific applications. Learning Objective 8 8–70
  71. 71. Summarize hoisting safety considerations. Learning Objective 9 8–71
  72. 72. Ropes and webbing have five main uses at emergency incidents. 8–72 Never exceed the load ability of a rope.
  73. 73. Specially trained rescuers use life safety rope, never utility rope. 8–73
  74. 74. Always keep safety first when hoisting tools and equipment. 8–74
  75. 75. Carabiners and pulleys are the most common type of rope equipment used in hoisting. 8–75 Connects rope to mechanical gear Creates mechanical advantage
  76. 76. REVIEW QUESTION What kinds of rope hardware may be encountered when hoisting using rope? 8–76
  77. 77. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–77 (Cont.)
  78. 78. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–78 (Cont.)
  79. 79. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–79
  80. 80. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–80 (Cont.) Ax e Pike Pole
  81. 81. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–81 (Cont.) - Often fastest and safest - Dry hoseline safer than charged - Often fastest and safest - Dry hoseline safer than charged Ladder Dry hoseline
  82. 82. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–82 (Cont.) - Knot and tagline through closed handle - Knot and tagline through closed handle CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice Rotary saw
  83. 83. REVIEW QUESTION What are three safety guidelines that must be used when hoisting tools or equipment? 8–83
  84. 84. Utility rope has traditionally been used for control zone perimeters. 8–84 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  85. 85. Search lines help firefighters stay in contact and provide a physical means of finding an exit. 8–85 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  86. 86. Utility rope is used to stabilize objects and prevent vehicles from falling or rolling over. 8–86
  87. 87. Before stabilizing any object, be sure to complete the following. 8–87
  88. 88. • Firefighters use rope and webbing to hoist tools and equipment, stabilize objects, designate control zones, perform rescues, and escape from life- threatening situations. Summary 8–88
  89. 89. • To use them safely and effectively, you must know the various types of ropes, their applications, and how to tie a variety of knots quickly and correctly. • Finally, you must know how to inspect, clean, maintain, and store ropes and webbing so that they are ready for use when needed. Summary 8–89
  90. 90. Inspect, clean, and store a rope. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-1. Learning Objective 10 8–90
  91. 91. Tie an overhand knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-2. Learning Objective 11 8–91
  92. 92. Tie a bowline knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-3. Learning Objective 12 8–92
  93. 93. Tie a clove hitch. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-4. Learning Objective 13 8–93
  94. 94. Tie a clove hitch around an object. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-5. Learning Objective 14 8–94
  95. 95. Tie a handcuff (rescue) knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-6. Learning Objective 15 8–95
  96. 96. Tie a figure-eight knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-7. Learning Objective 16 8–96
  97. 97. Tie a figure-eight bend. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-8. Learning Objective 17 8–97
  98. 98. Tie a figure-eight on a bight. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-9. Learning Objective 18 8–98
  99. 99. Tie a figure-eight follow through. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-10. Learning Objective 19 8–99
  100. 100. Tie a Becket bend. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-11. Learning Objective 20 8–100
  101. 101. Tie a water knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-12. Learning Objective 21 8–101
  102. 102. Hoist an axe. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-13. Learning Objective 22 8–102
  103. 103. Hoist a pike pole. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-14. Learning Objective 23 8–103
  104. 104. Hoist a roof ladder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-15. Learning Objective 24 8–104
  105. 105. Hoist a dry hoseline. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-16. Learning Objective 25 8–105
  106. 106. Hoist a charged hoseline. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-17. Learning Objective 26 8–106
  107. 107. Hoist a power saw. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-18. Learning Objective 27 8–107

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