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Chapter 8 ffi Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 8 — Ropes, Webbing, and Knots
  • 2. Compare and contrast the characteristics of life safety rope and utility rope. Learning Objective 1 8–2
  • 3. Fire service rope is divided into two classifications. 8–3 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 4. NFPA® 1983 classifies two additional types of ropes used in rescue. 8–4
  • 5. NFPA® 1983 sets requirements and regulations for life safety rope. 8–5 (Cont.)
  • 6. NFPA® 1983 sets requirements and regulations for life safety rope. 8–6
  • 7. While NFPA® does not regulate utility rope it should be inspected regularly. 8–7
  • 8. Synthetic and natural fiber rope are constructed from different materials. 8–8
  • 9. Synthetic fiber ropes are made from a variety of materials and have many advantages and disadvantages. 8–9
  • 10. Natural fiber ropes have distinct advantages and disadvantages. 8–10
  • 11. REVIEW QUESTION What are the differences in the characteristics of life safety and utility rope? 8–11
  • 12. Use only kernmantle rope construction for life safety operations. 8–12
  • 13. Kernmantle rope is made of synthetic material and consists of two main components. 8–13 Braided covering or sheath (mantle) Core (kern) of main load- bearing strands
  • 14. Kernmantle rope can be either dynamic or static and should be used in different circumstances. 8–14 Dynamic rope Static rope
  • 15. Laid (twisted) rope can be either synthetic or natural and is used only for utility rope. 8–15 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 16. Braided rope is less likely to twist than laid rope, but is still vulnerable. 8–16 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 17. Braid-on-braid (double braided) is often confused with kernmantle. 8–17
  • 18. Summarize basic guidelines for rope maintenance. Learning Objective 2 8–18
  • 19. Explain reasons for placing rope out of service. Learning Objective 3 8–19
  • 20. Four aspects of maintenance help keep rope ready to use when needed. 8–20
  • 21. All rope must be inspected after use or at least once a year. 8–21
  • 22. Inspect kernmantle rope by applying slight tension and feeling for irregularities. 8–22 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 23. Untwist synthetic laid rope so each strand can be inspected. 8–23
  • 24. Remove natural fiber laid rope at manufacturer’s end of service period. 8–24 (Cont.)
  • 25. Remove natural fiber laid rope at manufacturer’s end of service period. 8–25
  • 26. Ensure that rot does not spread to new rope. 8–26
  • 27. Inspect braided rope visually and by touch. 8–27
  • 28. Inspect braid-on-braid rope visually and by touch. 8–28
  • 29. REVIEW QUESTION What are the basic guidelines for rope maintenance? 8–29
  • 30. Avoid abrasion and unnecessary wear while using any type of rope. 8–30
  • 31. Avoid sharp angles and bends, which can reduce rope strength up to 50%. 8–31
  • 32. Protect rope ends from damage by taping or whipping them. 8–32
  • 33. Avoid exposing rope to sustained loads. 8–33
  • 34. Avoid exposing rope to rust, which can weaken rope within one or two weeks. 8–34
  • 35. Prevent chemicals from coming into contact with any rope. 8–35
  • 36. Reverse ends of the rope periodically to ensure an even wear. 8–36
  • 37. Do not walk on rope, which can weaken it by bruising and grinding dirt into the strands. 8–37
  • 38. Cleaning rope involves two basic steps. 8–38
  • 39. Do not use bleaches or strong cleaners on synthetic fiber rope; wash in warm water and mild detergent. 8–39 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 40. Dry synthetic fiber rope immediately after washing and rinsing. 8–40
  • 41. Wipe or gently brush natural fiber rope, but do NOT use water. 8–41 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 42. All life safety rope must be permanently identified with a rope log once purchased. 8–42 (Cont.)
  • 43. All life safety rope must be permanently identified with a rope log once purchased. 8–43
  • 44. Follow these general guidelines for storing rope. 8–44
  • 45. Storing ropes in a bag provides several advantages. 8–45
  • 46. REVIEW QUESTION Why would a rope need to be placed out of service? 8–46
  • 47. Describe webbing and webbing construction. Learning Objective 4 8–47
  • 48. Webbing comes as either flat or tubular in either spiral or chain weave. 8–48
  • 49. Life safety webbing is used for four different purposes. 8–49
  • 50. NFPA® 1983 provides standards for life safety webbing and describes three separate classes. 8–50 Class I and II Class III
  • 51. Utility webbing is not regulated by a standard. 8–51
  • 52. REVIEW QUESTION What are the two main uses for webbing? 8–52
  • 53. Webbing care and maintenance procedures are similar to rope. 8–53
  • 54. Webbing is stored in several ways. 8–54
  • 55. Describe parts of a rope and considerations in tying a knot. Learning Objective 5 8–55
  • 56. Describe knot characteristics and knot elements. Learning Objective 6 8–56
  • 57. Knots play a critical part in fire fighting and are made up of three parts. 8–57 Working end Standing part Running part
  • 58. Tighten all knots, remove all slack after tying (dressing), and use safety knots to ensure safety. 8–58 CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 59. All knots tied by firefighters follow these basic principles. 8–59
  • 60. Three bends are created when tying a knot or hitch. 8–60
  • 61. REVIEW QUESTION What are the three parts of a knot? 8–61
  • 62. Describe characteristics of knots commonly used in the fire service. Learning Objective 7 8–62
  • 63. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–63 (Cont.) CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 64. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–64 (Cont.)
  • 65. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–65 (Cont.)
  • 66. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–66 (Cont.)
  • 67. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–67 (Cont.)
  • 68. Firefighters use several types of knots for a variety of reasons. 8–68
  • 69. REVIEW QUESTION What are the three main elements of a knot that can be combined to create knots and hitches? 8–69
  • 70. Select commonly used rope hardware for specific applications. Learning Objective 8 8–70
  • 71. Summarize hoisting safety considerations. Learning Objective 9 8–71
  • 72. Ropes and webbing have five main uses at emergency incidents. 8–72 Never exceed the load ability of a rope.
  • 73. Specially trained rescuers use life safety rope, never utility rope. 8–73
  • 74. Always keep safety first when hoisting tools and equipment. 8–74
  • 75. Carabiners and pulleys are the most common type of rope equipment used in hoisting. 8–75 Connects rope to mechanical gear Creates mechanical advantage
  • 76. REVIEW QUESTION What kinds of rope hardware may be encountered when hoisting using rope? 8–76
  • 77. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–77 (Cont.)
  • 78. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–78 (Cont.)
  • 79. Follow these general safety guidelines when hoisting. 8–79
  • 80. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–80 (Cont.) Ax e Pike Pole
  • 81. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–81 (Cont.) - Often fastest and safest - Dry hoseline safer than charged - Often fastest and safest - Dry hoseline safer than charged Ladder Dry hoseline
  • 82. Firefighters must learn to hoist several types of equipment. 8–82 (Cont.) - Knot and tagline through closed handle - Knot and tagline through closed handle CourtesyofShadCooper/Wyoming StateFireMarshal’sOffice Rotary saw
  • 83. REVIEW QUESTION What are three safety guidelines that must be used when hoisting tools or equipment? 8–83
  • 84. Utility rope has traditionally been used for control zone perimeters. 8–84 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 85. Search lines help firefighters stay in contact and provide a physical means of finding an exit. 8–85 CourtesyofShadCooper/WyomingStateFireMarshal’sOffice
  • 86. Utility rope is used to stabilize objects and prevent vehicles from falling or rolling over. 8–86
  • 87. Before stabilizing any object, be sure to complete the following. 8–87
  • 88. • Firefighters use rope and webbing to hoist tools and equipment, stabilize objects, designate control zones, perform rescues, and escape from life- threatening situations. Summary 8–88
  • 89. • To use them safely and effectively, you must know the various types of ropes, their applications, and how to tie a variety of knots quickly and correctly. • Finally, you must know how to inspect, clean, maintain, and store ropes and webbing so that they are ready for use when needed. Summary 8–89
  • 90. Inspect, clean, and store a rope. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-1. Learning Objective 10 8–90
  • 91. Tie an overhand knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-2. Learning Objective 11 8–91
  • 92. Tie a bowline knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-3. Learning Objective 12 8–92
  • 93. Tie a clove hitch. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-4. Learning Objective 13 8–93
  • 94. Tie a clove hitch around an object. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-5. Learning Objective 14 8–94
  • 95. Tie a handcuff (rescue) knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-6. Learning Objective 15 8–95
  • 96. Tie a figure-eight knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-7. Learning Objective 16 8–96
  • 97. Tie a figure-eight bend. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-8. Learning Objective 17 8–97
  • 98. Tie a figure-eight on a bight. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-9. Learning Objective 18 8–98
  • 99. Tie a figure-eight follow through. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-10. Learning Objective 19 8–99
  • 100. Tie a Becket bend. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-11. Learning Objective 20 8–100
  • 101. Tie a water knot. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-12. Learning Objective 21 8–101
  • 102. Hoist an axe. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-13. Learning Objective 22 8–102
  • 103. Hoist a pike pole. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-14. Learning Objective 23 8–103
  • 104. Hoist a roof ladder. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-15. Learning Objective 24 8–104
  • 105. Hoist a dry hoseline. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-16. Learning Objective 25 8–105
  • 106. Hoist a charged hoseline. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-17. Learning Objective 26 8–106
  • 107. Hoist a power saw. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 8-I-18. Learning Objective 27 8–107