Essentials of Fire Fighting
6th Edition
Firefighter I
Chapter 13 — Tactical Ventilation
Describe reasons for tactical
ventilation.
Learning Objective 1
13–2
Tactical ventilation is carefully
planned to achieve the best
results.
13–3
The success of tactical ventilation
depends on several factors.
13–4
Tactical ventilation is performed for
several general reasons.
13–5
Tactical ventilation can be effective
when correctly implemented.
13–6
Tactical ventilation can improve life
safety, the highest incident priority.
13–7
Incident stabilization can be
accomplished through ventilation.
13–8
Ventilation can influence property
conservation.
13–9
REVIEW QUESTION
What are the reasons for tactical
ventilation?
13–10
Identify considerations that affect
the decision to ventilate.
Learning Objective 2
13–11
Explain the critical fire behavior
indicators present during tactical
ventilation.
Learning Objective 3
13–12
Both occupants and firefighters are
at risk during a structural fire.
13–13
Changes in building construction
present different risks during fires.
13–14
Knowledge of the building can help
make decisions concerning
ventilation.
13–15
Various building characteristics
should be considered when
ventilating.
13–16
(Cont.)
Various building characteristics
should be considered when
ventilating.
13–17
Several fire behavior indicators also
help with planning for ventilation.
13–18
(Cont.)
CourtesyofBobEspositio
Several fire behavior indicators also
help with planning for ventilation.
13–19
CourtesyofMikeWieder
CAUTION
Do not rely solely on the presence or
location of flames to assess an incident.
13–20
REVIEW QUESTION
How do smoke, air flow, heat, and
flame impact fire behavior in a
structure?
13–21
First arriving units must determine
size, location, and extent of the fire.
13–22
The type of ventilation used will
depend on several factors.
13–23
The location for ventilation must be
selected based on several factors.
13–24
(Cont.)
The location for ventilation must be
selected based on several factors.
13–25
Weather conditions will affect what
happens inside a building as well.
13–26
CAUTION
A strong wind can overpower the
natural convective effect of a fire and
drive the smoke and hot gases back
into th...
Exposures should be taken into
account when planning ventilation.
13–28
Staffing and resources are both
requirements for ventilation.
13–29
REVIEW QUESTION
What considerations will affect the
decision to ventilate?
13–30
Define horizontal and vertical
ventilation.
Learning Objective 4
13–31
Explain the means for achieving
horizontal and vertical ventilation.
Learning Objective 5
13–32
There are two main types of tactical
ventilation that can be performed.
13–33
(Cont.)
There are two main types of tactical
ventilation that can be performed.
13–34
There are three means to accomplish
ventilation used in the fire service.
13–35
There are several indicators of the
need for mechanical or hydraulic
ventilation.
13–36
REVIEW QUESTION
What are the basic means used to
accomplish ventilation?
13–37
Describe the types of horizontal
ventilation.
Learning Objective 6
13–38
Horizontal ventilation can be applied
to several types of structures.
13–39
Natural horizontal ventilation works
with existing conditions to take
advantage of natural air flow.
13–40
There are two types of mechanical
horizontal ventilation.
13–41
NPV uses smoke ejectors to expel
and pull smoke from a structure.
13–42
PPV uses a fan to create slightly
higher pressure inside a structure
than is outside.
13–43
WARNING!
Improperly applied, PPV can change
the interior conditions and injure
personnel working inside the structure.
13–...
PPV has both advantages and
disadvantages.
13–45
Hydraulic ventilation is used
when other types of forced
ventilation are unavailable.
13–46
REVIEW QUESTION
What are the main types of
horizontal ventilation?
13–47
You should know the precautions
against upsetting horizontal
ventilation.
13–48
Mechanical ventilation has both
advantages and disadvantages.
13–49
REVIEW QUESTION
How do the advantages and
disadvantages of natural,
mechanical, and hydraulic ventilation
compare to one a...
Describe the types of vertical
ventilation.
Learning Objective 7
13–51
Vertical ventilation occurs after
the Incident Commander considers
several factors.
13–52
Vertical ventilation presents several
risks the IC must assess.
13–53
Safety precautions should be used
during vertical ventilation.
13–54
(Cont.)
Check wind
direction,
velocity
Safety precautions should be used
during vertical ventilation.
13–55
(Cont.)
CAUTION
Roof ladders are only meant to prevent
slipping and are not intended to be used
on fire-weakened roofs.
13–56
Safety precautions should be used
during vertical ventilation.
13–57
(Cont.)
Safety precautions should be used
during vertical ventilation.
13–58
WARNING!
Never direct a fire stream into a vertical
exhaust opening when interior attack
crews are inside the structure be...
Knowing what to expect when
sounding a roof is important.
13–60
CAUTION
Work in groups of at least two, but with
no more personnel than absolutely
necessary to perform the assigned task....
Roof-cutting operations require
specific resources and skills.
13–62
CourtesyofMattDaly
Roof ventilation leaders have
specific responsibilities to perform.
13–63
Various types of inspection holes
can be used during ventilation.
13–64
Offensive ventilation methods depend
on the opening and roof type.
13–65
A square or rectangle is the most
common opening made in a flat
roof.
13–66
Different types of roofs require
different ventilation tactics.
13–67
The trench cut is strictly a
defensive ventilation method.
13–68
The process for making a trench
cut follows specific procedures.
13–69
REVIEW QUESTION
What are the types of vertical
ventilation?
13–70
All ventilation team members
should follow safety practices.
13–71
You should know the precautions
against upsetting vertical ventilation.
13–72
WARNING!
Do not direct a fire stream into a
ventilation opening during offensive
interior operations.
13–73
REVIEW QUESTION
What differences are there between
horizontal and vertical ventilation?
13–74
Recognize other types of ventilation
situations.
Learning Objective 8
13–75
Other types of ventilation situations,
such as basement fires, may arise.
13–76
Other types of ventilation situations
exist, such as windowless buildings.
13–77
High-rise fires are also another type
of ventilation situation that may arise.
13–78
Tactical ventilation must be
considered during preincident
planning.
13–79
WARNING!
Do not use stairwells or elevator shafts
simultaneously for both evacuation and
ventilation.
13–80
REVIEW QUESTION
What other types of ventilation
situations might firefighters encounter?
13–81
Explain the effects of building
systems on tactical ventilation.
Learning Objective 9
13–82
Ventilation will have several effects
on building systems.
13–83
Built-in smoke control systems are
designed to confine fire.
13–84
WARNING!
Do not attempt to operate building
systems that assist in ventilation.
13–85
REVIEW QUESTION
How can a built-in heating
ventilation and air conditioning
(HVAC) system affect tactical ventilation?
13–...
• Tactical ventilation of a burning building
allows heat, smoke, and fire gases to
escape to the atmosphere and also
draws...
• Tactical ventilation limits fire spread
and channels heat and smoke away
from trapped victims; but must be
correctly coo...
• Firefighters must understand fire
behavior, know various ventilation
methods and have knowledge of roof
construction and...
Ventilate using mechanical negative
pressure in a window.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-1.
Learning Objec...
Ventilate using mechanical negative
pressure in a doorway.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-2.
Learning Obje...
Ventilate using mechanical positive
pressure.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-3.
Learning Objective 12
13–92
Perform horizontal hydraulic
ventilation.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-4.
Learning Objective 13
13–93
Demonstrate the procedure for
sounding a roof.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-5.
Learning Objective 14
13–...
Ventilate using a rotary saw to cut an
opening.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-6.
Learning Objective 15
13...
Ventilate using an axe to cut an
opening.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-7.
Learning Objective 16
13–96
Demonstrate the procedure for
opening a flat roof.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-8.
Learning Objective 17...
Perform the steps for opening pitched
roofs.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-9.
Learning Objective 18
13–98
Demonstrate the procedure for making
a trench cut using a rotary saw.
This objective is measured in Skill
Sheet 13-I-10.
L...
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Chapter 13 powerpoint

  1. 1. Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition Firefighter I Chapter 13 — Tactical Ventilation
  2. 2. Describe reasons for tactical ventilation. Learning Objective 1 13–2
  3. 3. Tactical ventilation is carefully planned to achieve the best results. 13–3
  4. 4. The success of tactical ventilation depends on several factors. 13–4
  5. 5. Tactical ventilation is performed for several general reasons. 13–5
  6. 6. Tactical ventilation can be effective when correctly implemented. 13–6
  7. 7. Tactical ventilation can improve life safety, the highest incident priority. 13–7
  8. 8. Incident stabilization can be accomplished through ventilation. 13–8
  9. 9. Ventilation can influence property conservation. 13–9
  10. 10. REVIEW QUESTION What are the reasons for tactical ventilation? 13–10
  11. 11. Identify considerations that affect the decision to ventilate. Learning Objective 2 13–11
  12. 12. Explain the critical fire behavior indicators present during tactical ventilation. Learning Objective 3 13–12
  13. 13. Both occupants and firefighters are at risk during a structural fire. 13–13
  14. 14. Changes in building construction present different risks during fires. 13–14
  15. 15. Knowledge of the building can help make decisions concerning ventilation. 13–15
  16. 16. Various building characteristics should be considered when ventilating. 13–16 (Cont.)
  17. 17. Various building characteristics should be considered when ventilating. 13–17
  18. 18. Several fire behavior indicators also help with planning for ventilation. 13–18 (Cont.) CourtesyofBobEspositio
  19. 19. Several fire behavior indicators also help with planning for ventilation. 13–19 CourtesyofMikeWieder
  20. 20. CAUTION Do not rely solely on the presence or location of flames to assess an incident. 13–20
  21. 21. REVIEW QUESTION How do smoke, air flow, heat, and flame impact fire behavior in a structure? 13–21
  22. 22. First arriving units must determine size, location, and extent of the fire. 13–22
  23. 23. The type of ventilation used will depend on several factors. 13–23
  24. 24. The location for ventilation must be selected based on several factors. 13–24 (Cont.)
  25. 25. The location for ventilation must be selected based on several factors. 13–25
  26. 26. Weather conditions will affect what happens inside a building as well. 13–26
  27. 27. CAUTION A strong wind can overpower the natural convective effect of a fire and drive the smoke and hot gases back into the building. 13–27
  28. 28. Exposures should be taken into account when planning ventilation. 13–28
  29. 29. Staffing and resources are both requirements for ventilation. 13–29
  30. 30. REVIEW QUESTION What considerations will affect the decision to ventilate? 13–30
  31. 31. Define horizontal and vertical ventilation. Learning Objective 4 13–31
  32. 32. Explain the means for achieving horizontal and vertical ventilation. Learning Objective 5 13–32
  33. 33. There are two main types of tactical ventilation that can be performed. 13–33 (Cont.)
  34. 34. There are two main types of tactical ventilation that can be performed. 13–34
  35. 35. There are three means to accomplish ventilation used in the fire service. 13–35
  36. 36. There are several indicators of the need for mechanical or hydraulic ventilation. 13–36
  37. 37. REVIEW QUESTION What are the basic means used to accomplish ventilation? 13–37
  38. 38. Describe the types of horizontal ventilation. Learning Objective 6 13–38
  39. 39. Horizontal ventilation can be applied to several types of structures. 13–39
  40. 40. Natural horizontal ventilation works with existing conditions to take advantage of natural air flow. 13–40
  41. 41. There are two types of mechanical horizontal ventilation. 13–41
  42. 42. NPV uses smoke ejectors to expel and pull smoke from a structure. 13–42
  43. 43. PPV uses a fan to create slightly higher pressure inside a structure than is outside. 13–43
  44. 44. WARNING! Improperly applied, PPV can change the interior conditions and injure personnel working inside the structure. 13–44
  45. 45. PPV has both advantages and disadvantages. 13–45
  46. 46. Hydraulic ventilation is used when other types of forced ventilation are unavailable. 13–46
  47. 47. REVIEW QUESTION What are the main types of horizontal ventilation? 13–47
  48. 48. You should know the precautions against upsetting horizontal ventilation. 13–48
  49. 49. Mechanical ventilation has both advantages and disadvantages. 13–49
  50. 50. REVIEW QUESTION How do the advantages and disadvantages of natural, mechanical, and hydraulic ventilation compare to one another? 13–50
  51. 51. Describe the types of vertical ventilation. Learning Objective 7 13–51
  52. 52. Vertical ventilation occurs after the Incident Commander considers several factors. 13–52
  53. 53. Vertical ventilation presents several risks the IC must assess. 13–53
  54. 54. Safety precautions should be used during vertical ventilation. 13–54 (Cont.) Check wind direction, velocity
  55. 55. Safety precautions should be used during vertical ventilation. 13–55 (Cont.)
  56. 56. CAUTION Roof ladders are only meant to prevent slipping and are not intended to be used on fire-weakened roofs. 13–56
  57. 57. Safety precautions should be used during vertical ventilation. 13–57 (Cont.)
  58. 58. Safety precautions should be used during vertical ventilation. 13–58
  59. 59. WARNING! Never direct a fire stream into a vertical exhaust opening when interior attack crews are inside the structure because it will force smoke, heat, and steam down on them. 13–59
  60. 60. Knowing what to expect when sounding a roof is important. 13–60
  61. 61. CAUTION Work in groups of at least two, but with no more personnel than absolutely necessary to perform the assigned task. 13–61
  62. 62. Roof-cutting operations require specific resources and skills. 13–62 CourtesyofMattDaly
  63. 63. Roof ventilation leaders have specific responsibilities to perform. 13–63
  64. 64. Various types of inspection holes can be used during ventilation. 13–64
  65. 65. Offensive ventilation methods depend on the opening and roof type. 13–65
  66. 66. A square or rectangle is the most common opening made in a flat roof. 13–66
  67. 67. Different types of roofs require different ventilation tactics. 13–67
  68. 68. The trench cut is strictly a defensive ventilation method. 13–68
  69. 69. The process for making a trench cut follows specific procedures. 13–69
  70. 70. REVIEW QUESTION What are the types of vertical ventilation? 13–70
  71. 71. All ventilation team members should follow safety practices. 13–71
  72. 72. You should know the precautions against upsetting vertical ventilation. 13–72
  73. 73. WARNING! Do not direct a fire stream into a ventilation opening during offensive interior operations. 13–73
  74. 74. REVIEW QUESTION What differences are there between horizontal and vertical ventilation? 13–74
  75. 75. Recognize other types of ventilation situations. Learning Objective 8 13–75
  76. 76. Other types of ventilation situations, such as basement fires, may arise. 13–76
  77. 77. Other types of ventilation situations exist, such as windowless buildings. 13–77
  78. 78. High-rise fires are also another type of ventilation situation that may arise. 13–78
  79. 79. Tactical ventilation must be considered during preincident planning. 13–79
  80. 80. WARNING! Do not use stairwells or elevator shafts simultaneously for both evacuation and ventilation. 13–80
  81. 81. REVIEW QUESTION What other types of ventilation situations might firefighters encounter? 13–81
  82. 82. Explain the effects of building systems on tactical ventilation. Learning Objective 9 13–82
  83. 83. Ventilation will have several effects on building systems. 13–83
  84. 84. Built-in smoke control systems are designed to confine fire. 13–84
  85. 85. WARNING! Do not attempt to operate building systems that assist in ventilation. 13–85
  86. 86. REVIEW QUESTION How can a built-in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system affect tactical ventilation? 13–86
  87. 87. • Tactical ventilation of a burning building allows heat, smoke, and fire gases to escape to the atmosphere and also draws fresh air into the building. • Properly applied tactical ventilation allows firefighters to see better, locate victims more easily, and find the seat of the fire sooner. Summary 13–87 (Cont.)
  88. 88. • Tactical ventilation limits fire spread and channels heat and smoke away from trapped victims; but must be correctly coordinated. Summary 13–88 (Cont.)
  89. 89. • Firefighters must understand fire behavior, know various ventilation methods and have knowledge of roof construction and know how to create exhaust openings in all types of roofs that have a variety of openings in order to perform ventilation correctly. Summary 13–89
  90. 90. Ventilate using mechanical negative pressure in a window. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-1. Learning Objective 10 13–90
  91. 91. Ventilate using mechanical negative pressure in a doorway. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-2. Learning Objective 11 13–91
  92. 92. Ventilate using mechanical positive pressure. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-3. Learning Objective 12 13–92
  93. 93. Perform horizontal hydraulic ventilation. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-4. Learning Objective 13 13–93
  94. 94. Demonstrate the procedure for sounding a roof. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-5. Learning Objective 14 13–94
  95. 95. Ventilate using a rotary saw to cut an opening. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-6. Learning Objective 15 13–95
  96. 96. Ventilate using an axe to cut an opening. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-7. Learning Objective 16 13–96
  97. 97. Demonstrate the procedure for opening a flat roof. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-8. Learning Objective 17 13–97
  98. 98. Perform the steps for opening pitched roofs. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-9. Learning Objective 18 13–98
  99. 99. Demonstrate the procedure for making a trench cut using a rotary saw. This objective is measured in Skill Sheet 13-I-10. Learning Objective 19 13–99
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