Growth of Middle East Asia, China, Japan, and Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries
Rise of Intellectual Prosperity in the Islamic World Islam spread across Asia for centuries since its beginning. Patrons--wealthy elites who gave generous amounts of money for cultural and artistic developments. Three major Islamic Groups who really fostered cultural advancement… The Ottomans The Safavids The Mughals (of India)
The Ottomans They represent the area we now call what we today call Turkey and parts of Palestine/Israel, Syria, Lebanon… Achieved cultural unity through the leadership of sultans such as Mehmet II who recruited young boys and trained them to become bureaucrats, militia men, and other occupations and made these students directly accountable to the sultan. Suleiman the Magnificent made laws that made set guidelines to citizens’ rights, how they should dress, and how they interact with non-Muslims.
Ottomans, continued EDUCATION, SCIENCE, and ARTS Ottoman intellectuals who received patronage took on an interest in scientific ideas from Europe. Ibrahim Muteferrika—a Hungarian convert to Islam established a printing press and began publishing works on science, geography, math, and history. They applied their knowledge of science and math to creating elaborate open-spaced buildings Civilians enjoyed pleasures such as lemons, soap, pepper, metal tools, coffee, and wine. Coffee houses began to grow and popularity…How many of you thought that hanging out at the coffee house was a MODERN PHENOMENA? Women valued as entertainers
The Safavids Modern-day Persians (Iranians) Took on the stricter orthodox ulama (religious law) favored by Shi’a Muslims. The monarchial rulers (shah) had an absolutist mentality which would ultimately lead to a future that would lead to a despising of shahs and creation of modern theocratic Iran where a Ayatollah and his clerics held rule. Made wide-open elaborate buildings connecting to the outside world.
The Mughals Islamic India in the 15th to 17th Centuries A very cosmopolitan empire as trade dealings between Europe, North Africa and China took place… Taj Mahal and Shah Jahan—rulers celebrated the scientific advances especially in architecture. Prime example, the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum built for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal, by the emperor Shah Jahan after she died giving birth to his 14th child!
China vs. Japan Center of learning…emperors & The royal court patrons help support cultural advances in elites supported artists, poets, literature and beyond scientists, and teachers. Dramatic Theaters (the No and Booming internal economic Kabuki), writing, and artistic market led to pop growth and painting flourished as cultural extensive commercial networks phenomena. WOMEN were authors, editors, Risque books on the rise and publishers Geisha WOMEN had restrictions too! Women were eventually banned Increasing economic from performing in theatre. commercialization weakened Texts on the histories of China government and Japan became popular Chinese Buddhist monks gained Merit-based hiring of employees popularity in Japan—helped Europeans loved Chinese lead to Zen Buddhism libraries
How China & Japan Became Jingoistic Mandate of Heaven Shinto Chinese Technology and in the 17th century the society began Cartography—Magnetic abandoning Chinese social and compass, gunpowder, and religious influences printing press. Clocks and iron A culture of promoting native casted centuries before the learning and promoted a formalized Europeans. Astronomy Japanese religious and cultural tradition. Chinese nationalism made any attempts of the Europeans to 18th century saw Japan opening its doors to a new cultural influence— have a cultural impact very that of the Dutch who traveled to limited…for instance the Japan trying to do business and Chinese too maintained the old spread Christianity belief that the world was flat The Dutch utilized their knowledge and that there country was the of their continental rivals’ only country in the world. (Portugal) language to do business Chinese elites became racist with the Japanese and they began glorified their white promoting European scientific ideas complexions. Opposed “dark to the Japanese. Eventually the Japanese engaged in “Dutch skin” of peasants, the wavy- Learning” and began to replace haired “devils” of SE Asia, and Chinese-based scientific, medical the “ash-white” pallor of the and geographical texts with those of European. the Europeans.
Europe’s Enlightenment 17th and 18th century spreading of faith in reason and in universal rights and laws… the spreading of literacy and ultimately global political revolutions After centuries of religious wars, conflicts that were extensions of family squabbles over monarchial claims, and famine, Europeans strived to mentally search for a better way to live. More middle class men and women became literate and began gaining the confidence to reason for themselves, to understand the world without calling on traditional authorities (aka the Church), and to publicly criticize what they considered morally degrading in society. This was encouraged by the Neo-Scientific advances by Copernicus (1473-1542), Galieli (1564-1642), scientific inquiry by Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) laws of gravity and others like him led to Europe’s monarchs serving as patrons
Europe’s Enlightenment FEMALE PHILOSOPHES The French mathematician/scientist Marquise de Chatelet- Lomont (1706-1749) translated Newton’s Principia Mathematica into French and she was the lover of Voltaire…who infamously said, “She was a great man whose only fault was in being a woman.” Diamante Faini—Italian mathematician who advocated that women increase their knowledge of science Despite the new thinking, old ideas remained such as schools remaining church-governed and men-only for the elite. Governments punished radical thinkers, peasants suffered under taxes. Strong Christian belief in God and His relationship with nature and fellow humans via Christian doctrines and local customs
Europe’s Enlightenment THE MALE PHILOSOPHES Enlightened philosophers (philosophes) believed in the power of human reasoning and the perfection of humanity. Rejected the idea of man’s sinful nature and helplessness in the face of earthly evils, and promoted for the improvement of human societies. Called for religious toleration John Locke (1632-1704)—man is born with clean slate /experiences /the inalienable rights that are self-evident Voltaire (1694-1778) –criticized prisoner mistreatment in the Bastille Denis Diderot (17613-1748)—criticized the absolutist policies of French kings Louis XIV and Louis XV Adam Smith (1723-1790)—exposed the inefficiency of mercantilism Jean-Jacques Rosseau (1712-1778)—people should reject government violated the social contract of the people. Downside to this movement—very strong anti-Islamic, anti- Semetic, anti-Catholic, and anti-Chinese sentiment in ideas and in writings during this period. Also a belief similar to the Chinese that Europe was advancing over the rest of the world in its acquisition of goods and universal knowledge.
Cultural Flourishing in Africa The 1700s were good to African kingdoms Upper classes in these kingdoms funded new cultural achievements from the wealth of the slave trade. West African elites encouraged local artisans to produce carvings, statutes, masks, and other objects that would glorify the power and achievements of rulers—this practice similar to what royal patrons had done in Europe, Asia, and the Islamic world with respect to architecture and painting. The Asante kingdom—grew rich from slave trade (Show map of Asante kingdom) Kente cloth adjourned with lots of colors were worn by the Asante rulers and the kingdom had lots of GOLD The Oyo Empire (Nigeria)—this kingdom had a mastery in bronze works Benin—tragic irony as this empire was known as one of the most brutal slave-trading regimes while at the same time producing high quality art such as brass heads of leaders.
Formation of Hybrid Cultures in the Americas For Native Americans, they faced pressure to adapt their cultures to that of the European colonists. Europeans believed that their conquest of Native lands were for spiritual means as they sought to “Christianize and civilize” them. The Jesuit (Roman Catholic order) had far more militaristic impact on forcing Native Americans and African slaves to convert to Christianity than they did in Asia and the Islamic world—why? (My guess: GUNS) Means used to get compliance: Smashing idols, razing temples, whippings, mutilations and sexual assaults— and exploiting their knowledge of the cultures of the Native American peoples they conquered.
Hybrid Cultures in the Americas, continued… Native Americans did fight back as some captured colonists were forced to adapt to the ways of their captors. Many interracial marriages/sexual intercourses (due to shortage of women) took place with the Native Americans and many Native American women had power due to their economic-based connections with other Native American groups…Unfortunately, African women (99%) slaves were raped The interethnic mixing in some parts of North America such as in parts of present-day Louisiana, Florida, and the Caribbean, a powerful elite class, the Creoles, emerged.
Hybrid Cultures in the Americas, conclusion… In many colony cities of Spanish and Portuguese emigrants, Creole patrons helped bring about reading clubs and salons where fresh ideas began to spread When English settlers first came to North America, women had clout as they were few in number and men were willing to listen to them if they wanted consensual relations to take place.
Imperialism in “Oceania” Following 1770, Europeans began setting their sites for Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the South Pacific. These voyages were funded by the wealthy. Captain Cook (1728-1779)—an immensely famous explorer who provided scientific data for England His voyages to Australia led to the desire to colonize the island continent and use it for a prison colony for England’s undesirables to reside. The original inhabitants of Australia, the Aborigines, were decimated by disease and forced expansion in much the same way that the Native Americans had been in North and South America.