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Pp2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Motivation for Leisure TourismIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  2. 2. Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Discuss tourists’ motivation for leisure travel and tourism – Describe Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and Epperson’s push-pull model – Discuss Pearce’s leisure ladder model and Plog’s psychographic model It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.)– Discuss the role and importance of the National Park System– Outline different groups of sports tourists as well as the major sporting events– Describe the typical adventure traveler– Name the most common destinations for religious travel– Discuss the fundamentals of health care tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  4. 4. Motivation for Leisure Travel• In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in leisure travel – Indications are that this is likely to continue• Motivations for pleasure travel – Internal forces, external forces, and incentives that guide, direct and integrate a person’s behavior, for future personal satisfaction It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  5. 5. Leisure Travel (cont’d.)• Iso-Ahola: motivational forces – Desire to leave the everyday environment behind – Desire to obtain psychological or intrinsic rewards through travel in a contrasting environment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  6. 6. Leisure Travel (cont’d.) Figure 2–1 • Leisure Tourism Categories It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  7. 7. Leisure Travel (cont’d.)• Main factors that motivate tourists: – Personality – Lifestyle – Past experience and past life – Perceptions – Image – Personal circumstances (e.g., having a child, change in health) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  8. 8. Leisure Travel (cont’d.)• Travel motivators – Leisure trips account for 75% of Americans’ domestic travel • Business trips account for 25% – Of which, 9% combine the two – John Swarbrooke and Susan Horner • Types of motivating factors – Those that motivate a person to take a vacation – Those that motivate a person to take a particular vacation to a specific destination at a particular time It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  9. 9. Leisure Travel (cont’d.)Figure 2–2 • A Typology of Motivators in TourismSource: John Swarbrooke and Susan Horner, Consumer Behavior in Tourism (Oxford, England: ElsevierButterworth-Heinemann, 2005). With permission of Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  10. 10. Motivation, Needs, Expectations • Juergen Gnoth – Tourism is a response to felt needs and acquired values within temporal, spatial, social, and economic parameters • Once needs are met, generated motivation constitutes a major parameter in expectations – Expectations determine perceptions of performance of products and services as well as experiences It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Need satisfaction motivates human behavior – There are five levels of basic needs (see next slide) – As each need is satisfied, a person moves up to the next level It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy (cont’d.) Figure 2–3 • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  13. 13. The Push-Pull Model• People travel because they are: – “Pushed” into making travel decisions by internal, psychological forces • Intangible desires to travel generated from within – “Pulled” by external forces of the destination’s attributes • Attractions such as Disneyland or Sea World It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  14. 14. The Push-Pull Model (cont’d.) Figure 2–4 • Push-Pull Model It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  15. 15. Other Theories• Pierce: leisure ladder model – Attempts to explain individual behaviors on the basis of stages in a tourist’s life cycle • Tourists move through a hierarchy – Similar to Maslow’s hierarchy• Stanley Plog: bell shaped curve – Classifies U.S. population along a psychographic continuum • Most fall into a large bell-shaped curve It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  16. 16. Other Theories (cont’d.)Figure 2–5 • Psychocentric and Allocentric DestinationsSource: Adapted from Stanley Plog, “Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity” (paper presented to theSouthern California Chapter of the Travel Research Association, October 10, 1972), as cited in Edward Mayoand Lance Jarvis, The Psychology of Leisure Travel (Boston: CBI Publishing Company, 1981), 118. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  17. 17. Other Theories (cont’d.)• Card and Kestel – Motivation categories: curiosity, social interaction, and rejuvenation • Motivation is only one of many variables • Travel decisions are the result of several motives, or multimotives It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  18. 18. Travel Values• Several factors influence: – Why people travel – Where and when they go• For most people, value for money and time is a major influence – Cost of transportation – Time it takes to get there It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  19. 19. Travel Values (cont’d.)• Factors that bring down tourist prices: – Nation devalues currency – Political situation becomes unstable• Examples: – Attempted coup Thailand – Mexican government’s sudden devaluation of the peso It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  20. 20. Travel Values (cont’d.)• 2003: UNWTO reported a 2% decrease in worldwide tourism receipts – September 11, 2001 – U.S. terrorist attacks – Asian SARS – Bali bombing – Iraq and Afghanistan wars – Global economic recession It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  21. 21. Travel Values (cont’d.)• Governments can encourage leisure tourism by creating travel bargains – Place ceilings on room and meal prices – Set artificially high or low rates of exchange for foreign currencies• The traveler not restricted by time will be most likely to find the best travel values It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  22. 22. The Professional Traveler• A large percent are: – School teachers, college professors, students, and retirees• Professional travelers are: – Forever planning the next trip – Recounting the last one – Recouping their energies and fortunes It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  23. 23. Travel for Natural Beauty• Accelerated with Romantic Movement of the 1800s – New appreciation for beauties of nature• Idea of preserving lands became popular after the Civil War – 1872: Yellowstone was established as a national park • Today, there are 54 national parks attracting over 438 million people a year It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  24. 24. Natural Beauty (cont’d.)• Camping – Sometimes overlooked as part of the travel and tourism industry • Campers travel millions of miles a year in the U.S., Canada, and Europe • Statistics in dollars and numbers of campers show that camping is an enormous business – Vast expenditures for RVs and camping equipment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  25. 25. Parks• State parks – Cuts in state general funding are forcing many to look for alternative income • Increasing user fees • Flexible pricing • Central reservation systems • Allowing bids on commercial use permits and concessions – Examples: Ohio and New Hampshire It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  26. 26. Parks (cont’d.)• National parks – U.S. National Park Service • Founded by Congress in 1916 to conserve scenery, wildlife, and natural and historic resources as well as provide for their use by the public • 384 areas covering more than 83 million acres • Cannot be neatly categorized because of their diversity of resources It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  27. 27. Parks (cont’d.)• Great Smoky Mountains National Park – America’s most visited national park • Highest peaks in Appalachian Mountain range – History: • Believed to have formed over 1 billion years ago • 1000 BC: Cherokee Indians took up residence • 1540: Spanish conquistadors arrived • 200 years later: Old World immigrants began to settle It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  28. 28. Parks (cont’d.)• 1838: over 13,000 Cherokee were forced to leave their native lands• 1900: logging concerns discovered the Smoky Mountains• 1926: President Coolidge established a national park in the Smoky Mountains – Farmers did not want to leave their land• Great Smoky Mountains National Park was officially established on June 15, 1934It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  29. 29. Parks (cont’d.)• Yosemite National Park – Formed more than 500 million years ago • Many geographical changes have taken place – Populated by Native Americans for 8,000 years • Area became flooded with gold seekers in the 1850s, causing numerous conflicts – Others soon followed • Yosemite National Park was established October 1, 1890 It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  30. 30. Parks (cont’d.)• Yellowstone National Park – Developed in 1872 • First and oldest national park in the world – One of the most successful wildlife reserves in the country • Better known for geyser eruptions of Old Faithful – Ninety-nine percent of the park’s 3,400 square miles remains undeveloped It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  31. 31. Travel for Sports• Includes traveling to attend spectator sports and/or participate in sporting activities – Olympics and World cup – Australian, French, and U.S. Open, and Wimbledon – Superbowl, World Series, and the Masters – NASCAR It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  32. 32. Travel for Sports (cont’d.)• Also includes local-level games and competitions – Positive effects on local economy• Concept of health through physical activities has sparked renewed interest• Tremendous economic impact – Every year, two out of five U.S. adults travel for sports It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  33. 33. Adventure Travel• Includes (but not limited to): – Off-road bike tours – White water rafting – African safaris and wildlife tours – Rainforest canopy tours – Bungee jumping It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  34. 34. Adventure Travel (cont’d.)• Segment is growing at a fast pace – ½ U.S. adults (i.e., 98 million people), took an adventure trip in the last few years • 31 million adults engaged in hard adventure activities • Adventure travelers are more likely to be young, single, and employed It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  35. 35. Religious Travel• Often referred to as pilgrimage – Practiced for hundreds of years – Still fairly common today• Broken down into two categories: – Satisfying one’s religious convictions – Fulfilling one’s curiosity about a particular faith or practice It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  36. 36. Religious Travel (cont’d.)• Thousands of sites (e.g., holy lands, churches, temples, and mosques) – Attract millions of tourists each year – Some examples include: • Mountains of Buddhism pay homage to Buddha • Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj, is the peak of their religious life • Catholic Vatican is a holy land of sorts – Catholics travel to where the Pope visits It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  37. 37. Medical and Health Tourism• Goodrich and Goodrich define health tourism as: – Attempts of tourist facilities to attract tourists by promoting health care services and features in addition to regular tourist amenities It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  38. 38. Health Tourism (cont’d.)• Health care services may include: – Hydrotherapy treatments – Beauty treatments – Relaxation techniques – Cellulite treatment – Medical examinations – Operations of all kinds It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  39. 39. Health Tourism (cont’d.)– Special exercise, diet, and nutritional advice– Medical treatments for specific diseases such as arthritis– Alternative therapies– Body massages It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  40. 40. Trends• Tourism facing immense growth – A new form of tourism is emerging as well: • More sustainable, environmentally and socially responsible, and characterized by flexibility and choice – A new type of consumer is driving it: • More educated, experienced, independent, conservation-minded, respectful of cultures, and insistent on value for money It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]

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