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Mc connell 2e_ppt_ch07 Mc connell 2e_ppt_ch07 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals 1. Earth Scientists: Nature Dete 2. Elements and Atoms: Basic B 3. Minerals 4. Igneous Rocks 5. Sedimentary Rocks 6. Metamorphic Rocks 7. The Rock Cycle and Mineral Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives Are the rocks on Mars the same as rocks on Earth? The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives • Understanding rocks enables scientists to • Locate mineral resources (e.g., copper, gypsum) • Find fossil fuels (e.g., oil, gas, coal) • Assess the risk from natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions and tsunami • Learn about Earth processes such as plate tectonics • Discover the history and origins of other planets The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives Original ideas about how rocks formed • Neptunism • Rocks formed in a global ocean when material sank to ocean floor or was precipitated from chemical reactions • Plutonism • Heat from Earth’s interior melted rocks or caused them to fuse together The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives Examination of the production of bricks – manufactured materials with some of the same characteristics as rocks can provide clues to rock formation processes Bricks are made from raw materials such as shale or fireclay found at Earth’s surface Variations in the composition of raw materials produces different brick colors. Red bricks contain more iron. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives Where do bricks come from? Raw materials smashed into smaller pieces in crusher. Crushed materials ground to smaller size by grinding wheel. Resulting particles passed through a series of screens to sort materials by size. Sugar- and flour-sized particles mixed with water and other ingredients. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives Small particles mixed with water and other ingredients. Wet mixture forced through brick-shaped form. Wet “bar” cut into smaller bricksized pieces. Excess water removed by passing wet bricks slowly through long dryers (200oC). Final stage is “firing” of bricks in kiln at high temperatures (1,100oC). The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Earth Scientists: Nature Detectives • Brick making, like rock formation, involves: − Physical disintegration of raw materials − Chemical changes − Thermal effects And brick making is influenced by the composition of the raw materials, just like the formation of rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Elements and Atoms: The Basic Building Blocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks ATMOSPHERE BIOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE • The geosphere is composed of rocks and related materials GEOSPHERE The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Rocks are made of minerals • ~20 common minerals • Example: The rock granite (below) is composed of 4 key minerals - feldspar, quartz, mica, amphibole - and minor amounts of others. biotite mica, amphibole quartz feldspar The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Minerals are made of elements • 8 common elements compose 98% of continental crust rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Minerals are made of elements • Some minerals (e.g., quartz) are composed of just two elements • Others (e.g., amphibole) are made up of several elements • Some elements occur more frequently than others The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Atom – smallest particle that retains the characteristics of an element • Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons • Protons and neutrons in atomic nucleus • Electrons in surrounding “cloud” The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Atom – smallest particle that retains the characteristics of an element • Atomic number – the number of protons in the nucleus • Each element has a different number of protons in the atomic nucleus • Example: Neon has 10 protons, Helium has 2 protons The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Atoms may have negative or positive charge if they gain or lose electrons • Ions – atoms with different numbers of protons (positive) and electrons (negative) − Oxygen can gain two electrons to fill vacant sites − 8 protons, 10 electrons  -2 (negative charge, O2-) − Silicon may lose 4 electrons  +4 (positive charge, Si4+) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.1 The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Elements bond together to form minerals • Ionic bonds – balance of negative and positive charges of different ions (e.g., rock salt) • Covalent bonds – sharing of electrons between elements (e.g., diamond) to achieve a stable atomic structure The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks • Ionic bonds – balance of negative and positive charges Sodium atom loses extra electron to yield a positive charge (Na+) Chlorine ion gains extra electron to produce a negative charge (Cl-) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Ionic bonds – balance of negative and positive charges • Sodium and chlorine bond together to form rock salt (halite) − Ionic bond – balance of positive sodium ions with negative chlorine ions (NaCl) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Covalent bonds – sharing of electrons between elements • Hydrogen and oxygen bond together to form water (H2O) − Covalent bond – sharing of electrons between atoms ions The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Multiple bonds – silicon and oxygen join together by a combination of ionic and covalent bonding • 4 oxygen and one silicon atom combine by covalent bonds to form a silica tetrahedron (SiO4) − Tetrahedron has a negative charge (4-) and forms ionic bonds with atoms of other elements The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Silicate minerals – contain both silicon and oxygen • Silicon and oxygen are most common elements in crust • Silicates are the most common mineral group − Examples: quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Different types of bonds result in minerals of different strengths • Type of bonds determine strength of minerals, rocks − Ionic bonds – Velcro analogy, weaker bonds − Covalent bonds – Rope analogy, stronger bonds • Minerals formed with covalent bonds are stronger and more resistant to destructive forces at Earth’s surface − Silicates form more resistant rocks than most other mineral groups The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Elements and Atoms: Basic Building Blocks Silica tetrahedra combine together in different patterns in different silicate minerals • Minerals with low silica content have simple structures − Olivine, amphibole • Minerals with high silica content have more complex structures − Quartz, feldspar The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest Which of the following mineral formulae represents a silicate? A. FeS2 B. KAlSi3O8 C. Fe2O3 D. CaSO4•2H2O The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest The total electrical charges of the ions of the elements in the mineral olivine must balance. From the data in Table 7.1, which is the most reasonable formula for the mineral? A. MgSiO2 B. MgSiO4 C. Mg2SiO4 D. Mg4SiO2 The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Minerals The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals • Minerals: Naturally occurring, inorganic solids of one or more elements that have a definite chemical composition with an orderly internal arrangement of atoms Quartz Muscovite Mica Orthoclase Feldspar Galena Iron Pyrite Halite The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Crystal form – the arrangement of the faces of a crystal to form a particular shape Pyramids of calcite Needles of tourmaline − Common shapes are Prisms Pyramids Needles Cubes Sheets The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Cleavage – minerals break along planes of weakness defined by atomic structure Mica  1 set of cleavage planes − Cleavage planes more likely to occur across weak bonds between ions − Example: mica forms sheets joined by weak ionic bonds The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Cleavage – minerals break along planes of weakness defined by atomic structure Feldspar  2 sets of cleavage planes − Example: feldspar has 2 cleavage planes that intersect at 90 degrees − Example: amphibole has 2 cleavage planes that are not at 90 degrees to each other Amphibole  2 sets of cleavage planes The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.7 The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Hardness – minerals ranked by their relative hardness using Mohs Hardness Scale − Harder minerals can scratch softer minerals − Softer minerals more likely to break down at Earth’s surface − More resistant minerals more likely to be preserved (e.g., quartz sand on beaches) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Color – minerals have characteristic colors − Dark minerals (black, brown, dark green)  Olivine, amphibole, pyroxene, biotite mica − Light minerals (white, gray, pink)  Quartz, feldspar, muscovite mica, calcite − Careful, some minerals have many colors The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Minerals Mineral Characteristics • Other – luster, streak − Streak – color of mark on unglazed porcelain − Example: brown streak of hematite (iron mineral) − Luster: how light reflects from mineral − Example: metallic luster of iron pyrite The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Atoms to rocks: How they fit together The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Fill in the concept map to assess your understanding of minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Igneous Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Two types of igneous rocks are classified based on texture and composition The same magma can form both rock types 1. Volcanic rocks – form when magma rises to Earth's surface • Produces volcanoes, lava flows, tephra • Molten rock cools rapidly The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Two types of igneous rocks are classified based on texture and composition The same magma can form both rock types 2. Plutonic rocks – form when magma solidifies below Earth's surface • Examples of Plutons Batholith, stock, sill, dike, laccolith Produces plutons that remain hidden until exposed by erosion • Molten rock cools slowly The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Examine these objects • On the basis of observations only, how could you classify these objects into different groups? The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks These objects could be classified on the basis of their: • • • • • • Size Color Shape Materials Orientation Other? We can classify igneous rocks using similar features The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Texture Rapid cooling in volcanic rocks • Size of crystals of minerals in igneous rocks depends on rate of cooling of magma − Rapid cooling produces microscopic crystals − Slow cooling produces large, visible crystals Slow cooling in plutonic rocks • Crystal size interpreted to learn where rocks formed The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Color • Color varies with silica content (composition) High silica Intermediate silica Low silica − Silica-rich minerals such as quartz and feldspar are light-colored − Silica-poor minerals such as amphibole, biotite mica are dark colored The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Silica-rich rocks are composed mainly of minerals quartz and feldspar Silica-poor rocks are composed mainly of feldspar with iron and magnesium rich minerals (e.g. amphibole, pyroxene, olivine) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest Geologists sometimes find a type of igneous rock known as porphyry, which contains both large and small crystals. Which is the best explanation for the formation of this rock? The rock experienced a two-stage cooling process . . A. . . with initial slow cooling at depth followed by rapid cooling at the surface. B. . . with initial rapid cooling at depth followed by slow cooling at the surface. C. . . with initial rapid cooling near the surface followed by slow cooling at depth. D. . . with initial slow cooling near the surface followed by rapid cooling at depth. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest This rock sample corresponds to . . . A. A low silica volcanic rock. B. A low silica plutonic rock. C. A high silica plutonic rock. D. A high silica volcanic rock. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Rock Types and Magma Types 3 1 2 Each magma type may produce two rocks – one volcanic, one plutonic 3 Magma Types • Basaltic magma – partial melting parts of asthenosphere • Andesitic magma – partial melting of mantle rocks (with water) • Rhyolitic magma melting of parts of continental crust The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Igneous Rocks Rock Types and Magma Types • Less viscous, low silica magma likely to reach surface to form volcanic igneous rocks (e.g., basalt) Basalt lava, Hawaii Granite batholiths, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California • More viscous, high silica magma likely to cool below surface to form plutonic igneous rocks (e.g., granite) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.10 A B Name these igneous rocks and explain the reasons for your choices. C D The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.11 Complete the table by identifying which of the characteristics are present in volcanic and/ or plutonic igneous rocks. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Crystallization of silicate minerals from magma. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.12 Finish the partially filed in concept map for igneous rocks by filling in the blanks with appropriate terms. Three of the terms are magma, basalt and plutonic rocks. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Sedimentary Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks form as horizontal layers (beds) − − identified based on composition, thickness oldest beds at bottom, youngest at top The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Three types of sedimentary rocks • Clastic, Chemical, Biochemical − Identified by materials that make up the rock and/or the process by which they formed The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • Composed of rock and mineral fragments − Most common type of sedimentary rock • 3 stages of formation − Generation − Transportation − Lithification The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks 1. Generation − Physical and chemical breakdown of any rock at Earth’s surface (weathering) to form sediment − Sediment = rock and mineral fragments Sediment generated by weathering of Himalayas and transported in rivers − Sediment classified by grain size  Clay Increasing  Silt grain size  Sand  Gravel The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks 2. Transportation − Erosion  Sediment moved from place of origin by streams, wind, glaciers − Size of transported grains depends on velocity of transport medium − Erosion produces characteristic landscapes Sediment (dust) transported by prevailing winds from Africa toward the Atlantic Ocean The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sedimentary Rocks 3. Lithification − Sediment deposited when velocity of transport medium decreases − Larger grain sizes deposited first, finest grains remain in suspension and are deposited last Deposited sediment of contrasting grain sizes. − Over time, sediment is slowly compacted and grains are cemented together to form a new rock (lithification) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sediment and Clastic Sedimentary Rocks − Rock names reflect grain size  Mudstone, Shale made of clay, silt-sized grains  Sandstone composed of sand-sized particles  Conglomerate made of gravel and larger fragments Sandstone composed of quartz grains of similar sizes. Conglomerate composed of gravel-sized rock fragments The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sediment and Clastic Sedimentary Rocks − Rock names reflect grain size (see Table 7.5) − Transportation process sorts grains so deposits may have characteristic grain size (e.g., sand on a beach) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Clastic Sediment and Clastic Sedimentary Rocks • Transportation process sorts grains so deposits may have characteristic grain size (e.g., sand on a beach) • Sedimentary rocks hold clues to the environment where they were formed: − Example: river channels    High velocity flow in floods - gravels (conglomerate) Moderate speed flow – sand (sandstone) Slow flow - muds (shale) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest Examine the diagram. Weathering, transportation, and deposition can occur during steps: 6 A. 1, 2, 3 1 B. 3, 5, 7 7 5 8 3 2 C. 2, 4, 8 D. 4, 5, 6 4 The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.14 What observations can you make about the grain size and arrangement of these clastic sediments that would help determine their origin? The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks • Form when minerals precipitate (crystallize) from a solution as a result of changing physical conditions − Solutions = fresh water in lakes, groundwater or seawater Salt deposited on floor of ancient Lake Bonneville, Utah − Changing conditions commonly = increased temperatures (evaporation) The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks • Can be readily dissolved in water and transported to oceans • Rocks are typically indicative of shallow, coastal marine conditions in geologic past Salt deposited on floor of ancient Lake Bonneville, Utah − Termed evaporites as most form by precipitation due to evaporation The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • Link the biosphere and geosphere • Form due to actions of living organisms that cause minerals to be extracted from solution OR • From the remains of dead organisms The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • Form due to actions of living organisms that cause minerals to be extracted from solution − The mineral calcite is present in the rock limestone formed by coral organisms that build tropical reefs Coral reef formed in shallow, tropical sea The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • May form from the remains of dead organisms Coquina − Coquina  limestone formed from broken shell fragments − Coal  carbon-rich rock formed from compacted plant remains Coal seam, Wyoming The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • May form from the remains of dead organisms − Chalk formed from billions of coccoliths, round plates of calcite from microscopic (claysized) coccolithophore organisms − Chalk is a type of limestone The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks • May form from the remains of dead organisms − Coccolithophores live in cold oceans − Reflect sunlight to change water color − Chalk indicates specific marine conditions in geologic past The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.15 Use the Venn diagram to compare and contrast chemical and biochemical sedimentary rocks. Identify at least seven characteristics. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Fossil Fuels World is heavily dependant on oil and natural gas − Form from buried organicrich sediments. − Chemical reactions convert organics with increased pressures and temperatures of 50-100 ºC. − Over time (Myrs), oil and gas can form. − Oil and gas may be trapped to form hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Sedimentary Rocks and Coal US has some of the largest coal reserves in the world. − Form from buried plants. − Coal type (rank) depends on organic content of parent material, burial depth and heat. − Over time (Myrs), coal can form. − Lignite (low grade); bituminous (medium); anthracite (high). The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Metamorphic Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism • Changes in mineral composition and texture that can occur in any solid rock • Changes due to increasing temperature and/or pressure and/or the presence of fluids. − Temperatures high enough to promote chemical reactions but not high enough to cause melting  Approximately 200oC 1100oC, depending on rock type and conditions  Similar temperatures found deep in crust or near magma chambers The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks Two types of metamorphism 1. Contact metamorphism • Changes due to increases in temperature where rocks come in contact with heat source (e.g. magma chamber) − Example: limestone around a magma chamber is baked by the heat to form marble Marble (above) and limestone have similar composition but marble typically has a larger grain size The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks Two types of metamorphism 2. Regional metamorphism • Increased heat and pressure associated with associated with plate tectonic processes that form mountains − Increased pressures and temperatures cause tabular minerals to take on a preferred orientation, foliation, perpendicular to direction of pressure Foliation is produced when tabular minerals grow perpendicular to the direction of pressure. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks Increased pressures and temperatures cause tabular minerals to take on a preferred orientation, foliation, perpendicular to direction of pressure foliation Unmetamorphosed, non-foliated original rock (granite) with random distribution of minerals Metamorphic rock (gneiss) with foliation illustrates parallel alignment of minerals The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Metamorphic Rocks Two types of metamorphism 2. Regional metamorphism • Higher temperatures and pressures yield more intense metamorphism − Grain size increases with degree of metamorphism (metamorphic grade) − Rock names vary with grain size The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest The conversion from bread to toast can be seen as an analog for the formation of a metamorphic rock by: A.Contact metamorphism B.Regional metamorphism The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.18 Complete the table by identifying which of the characteristics are present in rocks formed by contact and/or regional metamorphism. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Contact versus Regional Metamorphic Rocks Checkpoint 7.19 Use the Venn diagram to compare and contrast metamorphic rocks formed by contact and regional processes. Add at least eight items to the diagram. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Go back to the Table of Contents Go to the next section: Rock Cycle and Mineral Resources The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • The Rock Cycle and Mineral Resources • Rock cycle links igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks together. − Any rock can become any other rock under the appropriate conditions. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest Cooking an egg could be seen as an analog for the formation of : A. Igneous rock. B. Sedimentary rock. C. Metamorphic rock. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Conceptest Concrete is formed by adding cement and water to a mixture of sand and gravel. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of what type of sedimentary rock? A. Clastic rock. B. Chemical rock. C. Biochemical rock. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Checkpoint 7.22 The diagram illustrates the rock cycle. Match the letters below to the blank ovals on the diagram. (Note: some letters are used more than once.) A. Cementation and compaction (lithification) B. Heat and Pressure C. Weathering, transportation, deposition D. Cooling and solidification E. Melting The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Mineral Resources • Mineral resources result from specific geologic processes associated with formation of rocks. − Can result from chemical reactions driven by changing temperatures and movement of fluids through rocks. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Mineral Resources • Mineral resources result from specific geologic processes associated with formation of rocks. − Can result when minerals crystallize at different temperatures. platinum The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Mineral Resources • Mineral resources result from specific geologic processes associated with formation of rocks. − Can result from concentration of various types of rocks and minerals during erosion, transportation and deposition. View of the Stullwater Mine, Nye, MT where rocks are collected for making lunar regolith simulant. Credit: U.S. Geological Survey Department of the Interior/USGS U.S. Geological Survey/photo. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • Rocks and Minerals Concept Map Complete the concept map to evaluate your understanding of the interactions between the earth system and rocks and minerals. Label as many interactions as you can using information from this chapter. The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals
  • The End Go back to the Table of Contents The Good Earth, Chapter 7: Rocks and Minerals