Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
0138142475 pp6a
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

0138142475 pp6a

496

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
496
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  1. Chapter 6 Tourism Planning and Sustainable DevelopmentIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  2. Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Explain the life cycle of tourism – Differentiate between the various approaches to tourism planning – Discuss the role of governments in tourism planning It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  3. Objectives (cont’d.)– Explain the purpose of and reasons for tourism policy– Explain what sustainable development is and how tourism is tied to it It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  4. Introduction• Planning: – Selecting various goals and strategies to ensure they are accomplished • In organizations, executives determine where the organization is and where it wants to go – Goals are established for each of the key operating areas It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  5. Figure 6–1 • Elements of Efficient and Effective Tourism Development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  6. Introduction (cont’d.)• Planning: – May be short term (tactical or operational planning) or long term (strategic planning) – Begins with strategic planning • Tourism master plan – Starts with an environmental scan that assesses social-cultural, technological, economic, educational, political, and legal factors It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  7. Introduction (cont’d.)• Sustainable development: – Development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs • All tourism development should be planned to be sustainable It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  8. Introduction (cont’d.)• Effective tourism planning: – Necessary for harmony in development – Helps ensure fair and sustainable policies are enacted – Help ensure the location avoids decline by prolonging its maturity phase – Requires public and private sector interaction It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  9. Introduction (cont’d.)• Without proper tourism planning destinations encounter problems – Overdevelopment – Pollution and sewage disposal problems• Environmental scanning – Analytical process • Allows investors and executives to anticipate trends and allocate resources accordingly It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  10. Planning as Part of a System• Edward Inskeep – Demand factors • Created by use of attractions, facilities, and services – Supply factors • Transportation, infrastructure, water, electric, sewage disposal, attractions, accommodations, foodservice, facilities, services, and industrial elements It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  11. Figure 6–2 • A Tourism Planning FrameworkIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  12. Planning (cont’d.)• Approaches to planning: – Community-focused approach • Incorporates community opinions – Sustainable approach • Avoids environmental and cultural degradation – Systems Approach • Tourism as a complete and integrated system – Governmental approach • Governments involved with several aspects It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  13. Planning Premises• International planning premises – Many are derived from World Tourism Conferences • Joint Declaration of the United Nations World Tourism Organization • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  14. Principles for Development• Gunn and Turgut – Goals for tourism planning: • Enhanced visitor satisfaction • Developing infrastructures and providing recreation facilities for visitors and residents • Improved economy and business success • Sustainable resource use • Community and area integration It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  15. Figure 6–3 • Inskeep’s Goals for a Tourism PlanIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  16. Government Involvement• Necessary in tourism planning and development in several areas, including: – Policy – Regulations – Obtaining finances – Issuing/monitoring loans – Resource management – Superstructure and infrastructure It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  17. Government (cont’d.)– Transportation– International treaties– Recording and publishing information– Human resource development– Training– Health care– Sanitation It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  18. Planning at a National Level• Edward Inskeep recommends national level of tourism planning focus on: – Tourism policy – Physical structure plan – Major infrastructure considerations – Tourism organizational structures, legislation, and investment policies It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  19. National Level (cont’d.)– Overall tourism marketing strategies and promotion programs– Education and training programs– Facility development and design standards– Sociocultural, environmental, and economic considerations and impact analyses– National-level implementation techniques– Land use planning It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  20. Regional Development Elements• Claire Gunn, elements necessary for regional development: – Natural resources – Cultural resources – Viable service communities – Access – Markets – Favorable development image It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  21. Regional Development (cont’d.) – Local acceptance of tourism – Favorable government controls – Available land for development – Availability of entrepreneurs and managers – Availability of labor – Availability of finances It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  22. Unsuccessful Development• Many nations have regarded tourism as an economic quick fix – Results in: • Overtouristed destinations • Overburdened facilities • Overbuilding of hotels • Polluted beaches • Cultural conflict • Dissatisfied tourist It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  23. Unsuccessful (cont’d.)• Stephen Smith, typical evolution of unplanned tropical beach resorts – Some local settlement; no significant tourism – First tourism; second home strip development – First hotel; high-budget visitors; new jobs – More hotels; strip intensified; houses displaced It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  24. Unsuccessful (cont’d.) – More lodging; cultural disruptions; beach congestion/pollution – More hotels; flood and erosion damage; tourism dominates – Resort government fails; urbanized resort. – Serious pollution; lateral spread; fully urbanized• Model can be applied to other types of tourism development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  25. Sustainable Development• United Nations first coined the term sustainable development in 1972 – Used it to stress responsible actions in development projects• Key concepts: – Meeting needs of visitors and communities – Protecting the tourism attraction as part of a national economic resource It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  26. Sustainable (cont’d.)• Tourism must improve the quality of life of the host population – Conserving and protecting natural surroundings• Community-based tourism: – Focuses on community involvement• Quality tourism: – Offers tourists “good value for money” It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  27. UNWTO Indicators• Function as management and planning tools for tourism development – General core indicators • Can be applied to all destinations – Destination-specific indicators • Can be applied to particular ecosystems or types of tourism at a particular site, location, or destination It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  28. UNWTO Indicators (cont’d.)• Subcategories: – Ecosystem-specific indicators • For example, for coastal areas, parks and protected areas, or mountainous areas – Site-specific indicators • Developed for one specific site It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  29. UNWTO Indicators (cont’d.)• Identifying and measuring indicators allows you to: – See specific cause-and-effect relationships • Identify and prevent/mitigate emerging issues • Identify impacts before they are problematic • Support sustainable tourism development while identifying limits and opportunities • Promote management accountability and responsible decision making It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  30. Figure 6–4 • The Core Indicators of Sustainable TourismSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization, What Tourism Managers Need to Know(Madrid, Spain: UNWTO, 2004), 11–21. © UNWTO. 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  31. Composite Indices• Made up of core indicators and ecosystem-specific indicators – Combined into a single measure of sustainability that can be monitored It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  32. Figure 6–5 • Composite Indices for Sustainable TourismSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization. www.UNWTO.org, © UNWTO.9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  33. Supplementary Indicators• Ecosystem-specific indicators – Coastal zones and mountain regions – Managed wildlife park and unique ecological sites – Urban environments – Cultural sites and small islands• Site-specific management indicators – Designed for application at one specific site It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  34. Figure 6–6 • Ecosystem-Specific Indicator—Coastal ZonesSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization. © UNWTO. 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  35. Composite Indices (cont’d.)• Agenda 21: – Helps in defining priority areas for action – Includes objectives and suggested steps to achieve them – Strategic and economic importance of travel and tourism is analyzed – Enormous benefits in a sustainable tourism industry are clearly demonstrated It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  36. Environment Assessment• Green Globe Program: – Evaluates current level of environmental performance of a tourism entity – Uses a strategic environmental assessment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  37. Environment (cont’d.)• Assessment results include: – Documenting of positive and negative environmental impacts – Identifying critical performance gaps – Identifying opportunities for remedial action – Environmental policy for the tourism sector – Detailed report on the current situation – Identifying specific sustainable development recommendations It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  38. Environment (cont’d.)• Action, planning, prioritizing, and monitoring – After the assessment has been made, Green Globe assists with: • Setting environmental improvement priorities • Implementation of timetables • Researching sources of funding • Identification of sustainability indicators It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  39. Climate Change• Conferences: – 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro – 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg – International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  40. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Climate change (i.e., global warming) – Great concern to tourism planners, governments, and citizens – Current threats of climate change: • Greenland • Arctic and Antarctica • Great Barrier Reef • Florida Everglades It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  41. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Kyoto Protocol – Adopted in 1977 – Response to mounting concerns about climate change – Formalized commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5 percent by 2012 • These have only increased since 2003 It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  42. Climate Change (cont’d.)• World Tourism Organization – Djerba Declaration on Tourism and Climate Change urged governments to: • Adopt the Kyoto Protocol • Research and collaborate on climate change • Move tourism up the agenda in climate change discussion • Implement sustainable water use practices and the ecological management of sensitive areas • Raise consumer awareness It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  43. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Challenges and opportunities include: – Making it clear that protecting the environment is not incompatible with economic development • Sustainable development clearly benefits both the economy and the environment – Connecting environmental sustainability to the fight to eradicate poverty and to eradicate world hunger It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]

×