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0138142475 pp6a

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  • 1. Chapter 6 Tourism Planning and Sustainable DevelopmentIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 2. Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Explain the life cycle of tourism – Differentiate between the various approaches to tourism planning – Discuss the role of governments in tourism planning It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 3. Objectives (cont’d.)– Explain the purpose of and reasons for tourism policy– Explain what sustainable development is and how tourism is tied to it It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 4. Introduction• Planning: – Selecting various goals and strategies to ensure they are accomplished • In organizations, executives determine where the organization is and where it wants to go – Goals are established for each of the key operating areas It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 5. Figure 6–1 • Elements of Efficient and Effective Tourism Development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 6. Introduction (cont’d.)• Planning: – May be short term (tactical or operational planning) or long term (strategic planning) – Begins with strategic planning • Tourism master plan – Starts with an environmental scan that assesses social-cultural, technological, economic, educational, political, and legal factors It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 7. Introduction (cont’d.)• Sustainable development: – Development that meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs • All tourism development should be planned to be sustainable It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 8. Introduction (cont’d.)• Effective tourism planning: – Necessary for harmony in development – Helps ensure fair and sustainable policies are enacted – Help ensure the location avoids decline by prolonging its maturity phase – Requires public and private sector interaction It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 9. Introduction (cont’d.)• Without proper tourism planning destinations encounter problems – Overdevelopment – Pollution and sewage disposal problems• Environmental scanning – Analytical process • Allows investors and executives to anticipate trends and allocate resources accordingly It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 10. Planning as Part of a System• Edward Inskeep – Demand factors • Created by use of attractions, facilities, and services – Supply factors • Transportation, infrastructure, water, electric, sewage disposal, attractions, accommodations, foodservice, facilities, services, and industrial elements It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 11. Figure 6–2 • A Tourism Planning FrameworkIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 12. Planning (cont’d.)• Approaches to planning: – Community-focused approach • Incorporates community opinions – Sustainable approach • Avoids environmental and cultural degradation – Systems Approach • Tourism as a complete and integrated system – Governmental approach • Governments involved with several aspects It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 13. Planning Premises• International planning premises – Many are derived from World Tourism Conferences • Joint Declaration of the United Nations World Tourism Organization • United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 14. Principles for Development• Gunn and Turgut – Goals for tourism planning: • Enhanced visitor satisfaction • Developing infrastructures and providing recreation facilities for visitors and residents • Improved economy and business success • Sustainable resource use • Community and area integration It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 15. Figure 6–3 • Inskeep’s Goals for a Tourism PlanIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 16. Government Involvement• Necessary in tourism planning and development in several areas, including: – Policy – Regulations – Obtaining finances – Issuing/monitoring loans – Resource management – Superstructure and infrastructure It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 17. Government (cont’d.)– Transportation– International treaties– Recording and publishing information– Human resource development– Training– Health care– Sanitation It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 18. Planning at a National Level• Edward Inskeep recommends national level of tourism planning focus on: – Tourism policy – Physical structure plan – Major infrastructure considerations – Tourism organizational structures, legislation, and investment policies It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 19. National Level (cont’d.)– Overall tourism marketing strategies and promotion programs– Education and training programs– Facility development and design standards– Sociocultural, environmental, and economic considerations and impact analyses– National-level implementation techniques– Land use planning It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 20. Regional Development Elements• Claire Gunn, elements necessary for regional development: – Natural resources – Cultural resources – Viable service communities – Access – Markets – Favorable development image It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 21. Regional Development (cont’d.) – Local acceptance of tourism – Favorable government controls – Available land for development – Availability of entrepreneurs and managers – Availability of labor – Availability of finances It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 22. Unsuccessful Development• Many nations have regarded tourism as an economic quick fix – Results in: • Overtouristed destinations • Overburdened facilities • Overbuilding of hotels • Polluted beaches • Cultural conflict • Dissatisfied tourist It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 23. Unsuccessful (cont’d.)• Stephen Smith, typical evolution of unplanned tropical beach resorts – Some local settlement; no significant tourism – First tourism; second home strip development – First hotel; high-budget visitors; new jobs – More hotels; strip intensified; houses displaced It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 24. Unsuccessful (cont’d.) – More lodging; cultural disruptions; beach congestion/pollution – More hotels; flood and erosion damage; tourism dominates – Resort government fails; urbanized resort. – Serious pollution; lateral spread; fully urbanized• Model can be applied to other types of tourism development It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 25. Sustainable Development• United Nations first coined the term sustainable development in 1972 – Used it to stress responsible actions in development projects• Key concepts: – Meeting needs of visitors and communities – Protecting the tourism attraction as part of a national economic resource It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 26. Sustainable (cont’d.)• Tourism must improve the quality of life of the host population – Conserving and protecting natural surroundings• Community-based tourism: – Focuses on community involvement• Quality tourism: – Offers tourists “good value for money” It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 27. UNWTO Indicators• Function as management and planning tools for tourism development – General core indicators • Can be applied to all destinations – Destination-specific indicators • Can be applied to particular ecosystems or types of tourism at a particular site, location, or destination It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 28. UNWTO Indicators (cont’d.)• Subcategories: – Ecosystem-specific indicators • For example, for coastal areas, parks and protected areas, or mountainous areas – Site-specific indicators • Developed for one specific site It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 29. UNWTO Indicators (cont’d.)• Identifying and measuring indicators allows you to: – See specific cause-and-effect relationships • Identify and prevent/mitigate emerging issues • Identify impacts before they are problematic • Support sustainable tourism development while identifying limits and opportunities • Promote management accountability and responsible decision making It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 30. Figure 6–4 • The Core Indicators of Sustainable TourismSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization, What Tourism Managers Need to Know(Madrid, Spain: UNWTO, 2004), 11–21. © UNWTO. 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 31. Composite Indices• Made up of core indicators and ecosystem-specific indicators – Combined into a single measure of sustainability that can be monitored It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 32. Figure 6–5 • Composite Indices for Sustainable TourismSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization. www.UNWTO.org, © UNWTO.9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 33. Supplementary Indicators• Ecosystem-specific indicators – Coastal zones and mountain regions – Managed wildlife park and unique ecological sites – Urban environments – Cultural sites and small islands• Site-specific management indicators – Designed for application at one specific site It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 34. Figure 6–6 • Ecosystem-Specific Indicator—Coastal ZonesSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization. © UNWTO. 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 35. Composite Indices (cont’d.)• Agenda 21: – Helps in defining priority areas for action – Includes objectives and suggested steps to achieve them – Strategic and economic importance of travel and tourism is analyzed – Enormous benefits in a sustainable tourism industry are clearly demonstrated It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 36. Environment Assessment• Green Globe Program: – Evaluates current level of environmental performance of a tourism entity – Uses a strategic environmental assessment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 37. Environment (cont’d.)• Assessment results include: – Documenting of positive and negative environmental impacts – Identifying critical performance gaps – Identifying opportunities for remedial action – Environmental policy for the tourism sector – Detailed report on the current situation – Identifying specific sustainable development recommendations It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 38. Environment (cont’d.)• Action, planning, prioritizing, and monitoring – After the assessment has been made, Green Globe assists with: • Setting environmental improvement priorities • Implementation of timetables • Researching sources of funding • Identification of sustainability indicators It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 39. Climate Change• Conferences: – 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro – 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg – International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 40. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Climate change (i.e., global warming) – Great concern to tourism planners, governments, and citizens – Current threats of climate change: • Greenland • Arctic and Antarctica • Great Barrier Reef • Florida Everglades It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 41. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Kyoto Protocol – Adopted in 1977 – Response to mounting concerns about climate change – Formalized commitment to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5 percent by 2012 • These have only increased since 2003 It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 42. Climate Change (cont’d.)• World Tourism Organization – Djerba Declaration on Tourism and Climate Change urged governments to: • Adopt the Kyoto Protocol • Research and collaborate on climate change • Move tourism up the agenda in climate change discussion • Implement sustainable water use practices and the ecological management of sensitive areas • Raise consumer awareness It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 43. Climate Change (cont’d.)• Challenges and opportunities include: – Making it clear that protecting the environment is not incompatible with economic development • Sustainable development clearly benefits both the economy and the environment – Connecting environmental sustainability to the fight to eradicate poverty and to eradicate world hunger It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]