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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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  • 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to TourismIt’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 2. Objectives• After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Describe the evolution of tourism – Define the scope and importance of tourism, both for the U.S. economy and internationally – Explain why tourism is described by Gunn and Leiper as a system It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 3. Objectives (cont’d.)– Suggest why so many governments promote tourism and why tourist revenue is so highly valued– Describe the types and characteristics of tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 4. Introduction• We can approach tourism from multiple viewpoints – Areas are interrelated – Industry experts recommend a systems approach • If something happens in one area, it will likely cause an effect in another It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 5. Introduction (cont’d.)Figure 1–1 • International Tourist Arrivals, 1950–2020Source: World Tourism Organization, Tourism 2020 Vision, Volume 1: Africa. Madrid, Spain: WorldTourism Organization, www.unwto.org, (accessed May 24, 2009). © UNWTO, 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 6. Definition of Tourism• United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) definition: – Activities of persons traveling to, and staying in places outside their usual environment • Not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 7. Definition of Tourism (cont’d.)• Important terms: – Demand side • Tourists’ motivations – Supply side • Sectors that satisfy tourist needs – Infrastructure • Components that an area’s residents rely on – Superstructure • Facilities built to accommodate tourist needs It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 8. A Systems Approach• Ludwig von Bertalanffy: – General systems theory • Defined a system as “a set of elements standing in interrelation among themselves and with the environments” 4• Clare Gunn: – Functioning tourism system • Consists of supply side of attractions, services, promotion, information, and transportation It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 9. A Systems Approach (cont’d.)• Neil Leiper: – Holistic approach • The tourist – People who plan and prepare a visit to another place • Geographical regions – Traveler-generating region – Transit route – Tourist destination region • Industry element – Distribution of travel It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 10. A Systems Approach (cont’d.)Figure 1–2 • A Tourism System Model Showing the Interdependencies among the VariousElements It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 11. A Systems Approach (cont’d.)• Wall and Mathieson elements • Dynamic element – Travelers’ decisions to travel to a selected destinations – Social, economic, and institutional factors that affect these decisions • A stay in the destination – Including interaction with the economic, environmental, and social systems of the destination • Consequential element – Results from preceding elements It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 12. A Systems Approach (cont’d.) Figure 1–3 • A Conceptual Framework of Tourism Source: Wall and Mathieson, Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities, p. 20. Pearson/Prentice Hall. Harlow, Essex, U.K. 2006. Permission kindly granted. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 13. Perspectives of Tourism• We can study tourism from several perspectives – Holistic interdisciplinary approach • Includes all elements of Figure 1–2 – Also includes several other elements (e.g., geography, motivation, marketing, economics, policy, agriculture, etc.) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 14. The Tourism Product• Narrow sense – Consists of what the tourist buys• Wider sense – Combination of what the tourist does at the destination and services used It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 15. The Tourism Product (cont’d.)• Characteristics of a tourism product: – Service, which is intangible (e.g., cannot be inspected physically) – Psychological in attraction – Varies in quality and standards – Supply side is fixed (e.g., more hotel rooms cannot be instantly created to meet demand) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 16. Characteristics of Tourism• Major types: – Internal tourism • Residents of a country visiting other parts of their own country – Domestic tourism • Inbound tourism plus internal tourism It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 17. Characteristics (cont’d.)– International tourism • Inbound tourism, which are visits to a country or region by nonresident– Outbound tourism • Visits by residents of a country or region to another country or region It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 18. Characteristics (cont’d.)• Characteristics: – Combination of phenomena and relationships – Dynamic elements (the journey) and static elements (the stay) – Movement to destinations is temporary – Not connected with paid work – Tourist goes to the product It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 19. Characteristics (cont’d.)– Tourism products are not used up– Labor-intensive– People-oriented– Multidimensional– Seasonal– Dynamic It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 20. Tourism Industry Sectors• Several interacting industries make up the tourism system, including: – Transportation – Lodging – Attractions – Foodservice It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 21. Industry Sectors (cont’d.)Figure 1–4 • The Interrelated Nature of the Tourism SystemSource: Walker, John R., Introduction to Hospitality Management, 3rd., © 2010. Electronicallyreproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 22. Tourism Past• Preindustrial age – Cruises on the Nile – Wealthy Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans – Olympics – The wheel and roads – Trade – The Grand Tour It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 23. Tourism Past (cont’d.)• Trains – Steam power gave birth to rail travel • Causes of increased growth: – Need to move goods – Politics, immigrants, and labor – Travel and tourism • Causes of decline: – New modes of transportation (e.g., bus, car, and airplanes) – Great Depression It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 24. Tourism Past (cont’d.)• Cruising – Until 1830, travel by ship was primitive • Mostly used for discovery, trading, or migration – The Peninsula and Orient (P&O) company • First to offer cruises between Britain, Spain, and Portugal It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 25. Tourism Past (cont’d.)• Automobile travel – Internal combustion engine automobile • Emerged from steam engines – Henry Ford • Automobile assembly line – Model-T Ford – Increased leisure travel It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 26. Tourism Past (cont’d.)• Air travel – Wright brothers – 1935 commercial flights became feasible – World War II • Pressed planes into military service – 1950 commercial jet airplanes • Boeing 700 series It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 27. Tourism Present• Main elements: – Vital force for peace – Social importance – Economic importance – Cultural enrichment – Employment opportunities – Educational significance It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 28. Tourism Present (cont’d.)• Jafar Jafari’s platforms: – Advocacy platform • Many were advocating for tourism development – Cautionary platform • Studies that argued tourism is not all benefits – Adaptancy platform • Favoring one alternative over another – Knowledge based platform • Combined the platforms It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 29. Tourism Present (cont’d.)• Scope of travel and tourism – Mass travel and tourism • After World War II superhighways, commercial jets, and disposable income made it possible – Travel flows change continuously • Depend on economic conditions – Includes exchange rates, political factors, and business conditions • Business power of Japan, China, and India It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 30. Tourism Present (cont’d.)Figure 1–5 • International Tourist Arrivals, Most Visited CountriesSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization, “International Tourist Arrivals by Countryof Destination,” UNWTO World Tourism Barometer 6, no. 2 (June 2008), www.unwto.org,(accessed August 1, 2008). © UNWTO, 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 31. Tourism Present (cont’d.)Figure 1–6 • International Tourism Receipts, Top Tourism Earning CountriesSource: United Nations World Tourism Organization, “International Tourism Receipts,” UNWTOWorld Tourism Barometer 6, no. 2 (June 2008), www.unwto.org, (accessed August 2, 2008). ©UNWTO, 9284404409. It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 32. Tourism Present (cont’d.)• Business travel – Meetings, conferences, seminars, workshops, and training sessions – Incentive travel – Normal business travel • May be a combination of first two – Research and teaching travel It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 33. Domestic Travel and Tourism• Domestic leisure travel – Large and growing sector • Includes travel for recreation, visiting friends and relatives, history and culture, attractions, entertainment, cruising, and sightseeing• Domestic business travel – Includes all forms that are work related • MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions) It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 34. Interrelated Business• Travel and tourism industry involves a complex set of interrelated businesses – Hospitality, travel, and tourism businesses • Retailers • Transportation sector • Recreation or gaming facilities • Hotels and restaurants It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 35. Where Do Americans Travel?• Many possible destinations – Some are more popular than others • Most Americans tend to think of vacation spots as beaches, mountains, and forests • Many vacations take place in major cities • Main purpose of a vacation is sightseeing, recreation, and visiting friends and relatives – Followed by trips for business or conventions It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]
  • 36. Tourism and You• World Travel and Tourism Council – Tourism industry is expected to grow 50 percent faster than other sectors • Excellent career option • Already the largest of all sectors of world employment It’s Tourism: Concepts and Practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. John Walker publishing as Pearson [imprint]