Modern mobile operating systems combine the features of personal computer operator system with touchscreen, cellular, bluetooth, wifi, gps etc.Modern mobile os = personal computer os + extra features ….
* Many companies have already written their own in-house operating systems for the devices theymanufacture such as Symbian or iPhone OS. * However, with the existence of so many closed-sourceoperating systems, no rational company would want to disclose their secrets andlose their edge onthe competition.
* Mobile devices have seen an extensive amount of development in recent years, but one questionis still looming and nobody seems to have the answer: what is ’standard’ for the mobile platform?* Software developers can’t write codes that can begeneralized. Generalized: common for all.
* Organization formed as a result of partnership between firms to develop open standards for mobile devices.
Formation of oha and the acquisation of Android Inc. by google on August 17, 2005 led to the birth of android .. A team led by the head of androidinc created a mobile platform powered by linux kernel. A kernel is the basic component of an operating system .. Usually it acts as a bridge to applications and the actual data processing in hardware.Android is the flagship software of oha .. Flagship = best
The software stack is open sourced .. So you can get the code and then make changes … Definition of a license: terms and conditions for use, reproduction and distribution of a softwareTheframework for developing an app is very good. By framework we mean the structure of a concept..
Android can be subdivided into four main layers: the kernel, libraries, applications framework,and applications. As previously mentioned the kernel is Linux. The libraries that come withAndroid provide much of the graphics, data storage, and media capabilities. Embedded within thelibraries layer is the Android runtime which contains the Dalvik virtual machine, which powers theapplications. The applications framework is the API that all applications will use to access thelowest level of the architecture
The core system services (drivers) for hardware are provided in this layer.
Dalvikvm is a java based license free VM .. Register based VM for low memory requirements.
SSL: Secure Socket LayerSGL: 2D image engineLibc: c standard libWebKit: Kernel of web browserFreeType: Bitmap and Vector
The developers are provided with the application frameworkAre able to develop rich applications
There is no limit in the number of applications running at a time. All the applications run parallely and have equal priority….Android will ship with a set of core applications like the Home, Contacts …
Requirements for developing an Android App:*Android Software Development Kit: Contains:- Android.jar: Contains all of the Android SDK classes necessary to build your application. - Documention.html and docs directory The SDK documentation is provided locally and on the Web. It's largely in the form of JavaDocs, making it easy to navigate the many packages in the SDK. The documentation also includes a high-level Development Guide and links to the broaderAndroid community. - Samples directory: The samples subdirectory contains full source code for a variety of applications, including Api Demo, which exercises many APIs. The sample application is a great place to explore when starting Android application development. - Tools directory: Contains all of the command-line tools to build Android applications. The most commonly employed and useful tool is the adb utility(Android Debug Bridge). - Usb_driver Directory: Containing the necessary drivers to connect the development environment to an Android-enabled device, such as the G1or the Android Dev 1 unlocked development phone. *Tools: >> Emulator:Android applications mayrun on a real device or on the Android Emulator, which ships with the Android SDK.>>ADB (Android Debug Bridge):The ADB utility lets you connect to the phone itself and issue rudimentary shell commands, such as copying files to and from the device.* Eclipse Integrated Development Environment : The development tools and resources for your Android platform are targeted to develop in eclipse so it is a very suitable environment for the application.
Globally, Smartphone Market grew 61% in 2011 with total shipment volumes reaching 491.4 million units in 2011, a whopping increase of over 304.7 million units in 2010! Smartphones are replacing features phones at much faster rate than expected, thanks to consistently falling pricing.In comparison to Global Smartphone Market, growth in India is expected to be even higher – According to “India Smartphone Outlook for 2012” report released by Convergence Catalyst, India will witness 100% growth in 2012, with total smartphone shipments expected to reach 20 million units.
Jelly Bean, is the fastest and smoothest version of Android yet.
ANDROID OPERATING SYSTEM Konark Debbarma firstname.lastname@example.org
Overview• Mobile Operating System• Problems faced• Open Handset Alliance• Birth of Android OS• What Android OS gives..• The Android OS Architecture• Develop for Android OS• Android in India
Mobile Operating SystemOperating system that operates on smart phones,PDA, tablets or any other digital mobile devices.
Too many mobile OS! Closed Tough source OS Competition In-house operating systems No rational company would want to disclose their secrets May loose edge in the competition
Problems Faced What is the ‘Standard’ for mobile platform?Software developers can’t write generalized code
Open Handset Alliance (OHA) Open mobile platform development organization SOLUTION? Established on 6th November 2007 Led by GOOGLE 84 firms alliance(today) http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/oha_members.html/ Headquartered at South Korea
Birth of Android OS Android Inc. is a company that Google took over, which later led to Google entering the mobileOS market and the formation of OHA. Android is the flagship software of the alliance. Android is not only an OS but a software bunch having an operating system, middleware and key mobile applications.
What Android OS gives.. - Software stack - Powerful - Loads of features. open sourced development - Control what gets under Apache 2.0 framework. installed. DEVELOPER license. - Open market - Apart from a fewINDUSTRY place to share applications applications. everything is free. USER
Details of Architecture(1/4) Core system services are provided by this layer Android uses only “Kernel” portion in Linux
Core Libraries: Provides the functionality of the Java Programming Language. Dalvik Virtual Machine: Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
Details of Architecture(2/4) Surface Manager: Manage different windows for different applications Media Framework: Core part of Android multi-media SQLite: Embedded database OpenGL | ES: 3D image engine
Details of Architecture(3/4) The developers are provided with the application framework Are able to develop rich applications
Details of Architecture(4/4) No limited number of application Equality of every application Parallel running
Develop for Android• Android SDK• Tools• Eclipse Integrated Development Environment
Android in India Data provided by: Convergence Catalyst
Android in India cont.. Data provided by: Convergence Catalyst
Android Versions Name Version Logo Cupcake 1.5 Donut 1.6 Éclair 2.0/2.1 Froyo 2.2 Ginger Bread 2.3 Honeycomb 3.0/3.1Ice Cream Sandwich 4.0 Jelly Bean 4.1
References• Introduction to Android by Huang Xuguang, Database Lab. Inha University• Home Page of OHA http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/• Apache Software Foundation http://www.apache.org/• Wikipedia http://www.wikipedia.org/• India Business Blog http://www.trak.in/