«“Stream Flow Rate (“Discharge”)” “Measurement”»
of an
«”Effluent” (“Gaining”) ”Perennial” “First Order”
(classified eithe...
Thomas Κ. Papalaskaris
Civil Engineer A.U.Th.
MSc. In Management of Water Resources
In the Mediterranean
Moments from
«”Fi...
ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΑΣΟΠΟΝΙΑΣ & ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΗΣ
ΦΥΣΙΚΟΥ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ -
ΔΡΑΜΑ - ΕΛΛΑΔΑ
DEPARTMENT of FORESTRY & NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT MANAGEM...
Water Resources Governing Laws during the ancient ages
• Perino del Vaga, c. 1541
Solon giving his laws to the Athenians.
...
Νόμοι Διαχείρισης Υδατικών Πόρων στο παρελθόν
• Perino del Vaga, c. 1541
Ποιητής, Φιλόσοφος, ΚυβερνήτηςΑπόσπασμα του νόμου...
Water Resources Governing Laws during the ancient ages
• Perino del Vaga, c. 1541
Poet, philosopher, statesmanSolon’s law ...
Of even greater importance
than land is water
Aristotle 384 - 322 BC
Professor: Thomas Spanos
«Πρέπει να μετρήσουμε ό,τι είναι μετρήσιμο
και να καταστήσουμε μετρήσιμο ό,τι δεν είναι»
Γαλιλαίος 1564-1642
«We have to m...
Small streams, including those that don’t flow all of the time, make up
the majority of the country’s waters. They could b...
«“Strahler’s” “Stream
Order Classification
Method”»
«“Streeve’s” “Stream Order
Classification Method”»
…our presently deal...
http://www.earthdrx.org/influentandeffluents
treams.html
http://www.earthdrx.org/influentandeffluents
treams.html
…our pre...
The Mediterranean landscapes in particular, being dominated by
steep topography and fragile soils, are predomianantly pron...
The “River Devon Project” is a modern approach to “flood management”. It is demonstrating that
“although the symptoms of f...
http://palmerlab.umd.edu/mcdonough_et_al_2011_temporary_streams.pdf
Due to the marked wet/dry seasonal precipitation patte...
Exceptionally (and eventually) dedicated for a sufficiently
(actually countless) great deal of reasons to :
Vice Presiden...
Inspired by & especially dedicated to :
Prof. Emmanouloudis A. Dimitrios (President-Forest Engineer-Hydrologist –
Adaptive...
Inspired by & especially dedicated to :
Prof. Katopodes Nikolaos (President-Civil & Environmental Engineer-Hydrologist)
Dr...
Prof. Maditinos I. Dimitrios (Business Administration, Informatics & Information
Systems, Finance & Financial Modelling)
D...
Prof. Xoplaki Elena (Implication of Climate Change on Water Resources today and
in the future)
Inspired by & especially de...
Dr. Tsiftsis Spyros (Forester – Biologist – Botany Specialist)
Inspired by & especially dedicated to :
Prof. Takos ioannis...
Inspired by & especially dedicated to :
Kosmides Panagiotis (Forester)
Kampanis Kampanis (Forester)
“Bar Managers” in the
...
Paraskevopoulos Ioannis - Carpenter
Amygdaleonas – Kavala - Greece
The “V-Notch Sharp-Edged Triangular-Shaped (“Thompson t...
“ The Call Of The Wild ”
Jack London
“http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/streams.cfm”
“Thomas K. Papalaskaris” introduced & implemented it first time in “Granitis» village-Drama Greece in 2013.
Inspecting the...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Staff gauges
Weir notch
nappe
Moss blanket (moss removed f...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
Moss blanket (moss removed from
the surro...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Staff gauge
Weir notch
nappe
Moss blanket (moss removed fr...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
Region of drawdown of
water going through...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
«“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightl...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Weir notch
nappe
Region of drawdown of water
going through...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the beh...
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the beh...
The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading
consequently the overall water fl...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
The nappe of the notch is adequately vent...
Levelling the weir simoulaneously lengthwise (longitudinally) and crosswise (laterally, across) by
means of a simoultaneou...
Leakage not only minimized but absolutely eliminated all around the weir (under & beside)
Manually compacting the plugging...
Manually (aiming to minimize not only the riparian soil but the overall riparian area natural
habitat) removing moss blank...
Bringing the moss blanket into the “weir assembly device” site with the view to plug the weir all
around eliminating flowi...
Forcing the moss blanket at the rear underneath of the “weir assembly device” with the view to
adequately plug the weir al...
Forcing the moss blanket at the rear underneath of the “weir assembly device” with the view to
adequately plug the weir al...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Moss blanket (moss removed from
the surro...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Region of drawdown of
water going through...
Weir notch
nappe
Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed
across the weir’s encasement with the view to
prevent later...
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Manually (aiming to minimize not only the riparian soil but the overall rip...
Weir notch
nappe
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across
the w...
Weir notch
nappe
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across
the w...
Weir notch
nappe
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed
across the w...
A few meters upstream the “portable weir plate” location, along a fallen log, natural tiny
waterfalls formation occurs, ca...
Rating table
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along,
thus creating ...
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along,
thus creating reaches which...
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along,
thus creating reaches which...
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along,
thus creating reaches which...
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where i...
Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of
the “first-order” small Me...
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where i...
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where i...
Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of
the “first-order” small Me...
Wild animal predators should be worried about…
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns...
The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along,
thus creating reaches which...
A pool has been created upstream the “weir’s assembly device” location making certain that
sub-critical water flow conditi...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate
(“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec
(0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Carpenter’s spirit levelsStaff gauges (all ...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate
(“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec
(0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Spotting & marking the
gauging station by m...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate
(“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec
(0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Spotting & marking the
gauging station by m...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate
(“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec
(0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Region of drawdown of water
going through t...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate
(“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec
(0.64m3
/hour)!!!
«“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”»
slightly ...
Weir notch
nappe
Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”):
Q=0.18ltrs/sec= (0.64m3
/hour)!!!
Moss blanket (moss removed from
the surr...
“Arhontoula T. Papalaskaris”
“First child around the globe” performing a stream flow (“discharge”) measurement
by means of...
Conclusions :
http://froza1.blogspot.gr/2008/01/blog-
post_6697.html
Learn how to play
football my little boy!!!
Μάθε μπαλ...
Conclusions :
WHOEVER feels confident to carry out stream flow rate
(“discharge”) measurements either at those, or even at...
Είμαστε σκληροί και πειθαρχικοί είμαστε του
«”MSc.” του Τμήματος Δασοπονίας - Δράμας»
οι Πολιτικοί Μηχανικοί
We are tough ...
For verification & certification of the abovementioned
you are welcome to check also the following “web-site”
links :
“htt...
Thanks for your attention !
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Granitis dramas2013.07.13

303 views
203 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
303
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Granitis dramas2013.07.13

  1. 1. «“Stream Flow Rate (“Discharge”)” “Measurement”» of an «”Effluent” (“Gaining”) ”Perennial” “First Order” (classified either by «“Strahler’s” or “Shreeve’s Stream Order Classification Method») “Mediterranean” “Mountainous Creek”» by means of a «“V-Notch” “Sharp-Edged” “Triangular-Shaped” (“Thompson type”) “U.S.G.S.” “Portable Weir Plate” “(Improved Version)”»
  2. 2. Thomas Κ. Papalaskaris Civil Engineer A.U.Th. MSc. In Management of Water Resources In the Mediterranean Moments from «”First Time Implementation In Greece” & «outside U.S.A.”» [with water leakage eliminated all around the weir plate “at very low-flow (“water scarcity”) conditions”] (Granitis Drama Northern Greece 2013.07.13) Photos taken & overall assistance by Arhontoula T. Papalaskaris (Primary School Student-Class C’)
  3. 3. ΤΜΗΜΑ ΔΑΣΟΠΟΝΙΑΣ & ΔΙΑΧΕΙΡΙΣΗΣ ΦΥΣΙΚΟΥ ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΟΣ - ΔΡΑΜΑ - ΕΛΛΑΔΑ DEPARTMENT of FORESTRY & NATURAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT - DRAMA - GREECE DEPARTAMENTO de INGENIERIA FORESTAL de MONTES - DRAMA - GRECIA
  4. 4. Water Resources Governing Laws during the ancient ages • Perino del Vaga, c. 1541 Solon giving his laws to the Athenians. Ο Σόλων δίνει τους νόμους του στους Αθηναίους. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Poet, philosopher, statesman[23.5] πε δ πρ ς δωρ ο τε ποταμο ςἐ ὶ ὲ ὸ ὕ ὔ ῖ στιν ενάοις ο τε λίμναις τισ ν ο τ'ἐ ἀ ὔ ὶ ὔ φθόνοις πηγα ς χώρα διαρκής, λλ' οἀ ῖ ἡ ἀ ἱ πλε στοι φρέασι ποιητο ς χρ ντο, νόμονῖ ῖ ἐ ῶ γραψεν, που μέν στι δημόσιον φρέαρἔ ὅ ἐ ντ ς ππικο , χρ σθαι τούτ : τ δ'ἐ ὸ ἱ ῦ ῆ ῳ ὸ ππικ ν διάστημα τεσσάρων ν σταδίων:ἱ ὸ ἦ που δ πλε ον πέχει, ζητε ν δωρ διον:ὅ ὲ ῖ ἀ ῖ ὕ ἴ ν δ ρύξαντες ργυι ν δέκα βάθος παρ'ἐὰ ὲ ὀ ὀ ῶ αυτο ς μ ε ρωσι, τότε λαμβάνειν παρἑ ῖ ὴ ὕ ὰ το γείτονος ξάχουν δρίαν δ ς κάστηςῦ ἑ ὑ ὶ ἑ μέρας πληρο ντας: πορί γ ρ ετο δε νἡ ῦ ἀ ᾳ ὰ ᾤ ῖ βοηθε ν, ο κ ργίαν φοδιάζειν. ρισε δῖ ὐ ἀ ἐ ὥ ὲ κα φυτει ν μέτρα μάλ' μπείρως, [ὶ ῶ ἐ 23.6] το ς μ ν λλο τι φυτεύοντας ν γρ πέντεὺ ὲ ἄ ἐ ἀ ῷ πόδας πέχειν το γείτονος κελεύσας, το ςἀ ῦ ὺ δ συκ ν λαίαν ννέα. πο ωτέρω γ ρὲ ῆ ἢ ἐ ἐ ῤῥ ὰ ξικνε ται τα τα τα ς ίζαις, κα ο π σιἐ ῖ ῦ ῖ ῥ ὶ ὐ ᾶ γειτνι το ς φυτο ς σιν ς, λλ κα τροφ νᾷ ῖ ῖ ἀ ῶ ἀ ὰ ὶ ὴ παραιρε ται κα βλάπτουσαν νίοιςῖ ὶ ἐ πο ο ν φίησι. βόθρους δ κα τάφρουςἀ ῤῥ ὴ ἀ ὲ ὶ τ ν βουλόμενον κέλευσεν ρύσσειν, σονὸ ἐ ὀ ὅ μβάλλει βάθος, φιστάμενον μ κοςἐ ἀ ῆ τ λλοτρίου: κα μελισσ ν σμήνηἀ ὶ ῶ καθιστάμενον πέχειν τ ν φ' τέρουἀ ῶ ὑ ἑ πρότερον δρυμένων πόδας τριακοσίους.ἱ Professor: Emmanuel Andreadakis
  5. 5. Νόμοι Διαχείρισης Υδατικών Πόρων στο παρελθόν • Perino del Vaga, c. 1541 Ποιητής, Φιλόσοφος, ΚυβερνήτηςΑπόσπασμα του νόμου του Σόλωνα που αναφέρεται στις επιτρεπόμενες αποστάσεις ανόρυξης νέου φρέατος από υφιστάμενο δημόσιο ή ιδιωτικό φρέαρ («Πλουτάρχου, Σόλων, 23»): Επειδή δεν υπάρχουν ούτε ποταμοί μόνιμης ροής, ούτε λίμνες, ούτε άφθονες πηγές στην χώρα, αλλά οι περισσότεροι χρησιμοποιούσαν κατασκευασμένα φρέατα, έγραψε νόμο, όπου υπάρχει σε ακτίνα 740 μέτρων δημόσιο φρέαρ να χρησιμοποιούν αυτό…όπου δεν υπάρχει, να κατασκευάζουν μόνοι τους…αν δεν βρουν νερό σε βάθος 18,50 μέτρων, τότε να παίρνουν από τον γείτονα μία υδρία από δύο φορές την ημέρα…όρισε και αποστάσεις στις καλλιέργειες…διατάζοντας ό,τι όποιοι φυτεύουν οτιδήποτε άλλο να απέχει 1,50 μέτρα από του γείτονα, και όποιοι φυτεύουν συκιά ή ελιά, να απέχει 2,70 μέτρα, γιατί οι ρίζες τους φτάνουν πιο μακριά και αφαιρούν την τροφή από τα γειτονικά τους, ή τα βλάπτουν, οι απορροές τους…και όποιος θέλει να ανοίξει βόθρους και τάφρους, τότε σε όσο βάθος φτάνουν, τόσο να απέχουν και μεταξύ τους, και όποιος βάζει μελίσσια, να απέχουν από τα ήδη υφιστάμενα απόσταση 90 μέτρα. Solon giving his laws to the Athenians. Ο Σόλων δίνει τους νόμους του στους Αθηναίους. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Καθηγητής: Εμμανουήλ Ανδρεαδάκης
  6. 6. Water Resources Governing Laws during the ancient ages • Perino del Vaga, c. 1541 Poet, philosopher, statesmanSolon’s law segment making reference to the specified distances should be kept between new drilling and both private and public already existing drilled water well («Πλουτάρχου, Σόλων, 23»): Owing to the fact there hasn’t been either perennial rivers, or lakes, or even abundant springs throughout the country, but instead most of the inhabitants used to get water by artificially constructed wells, he wrote a law, to use a public well, where existed within a radius of 740 metres… on the contrary, where a public not existed, to construct (drill) a new themselves…if they didn’t discover water within a depth of 18,50 metres, then they had to get a hydria twice a day from their neighbor’s owned water…he also defined certain clearances to be kept between the crops…ordering that whoever planted whatever else to make sure a clearance of 1,50 metres had been kept between the new crop and the neighbor’s pre-existent one, and whoever planted either a fig-tree or an olive- tree, should be as much distant as to 2,70 metres, due to the fact that their root system network reached further and subtracted the necessary nutrients from the neighboring trees, or they harmed them via their drippings…and whoever desired to install new cesspits and wastewater disposal trenches, then they should be distant between each other as much as the installed depth they reached, and whoever established an settled new beehives outdoors, to make certain a clearance of 90 metres between them and the neighboring pre-existent ones had been kept . Solon giving his laws to the Athenians. Ο Σόλων δίνει τους νόμους του στους Αθηναίους. National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. Professor: Emmanuel Andreadakis
  7. 7. Of even greater importance than land is water Aristotle 384 - 322 BC Professor: Thomas Spanos
  8. 8. «Πρέπει να μετρήσουμε ό,τι είναι μετρήσιμο και να καταστήσουμε μετρήσιμο ό,τι δεν είναι» Γαλιλαίος 1564-1642 «We have to measure whatever is measurable and set measurable whatever it isn’t»
  9. 9. Small streams, including those that don’t flow all of the time, make up the majority of the country’s waters. They could be a drizzle of snowmelt that runs down a mountainside crease, a small spring-fed pond, or a depression in the ground that fills with water after every rain and overflows into the creek below. These water sources, which scientists refer to as headwater streams, are often unnamed and rarely appear on maps.Yet the health of small streams is critical to the health of the entire river network and downstream communities. These small streams often appear insignificant, but in fact are very important, as they feed into and create our big rivers. Headwater streams are the beginnings of rivers, the uppermost streams in the river network furthest from the river's endpoint or confluence with another stream. Headwater streams trap floodwaters, recharge groundwater supplies, remove pollution, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and sustain the health of downstream rivers, lakes and bays. Because small streams and streams that flow for only part of the year are the source of the nation’s fresh waters, changes that harm these headwaters affect streams, lakes and rivers downstream. “http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/streams.cfm”
  10. 10. «“Strahler’s” “Stream Order Classification Method”» «“Streeve’s” “Stream Order Classification Method”» …our presently dealt specific case study… http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm ons/b/b3/Shreve-stream-order.png http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/waterq3/ WQassess4b.html
  11. 11. http://www.earthdrx.org/influentandeffluents treams.html http://www.earthdrx.org/influentandeffluents treams.html …our presently dealt specific case study… http://www.gg.uwyo.edu/content/laboratory/groundwater/gw- streams/gain-streams/perennial.asp? callNumber=23165&SubcallNumber=0&color=873F8A&unit=
  12. 12. The Mediterranean landscapes in particular, being dominated by steep topography and fragile soils, are predomianantly prone to erosion, due to the existence of extensive droughts followed by high rainfall. Van der Knijff, J., Jones, R.J.A., Montanarella, L., (2000). Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Europe. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities,Louxembourg. Plate 1. Areas highly eroded and desertified with soils formed in limestone (upper part, left photograph) and pyroclastics (right phtograph) and areas well vegetated with deep soils formed in flysch (lower part, left photograph) Photo by C. Kosmas)
  13. 13. The “River Devon Project” is a modern approach to “flood management”. It is demonstrating that “although the symptoms of flooding are felt downstream” in streets, businesses and houses, “the actual causes begin upstream”, among fields, “forests” and gullies. http://www.wwf.org.uk/filelibrary/pdf/slowingflow_web.pdf
  14. 14. http://palmerlab.umd.edu/mcdonough_et_al_2011_temporary_streams.pdf Due to the marked wet/dry seasonal precipitation pattern in the Mediterranean climate, nearly half of the river network in Greece is temporary. (Tzoraki & Nikolaidis, 2007) At least 43% of Greece is drained by temporary rivers. (Tzoraki, Nikolaidis & Skoulikidis, 2005) Temporary waters courses dominate the semi-arid climate of the Mediterranean area. http://servbiob.inf.um.es/eac/LECCION_01/LECTURAS_01/Otras_lecturas_01/Larned_et_al_10.pdf http://meetings.copernicus.org/www.cosis.net/abstracts/EGU05/02256/EGU (Tzoraki & Nikolaidis, 2007)
  15. 15. Exceptionally (and eventually) dedicated for a sufficiently (actually countless) great deal of reasons to : Vice President of “Technological Educational Institute of Eastern Makedonia & Thrace” President of «“Department of Forestry & Natural Environment Management” – “Drama – Greece”» President of «“Department of Forestry & Natural Environment Management” – “Drama – Greece”» Forest Engineer - Hydrogeologist - Mountainous Hydromechanics Specialist Adaptive Watershed Management Specialist Prof. Dimitrios A. Emmanouloudis Director of «“International Affairs” of “Technological Educational Institute of Eastern Makedonia & Thrace”» http://ciss.teikav.edu.gr/CVs/demmanoul.htm l
  16. 16. Inspired by & especially dedicated to : Prof. Emmanouloudis A. Dimitrios (President-Forest Engineer-Hydrologist – Adaptive Watershed Management Specialist) Dr. Zaimes N. George (Forest Engineer-Hydrologist-Riparian Areas Management & Conservation Specialist) Dr. Iakovoglou Valasia (Eco-Hydrologist) Dr. Papadopoulos N. Antonios (Wood Chemist & Technologist) Prof. Kazana Vasiliki (Forester-Natural Resources Management & Economics) Dr. Ioannou Konstantinos (“G.I.S.”, “HEC-RAS” & Hydrologic Models Specialist)
  17. 17. Inspired by & especially dedicated to : Prof. Katopodes Nikolaos (President-Civil & Environmental Engineer-Hydrologist) Dr. Merou Theodora (Forester-Rangeland Ecologist) Prof. Koutitas Christoforos (Civil Engineer-Coastal, Marine & Water Resources Engineering Specialist) Dr. Kaziolas Dimitrios (Civil Engineer) Prof. Lazaridou-Athanasiadou G. Martha (Agriculture Scientist-Range Ecologist)
  18. 18. Prof. Maditinos I. Dimitrios (Business Administration, Informatics & Information Systems, Finance & Financial Modelling) Dr. Kalabouka Kalliopi (Lawyer-Water Law & Policy Specialist) Prof. Garcia Rodriguez Jose Luis (Forest & Hydraulics Engineer-Hydrologist) Anderson-Madytianou Anna (MSc. In Finance & Financial Information Systems – Secretary of the “MSc. In Management of Water Resources in the Mediterranean”) ESP. Lctr. Perdiki Fotini (Developping English Skills For Academic Studies) Inspired by & especially dedicated to :
  19. 19. Prof. Xoplaki Elena (Implication of Climate Change on Water Resources today and in the future) Inspired by & especially dedicated to : Prof. Apostolidou Elena (The future of Water Management – Green Technologies & Desalination Techniques) Dr. Vythoulkas George (Mechanical Engineer – Solar & Wind Energy Generation – Desalination Techniques) Dr. Iordanou Gregory (Mechanical Engineer – Solar & Wind Energy Generation - Desalination Techniques) Prof. Avtzis Nikolaos (Forester – Biologist - Forest Entomology Specialist)
  20. 20. Dr. Tsiftsis Spyros (Forester – Biologist – Botany Specialist) Inspired by & especially dedicated to : Prof. Takos ioannis (Forester – Forest Ecologist) Prof. Demetriades Efstathios (Mathematician–Statistics-Business Administration) Prof. Mitkidou Sofia (Chemistry Specialist) Prof. Spanos Thomas (Chemistry Specialist)
  21. 21. Inspired by & especially dedicated to : Kosmides Panagiotis (Forester) Kampanis Kampanis (Forester) “Bar Managers” in the «“Department of Forestry & Natural Environment Management” – “Drama”» “…best quality coffee, snacks and sweets, at the best prices, as much as that provide the best ideas for innovations to the students…”
  22. 22. Paraskevopoulos Ioannis - Carpenter Amygdaleonas – Kavala - Greece The “V-Notch Sharp-Edged Triangular-Shaped (“Thompson type”) “U.S.G.S.” Portable Weir Plate” under construction
  23. 23. “ The Call Of The Wild ” Jack London “http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/streams.cfm”
  24. 24. “Thomas K. Papalaskaris” introduced & implemented it first time in “Granitis» village-Drama Greece in 2013. Inspecting the air ventilation behind the water nappe of the «“V-Notch “Sharp-Edged” “Triangular-Shaped” (“Thompson type”) “U.S.G.S.” Portable Weir Plate”» Staff gauges Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  25. 25. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Staff gauges Weir notch nappe Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  26. 26. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  27. 27. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Staff gauge Weir notch nappe Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  28. 28. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe
  29. 29. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe
  30. 30. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed) «“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightly engraved steel sheet surface horizontally and across, with the view to enhance easy head reading transfer to the adjacent staff gauges Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  31. 31. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe «“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightly engraved steel sheet surface horizontally and across, with the view to enhance easy head reading transfer to the adjacent staff gauges Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed) Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  32. 32. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Weir notch nappe Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed) «“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightly engraved steel sheet surface horizontally and across, with the view to enhance easy head reading transfer to the adjacent staff gauges Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  33. 33. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading consequently the overall water flow rate (discharge) measurement can be considered as an absolutely consistent one Weir notch nappe
  34. 34. Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading consequently the overall water flow rate (discharge) measurement can be considered as an absolutely consistent one Weir notch nappe
  35. 35. The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading consequently the overall water flow rate (discharge) measurement can be considered as an absolutely consistent one Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around Susceptible to general scour area due to the weir’s notch water jet stream action Weir notch nappe
  36. 36. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading consequently the overall water flow rate (discharge) measurement can be considered as an absolutely consistent one
  37. 37. Levelling the weir simoulaneously lengthwise (longitudinally) and crosswise (laterally, across) by means of a simoultaneous implementation of two carpenter’s spirit levels Stilling Well (calibrated all around)Stilling Well (calibrated all around plus one side transparent & calibrated) Staff gauges (all around both the stilling wells) Carpenter’s spirit levels Water stilling basin
  38. 38. Leakage not only minimized but absolutely eliminated all around the weir (under & beside) Manually compacting the plugging riparian soil along the sides of the weir assembly with the view to eliminate plausible trajectories of the flowing water outside of the device Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Water stilling basin Carpenter’s spirit levelStaff gauges (all around both the stilling wells)
  39. 39. Manually (aiming to minimize not only the riparian soil but the overall riparian area natural habitat) removing moss blanket from the adjacent neighboring riparian soil with the view to efficiently and adequately plug the weir assembly device along its sides in order to eliminate plausible trajectories of the flowing water outside of the device leading to false water stream flow rates (discharges) readings A pool has been created just upstream the weir’s assembly device stilling the stream water making certain that subcritical flow conditions prevail by an open channel hydraulics perspective
  40. 40. Bringing the moss blanket into the “weir assembly device” site with the view to plug the weir all around eliminating flowing water leakage ; the moss blanket when mixed with water and soil yields an ideal “vegetation-reinforced” plugging staff compound mat
  41. 41. Forcing the moss blanket at the rear underneath of the “weir assembly device” with the view to adequately plug the weir all around eliminating flowing water leakage ; the moss blanket when mixed with water and soil yields an ideal “vegetation-reinforced” plugging staff compound mat Staff gauges all around Carpenter’s spirit levels
  42. 42. Forcing the moss blanket at the rear underneath of the “weir assembly device” with the view to adequately plug the weir all around eliminating flowing water leakage; the moss blanket when mixed with water and soil yields an ideal “vegetation-reinforced” plugging staff compound mat Stilling wells (double) Staff gauges all around Carpenter’s spirit levels
  43. 43. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around Staff gauge Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  44. 44. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed) Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around
  45. 45. Weir notch nappe Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Carpenter’s spirit level Wild animal predators should be worried about… Manually compacting the plugging riparian soil along the sides of the weir assembly with the view to eliminate plausible trajectories of the flowing water outside of the device
  46. 46. Wild animal predators should be worried about… Manually (aiming to minimize not only the riparian soil but the overall riparian area natural habitat) removing moss blanket from the adjacent neighboring riparian soil with the view to efficiently and adequately plug the weir assembly device along its sides in order to eliminate plausible trajectories of the flowing water outside of the device leading to false water stream flow rates (discharges) readings
  47. 47. Weir notch nappe Wild animal predators should be worried about… Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Weir’s encasement Staff gauges Stilling well Carpenter’s spirit level Stilling basin behind (upstream) the “portable weir plate”
  48. 48. Weir notch nappe Wild animal predators should be worried about… Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Weir’s encasement Carpenter’s spirit level Staff gauges Stilling well
  49. 49. Weir notch nappe Wild animal predators should be worried about… Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Carpenter’s spirit level Staff gauges Stilling well
  50. 50. A few meters upstream the “portable weir plate” location, along a fallen log, natural tiny waterfalls formation occurs, causing the water’s potential energy to get again a value of zero
  51. 51. Rating table The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other next one … Small localised island formation Braided pattern formation
  52. 52. The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other … Small localised island formation Braided pattern formation Wooden debris contributing to shifting water flow patterns when flooded
  53. 53. The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other … Straight (“rather”) pattern formation reach Straight (rather) pattern formation Wild animal predators should be worried about…
  54. 54. The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other … Wild animal predators should be worried about… Meandering pattern formation Meanderingpatternformationreach
  55. 55. Wild animal predators should be worried about… Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of the “first-order” small Mediterranean creek… Only small droplets, steming from shallow in depth percolated water “interflow”, make their appearances, scattered, here and there… Flowing surface water is missing stemming from upstream
  56. 56. Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of the “first-order” small Mediterranean creek… Only small droplets, steming from shallow in depth percolated water “interflow”, make their appearances, scattered, here and there… Wild animal predators should be worried about… Flowing surface water is missing stemming from upstream
  57. 57. Wild animal predators should be worried about… Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of the “first-order” small Mediterranean creek… Only small droplets, steming from shallow in depth percolated water “interflow”, make their appearances, scattered, here and there… Flowing surface water is missing stemming from upstream
  58. 58. Wild animal predators should be worried about… Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of the “first-order” small Mediterranean creek… Only small droplets, steming from shallow in depth percolated water “interflow”, make their appearances, scattered, here and there…
  59. 59. Ending-up to the uppermost in height ascending point, the sources, (where it is originates), of the “first-order” small Mediterranean creek… Only small droplets, steming from shallow in depth percolated water “interflow”, make their appearances, scattered, here and there… Flowing surface water is missing stemming from upstream
  60. 60. Wild animal predators should be worried about… The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other … A rather straight reach A rather meandering reach Flow direction
  61. 61. The small “first order” mountainous creek continuously changes its patterns all the way along, thus creating reaches which differ between each other, shifting from straight , to meandering, to braided, to anastomosed, to be forming small in size localized waterfalls, adopting to streambed slope, fallen logs, soil textures, successively looping from one formation to the other… Meandering pattern formation
  62. 62. A pool has been created upstream the “weir’s assembly device” location making certain that sub-critical water flow conditions prevail by a hydraulic point of view Carpenter’s spirit level Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Stilling wells Waterflowdirection Staff gauges
  63. 63. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Carpenter’s spirit levelsStaff gauges (all around) Lateral stiffening aluminium braces installed across the weir’s encasement with the view to prevent lateral potential weir’s frame deformation Spotting & marking the gauging station by means of a “G.P.S.” Water stilling basin Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  64. 64. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Spotting & marking the gauging station by means of a “G.P.S.” Water stilling basin Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  65. 65. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Spotting & marking the gauging station by means of a “G.P.S.” Staff gauges (front) Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around Water stilling basin Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  66. 66. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  67. 67. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! «“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightly engraved steel sheet surface horizontally and across, with the view to enhance easy head reading transfer to the adjacent staff gauges The nappe of the notch is adequately ventilated at the behind therefore the head reading consequently the overall water flow rate (discharge) measurement can be considered as an absolutely consistent one Weir notch Region of drawdown of water going through the notch (easily & clearly observed)
  68. 68. Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): Q=0.18ltrs/sec= (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Moss blanket (moss removed from the surrounding riparian area) manually placed at the location where the nappe jet stream falls onto the streambed with the view to act as an artifical water both kinetic & potential energy dissipator (apron) to eliminate the possibility of provoked general scour around the toe of the weir’s notch, thus jeopardizing not only its lateral and longitudinal stability and counterbalance but additionally its leakage protection all around «“10 ga” “galvanized sheet iron”» slightly engraved steel sheet surface horizontally and across, with the view to enhance easy head reading transfer to the adjacent staff gauges
  69. 69. “Arhontoula T. Papalaskaris” “First child around the globe” performing a stream flow (“discharge”) measurement by means of a «“V-Notch” “Sharp-Edged” “Triangular-Shaped” (“Thompson type”) “U.S.G.S.” “Portable Weir Plate” “(Improved Version)”» Weir notch nappe Streamflow Rate (“Discharge”): 0.18ltrs/sec (0.64m3 /hour)!!! Staff gauge
  70. 70. Conclusions : http://froza1.blogspot.gr/2008/01/blog- post_6697.html Learn how to play football my little boy!!! Μάθε μπαλλίτσα αγόρι μου!!! Thomas K. Papalaskaris is the only one, outside “U.S.A.” who has performed stream flow rate (“discharge”) measurements at extremely low flow conditions (“water scarcity conditions”), since 2013.04.21, by means of two different open-channel flow measurement devices; • «3-Inch “U.S.G.S.” Modified Portable Parshall Flume», • «90ο “V-Notch” “Sharp-Edged” “U.S.G.S.” Portable Weir Plate”»
  71. 71. Conclusions : WHOEVER feels confident to carry out stream flow rate (“discharge”) measurements either at those, or even at lower, or both, extremely low flow conditions (“water scarcity conditions”), («“Mediterranean Basin” type water conditions»), («”semi-arid” water conditions»), is always welcome…
  72. 72. Είμαστε σκληροί και πειθαρχικοί είμαστε του «”MSc.” του Τμήματος Δασοπονίας - Δράμας» οι Πολιτικοί Μηχανικοί We are tough we are discipline we are the Civil Engineers of the «”MSc.” of the “Department of Forestry - Drama”» C I V I L E N G I N E E R I N G We Construct the World
  73. 73. For verification & certification of the abovementioned you are welcome to check also the following “web-site” links : “https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GfmeozaLblY&feature=c4- overview&list=UUb0mBFg9ciyMAy7w_UYWL_Q” “http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=kc89XG_zxXw&feature=youtu.be” “http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=x3fQI4a3ebw&feature=youtu.be”
  74. 74. Thanks for your attention !

×