Introduction : A smart card, typically a type of chip card, is a plastic card that contains an embedded computer chip–either a memory or microprocessor type–that stored and transacts data. This data is usually associated with either value, information, or both and is stored Ex :healthcare,banking,entertainment, and transportation History : 1982, while working for German company Giesecke &Devrient. The first mass use of the cards was as a Telecarte for payment in French pay phones, starting The second use integrated microchips into all French carte Bleue debitcards in 1992.
Contact Smart Cards : Contact smart cards have a contact area of approximately 1 square centimeter (0.16 sq in), comprising several gold-plated contact pads. These pads provide electrical connectivity when inserted into a reader.
How to use signals : VCC - power supply RST - Reset signal, used to reset the card's communications. CLK -Provides the card with a clock signal, from which data communications timing is derived. GND - Ground (reference voltage). VPP - Programming voltage input - originally an input for a higher voltage to program persistent memory (e.g., EEPROM), but now deprecated. I/O - Serial input and output (half duplex). C4, C8 - The two remaining contacts are AUX1 and AUX2 respectively, and used for USB interfaces and other uses.
Reader Contact smart cards readers are used as a communication medium between the smart card and a host or a mobile telephone this are used subscriber identity modules( Sims )in mobile phone
Physical access: Businesses and universities of all types need simple identity cards for all employees and students. Most of these individuals are also granted access to certain data, equipment, and departments according to their status.
Cryptography Verification : Cryptographic smart cards are often used for single sign-on. Most advanced smart cards include specialized cryptographic hardware that uses algorithms such as RSA and DSA.
Terminal verify card (INTERNAL AUTH)
Terminal sends a random number to card to be hashed or encrypted using a key.
Such information is to be verified by a person. The information can be
stored in the card securely
Standards : International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
ISO/IEC 7816 It contains fourteen parts. 1, 2 and 3 deal only with contact smart card.
4,5,6,8,9,11,13 and 15 are relevant to contact aswell as contactless.
ISO/IEC 14443: It defines the interfaces to a "close proximity" contactless smart
card, including the radio frequency (RF) interface. Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
FIPS 140 (1-3): The security requirements contained in FIPS 140 (1-3) certain Areas
relatedto the Secure design and implementation of a cryptographic module specification; Cryptographic module ports and interfaces
FIPS 201this specification covers all aspects of multifunction cards used in identity
management systems throughout the U.S. government.
Conclusions: Smart cards can add convenience and safety to any transaction of value and data. Evaluations of performance, cost and security that will produce a smart card system that fits today's needs in future, which leads to better business for everybody