A process by which organization evaluate individual job performance“The appraisal of each employee‟s performanceshould be based on actual performance of thecritical elements identified through job analysis”
Specific, Timely, Accurate,Identify impact to team or Dep’tRelevant, based upon observablebehavior, compare actual behavior toexpected behavior “STAIR” Each of these components must be considered when analyzing performance issues!
Uses of Performance Appraisal Performance of responsibilities of the job. Behavior in the workplace. Professional Development. Organizational support and encouragement of good performance. Correct poor performance and/or behavior and reestablish expectations of employer and employee.
Key elements of PA system Employee Performanceperformance appraisal Feedback Performance measures Performance-related standards HR Employee decisions records
PA process SKILLABILITIES PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL EFFORTS (Standard vsBEHAVIOR Accomplishment) IMPROVEMENT (+)/(-) (-) (+) RECOQNITION
Appraisal MethodsPast Oriented Appraisal, Employees can get feedback that my lead torenewed efforts at improved performance Rating Scales Checklists Forced Choice Method Critical Incident method Accomplishment RecordsFuture Oriented Appraisal, Focus on future performance by evaluatingan employee‟s potential or setting future performance goals Self Appraisals Management by Objectives Psychological Appraisals Assessment Centers
Rating Scales, requires the rater to provide asubjective evaluation of an individual‟s performance along ascale from low to high. No. Uraian Sangat Baik Baik Cukup Kurang Sangat Kurang 1. Inisiatif √ 2. Kerjasama √ 3. Kehadiran √ Gand Total Total 5 4 2 11 Checklists, requires the rater to select words orstatements that describe the employee‟s performance andcharacteristics. No. Uraian Bobot Memiliki kemampuan dan kemauan untuk menyusun perencanaan, mengorganisir 1. 35 dan berinisiatif menindak lanjuti secara kongkrit Menunjukkan kesiapan untuk selalu 2. 45 membantu orang lain yang membutuhkan Jumlah hari kehadiran ditempat kerja 3. sesuai dengan yang ditetapkan oleh 20 ketentuan perusahaan 100
Forced Choice Method, requires the rater tochoose the most descriptive statement in each pair ofstatements about the employee being rated. No. Uraian 1. Inspirator Pekerja Keras 2. Team player Individual performer 3. Hadir tepat waktu Sering terlambat Critical Incident method, requires the rater torecord statements that describe extremely good or badbehavior related to the job performance. Recorded incidentsinclude a brief explanation of what happened. Accomplishment Records, these are employee-produced listings of accomplishments such as publications,speeches, leadership roles, and other professionally relatedactivities
Self Appraisals, give the employees an authority toappraise themselves. It can be a useful evaluation technique ifthe goal of evaluation is to further self-development. Management by Objectives, consists ofgoals that are objectively measurable and mutually agreedon by the employee and manager. Psychological Appraisals, psychologists areused for evaluations of the individual employee‟s futurepotential. Assessment Centers, are a form of standardizedemployee appraisal that relies on multiple types of evaluationand multiple raters
Rater biases Halo effect (to ) Error of central tendency Leniency and strictness bias Cross cultural biases Stereotyping (to ) The recency events effect
Reducing rater bias Training Biases and their causes should be explained The role of PA in employee decisions should be explained to stress the need for impartiality and objectivity Raters should apply subjective measures as a part of their training Feedback Raters should get feedback about their previous rating Careful selection of PA techniques
HR managementBased on the Provide an accurate picturejob-related PA of past and/or future employeecriteria performance Through an evaluation interview Feedback to get realistic view HR department „Quality control check‟ performance of HR function
The Evaluation InterviewThe tell-and-sell method Communicates to employees their performance as accurately and directly as possible with little return feedback, but can lead to defensivenessThe tell-and-listen interview Communicates to employees their strengths and weaknesses, but also allows for return feedback This creates an environment that is less defensive and stressful to the employee
The Evaluation Interview (continued):The problem-solving interview Playing the role of helper more so than judge, the manager creates an environment through which the employee can discover his or her own developmental needsThe mixed-model interview Allows for the problem solving interview in the beginning, where the subordinate leads off, and finishes with the tell-and-sell or tell-and-listen approaches if the subordinate has missed some important areas of his or her performance