Grounded Theory
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A comprehensive presentation based on a qualitative research methodology 'Grounded Theory, presented at Government College University Lahore, Pakistan.

A comprehensive presentation based on a qualitative research methodology 'Grounded Theory, presented at Government College University Lahore, Pakistan.

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Grounded Theory Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Komal Raja Roll no. 513
  • 2. Grounded Theory  Grounded Theory is a qualitative research methodology  Designed to help social scientists generate theory  Is not “hypothesis” and “problem” oriented
  • 3. Outline             Definition of grounded theory History When do you use Grounded Theory? Grounded theory Concepts Data collection methods Steps of Grounded Theory – Research Article Example GT Process Activity 1 Advantages of GT Summary Activity 2 References
  • 4. DEFINITIONS “A qualitative research method that uses a systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived grounded theory about a phenomenon” (Strauss & Corbin ,1998 p24) “Grounded Theory is the study of a concept! It is not descriptive study of a descriptive problem” (Glaser,2010)
  • 5. Def... “Most grounded theorists believe they are theorizing about how the world ‘is’ rather than how respondents see it?” (Steve Borgatti).
  • 6. History  Two sociologists, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L Strauss, developed grounded theory in the late 1960s.  Glaser and Strauss developed a pioneering book that expounded in detail on their grounded theory procedures, The Discovery of Grounded Theory(1967).
  • 7. Cont...  Glaser and Strauss later diverged in their view of GT (Glaser, 1992).  Glaser's view of GT remained closer to the initial emergent ideals (Glaser, 1992) (Dick, 2005).  The remainder of this presentation is based on Glaser's view of GT.
  • 8. When do you use Grounded Theory?  When you need a broad theory or explanation of a process.  Especially helpful when current theories about a phenomenon are either inadequate or nonexistent (Creswell, 2008).  When you wish to study some process, such as how students develop as writers (Neff,1998)
  • 9. Grounded Theory Concepts GT's important aspects:  Used for theory generation rather than theory verification  Based on induction rather than deduction
  • 10.  Grounded Theoryknowledge science verification circles are not to scale theory generation inductive methods grounded theory
  • 11. Data Collection In GT  Semi-structured, formal interviews  Informal interviews
  • 12. Notes From:  Internal meetings  Phone conversations  Social functions  Training sessions
  • 13. Scanning of documents  Relevant administrative materials.  Recruiting and training manuals.  Client presentation books and feedback received.  Provide information about the organization’s distinct socialization practices
  • 14. Grounded Theory Process Phase Output Open Coding  Categories & properties  Line by line  Word by word Selective Coding  Selective coding begins when a core category has been found.
  • 15. Cont... Phase Sorting Write up Output  Sorting database of memos showing emergence of theories  Communicable form of theory
  • 16. Open coding  GT starts with open coding.  The researcher enters the open coding phase with no preconceptions about what is to be found or what is to be studied.
  • 17. Example;  Pain relief is a major problem when you have arthritis. Sometimes, the pain is worse than other times, but when it gets really bad, It hurts so bad, you don't want to get out of bed. You don't feel like doing anything. Any relief you get from drugs that you take is only temporary or partial.
  • 18. Example:  Pain relief is a major problem when you have arthritis. Sometimes, the pain is worse than other times, but when it gets really bad, It hurts so bad, you don't want to get out of bed. You don't feel like doing anything. Any relief you get from drugs that you take is only temporary or partial.
  • 19. Cont.. One thing that is being discussed here is PAIN.  Implied in the text is that the speaker views pain as having certain properties, one of which is INTENSITY: it varies from a little to a lot. 
  • 20. Cont…  When it hurts a lot, there are consequences: don't want to get out of bed, don't feel like doing things.  In order to solve this problem, you need PAIN RELIEF.
  • 21. Cont…  One AGENT OF PAINRELIEF is drugs.  Pain relief has a certain DURATION (could be temporary), and EFFECTIVENESS(could be partial).
  • 22. Tabulation: Open Coding Categories  Pain  Agent of Pain Relief • (Drugs)  Duration  Effectiveness Properties  Intensity  Pain Relief  Temporary  Partial
  • 23. Example: Research Article  Relationship management with Millennial generation of public relations agency employees.  Tiffany Derville Gallicano  Volume 39, Issue 3, September 2013 pg 222-225
  • 24. Research Question: How do Millennial practitioners who work at public relations agencies describe their generation of public relations practitioners?
  • 25. Examples of participants’ words Open Codes Properties Seeking experience Ambitious Hungry for responsibility Want to be next big thing Driven Ready to roll Always looking for a new thing Seeking Wanting experiential credentials Feeling learning Open Codes ambitious Seeking excitement Being eager
  • 26. Original text Open codes Properties Want to feel valued and appreciated Want to be recognized Want feedback Want to be rewarded for good work Craving immediate feedback and being motivated by feeling appreciated Desiring attention Wanting to impress Wanting a mentor
  • 27. Selective Coding  Selective coding begins when a core category has been found.  “Integration is simply the emergent connection between categories and properties based on theoretical codes, and it just happens, because the world is integrated and we are discovering the world —not creating it!” (Glaser, 1992).
  • 28. Selective & Axial Coding  Axial Coding (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)  -Putting data back together by making connections across codes, categories, concepts.  Selective Coding focuses on particular concept and data revisit.
  • 29. Open Codes Axial Codes Selective Codes Axial & Selective Coding Wanting Believing Wanting to experiential they are ready make a learning; to be set loose difference Craving on accounts immediate Seeking feedback and external being validation motivated by feeling appreciated
  • 30. Activity!!!
  • 31. Sorting  Sorting the memos that one has taken during open and selective coding.  Memo refers to what’s being observed in the data.  Ideas. Relationship between codes, emergent concepts etc.  Intended to produce a structured, coherent and integrated packaging of the recorded ideas.
  • 32. Writing up The structure of the write-up, “just emerges from sorting memos.”  There are no rules about how a memo should look; memos should be free-flowing, stream of consciousness and constant throughout analysis.  “ ...the analyst starts with no idea of an outline and thereby lets the concepts outline themselves through emergence.”  “When the sorting of all the memos is done, it is just obvious when to write and what to write about and how to present the integrated picture” (Glaser, 1992). 
  • 33. Advantages of GT  High Ecological Validity  Ecological Validity is the extent to which     research findings accurately represent real-world settings. Novelty Gt’s are not tied to any pre-existing theory. Gt’s are often fresh and new. Parsimony Parsimony is about using the simplest possible description to explain complex phenomenon.
  • 34. Activity!!!
  • 35. 1 are the written record of ideas about codes and their relationships as they emerge during analysis. Memos
  • 36. 2  Is grounded theory an inductive or a deductive theory?  Inductive Theory
  • 37. 3  What are the four stages of coding in GT?  Open Coding  Selective Coding  Sorting  Write up
  • 38. 4  Do qualitative researchers normally formulate hypotheses in advance? Why or Why not?  No  because hypotheses result in a theory that is ungrounded from the data
  • 39. 5  State any three tools for data collection in GT.  Interviews  Scanned Documents  Notes
  • 40. References  Allan, G. (2003). A critique of using grounded theory as a research method, Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods. 2(1) pp1-10  Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of Grounded Theory. Sociology Press , 1978.  Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Sage, 1990.  Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • 41. References  Re-inventing grounded theory: some questions about theory, ground and discovery. British Educational Research Journal, 32 (6), 767– 795.Strauss, A. (1987).  Examples of Grounded Theory: A Reader. Sociology Press, 1993.Glaser BG (ed).  The Grounded Theory Perspective I: Conceptualization Contrasted with Description. Sociology Press , 2001.Glaser BG.  Relationship management with Millennial generation of public relations agency employees. Volume 39, Issue 3, September 2013 pg 222-225