Chandigarh-settlements

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  • 1. “Let this be a new town, symbolic of freedom of India unfettered by the traditions of the past. An expression of the nations faith in the future” - Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
  • 2. • A need for the capital • Rehabilitating refugees • A rich cultural legacy like Lahore • A vision of the future • A centre for governance HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 3. Site selection • Mountainous region • Central location • Sufficient water supply • Natural drainage • Moderate climate • Shivalik hills • The site was the sub mountainous area of the Ambala district about 150 miles north of New Delhi. • The area was a flat, gentle sloping plain of agriculture land dotted with grooves of mango trees , consisting of 59 villages HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 4. The name Chandigarh derives its name from the deity ‘ Chandi‘         ‐ the goddess of power.  ‘ garh‘            ‐ the fort . gave the city its name "Chandigarh  ‐ The City Beautiful". • The gently sloping plains on which Chandigarh exist was in the past, when the Himalayas were young, a wide lake ringed by a marsh. • The fossil remains found at the site testify to a large variety of aquatic and amphibian life. • Some 8000 yrs ago Chandigarh was home to the Harappans. Their stone implements, ornaments, and copper arrow heads unearthed during the excavations in the 1950s and 1960s testify this HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 5. • Located near the foothills of the shivalik range of the Himalayas. • Kandi (Bhabhar) region in the north-east. • Sirowal (Tarai) region and alluvial plain in remaining part. • The area is drained by 2 seasonal rivulets Sukhna Choe in east and Patiala- ki-rao in west. • Haryana in the east and Punjab in the north , west and south. • The site covers 114 sqm area approximately • The general ground level range between 1000 to 1200 feet • 1 % grade giving a general adequate drainage. • Extreme climates. • Cold dry winter. • Hot summer. • Sub-tropical monsoon. • 4 seasons – Summer Rainy Post monsoon Winter. • Winds are generally dry. • Direct road connections with Patiala, Rajpura, Ludhiana and other towns. • Rail connections with Delhi. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 6. ALBERT MAYER •Fan shaped master plan. •Spreads gently to fill the site between the two river beds. •A curving network of main roads surrounds the residential blocks •It contains a central area of parkland •The overall pattern avoids a geometric grid in favor of a loosely curving system. •The plan does not read as a monumental capital HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 7. MATHHEW NOWICKI HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 8. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 9. Le Corbusier planning strategies • Planned with focus on urban design , architectural aesthetics, preservation of natural environment, conservation of buildings and open spaces , hierarchical road network. • Divided the human functions into work, living and leisure with strict zoning. • City planning was against the traditional Indian cities. • Replaced the native Indian town plan into superblocks . HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 10. • Post war ‘Garden city’ • Le modular system • Analogous to human body Head – capitol (place of power) Heart – the city centre Stomach – the commercial area Arms Lungs GEOGRAPHY – leisure valley ,open spaces Arteries HISTORY – university and Industrial zone – network of roads ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 11. Capitol Patiali-ki-rao Railwayline Sukhna choe V2 University area HISTORY GEOGRAPHY City centre ARCHITECT’S Industrial area LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 12. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 13. • The primary module of a city's design is a sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800meters x 1200 meters. • Each sector is a self sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. • The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 14. Principles of urban planning • Convenient walking distance for social services like schools and shopping centers. • Street system • major roads should not pass through residential neighborhood. • Internal road pattern should encourage quite , safe , low volume traffic movement. • • Facilities • Orderly arrangement of facilities which would be shared common by the residents • A unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worships. • blocks are divided in sectors. • Each sector is self sufficient unit having all facilities . • These sectors varies depending upon the size and the topography of the area. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 15. Roads system An integrated system of seven road types. Pathways for cyclists Roads intersected at right angles forming a grid. Hierarchy of movement. Residential areas segregated from the traffic. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 16. An integrated system of seven road types • V-1-- Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns • V-2 -- arterial roads • V-3 -- Fast vehicular roads • V-4 -- Meandering shopping streets • V-5 -- Sector circulation roads • V-6 --Access roads to houses • V-7 -- footpaths and cycle tracks • Buses will ply only on V-1, V-2, V-3 and V-4 roads. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 17. V1 – main road connecting other towns Pedestrian path HISTORY GEOGRAPHY V4 - shopping street(were in the shop keepers stay above the shops) ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 18. Leisure valley • • • A green sprawling space extending north-east to south-west along a seasonal river let gradient and was conceived by Le Corbusier as the “lungs” of the city. This valley houses the series of fitness trails, amphitheatre and spaces for open-air exhibition. Rock garden designed by NekChand in 1957 . HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 19. Sectors: • The basic planning of the city is a sector • to accommodate 3,000 to 25,000 persons. • 30 sectors in Chandigarh • 24 are residential. • The sectors surrounded by high speed roads • bus stops every 400m. • The main principle of the sector is that never a door will open on the surrounding of fast vehicular road. • The size of the sector is based on the concept of no pedestrian need to walk for more than 10min . HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 20. Building typologies: HISTORY GEOGRAPHY • The basic typology is extremely rectilinear with similar proportions. • Residential units are arranged around central common green spaces with different shapes. ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 21. Series of development Layer1 (sector layer) • Divided in sectors • Industrial • Residential • Public HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 22. Layer 2(road pattern) • Transport interchange nodes • Road connectivity • Division of spaces HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 23. Layer 3 • Railway station • International airport HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 24. Layer 4(peripheral layer) • Land for industries • Distributive trade • Transport routes HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 25. Layer5 (agricultural layer) • New development nodes identified • 8km Agricultural belt was created (to prevent unregulated development around the master plan ) • The belt was built for planned future extension of the city. 1952 HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 26. Layer6 (state layer) • Other city nodes identified for development . HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 27. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 28. Positive highlights Negative highlights • First modern architecture of Indian city planning. • Each sector satisfies the necessities of human needs. • Separate roads for pedestrian, bicycle and heavy vehicles. • Visually powerful. • Open spaces in front of shopping centers. • Buildings designed as triple storied shop cum flats. • Shops on ground floor. • Residence on upper floor. • Continuous verandah in front of the shop. • Shop protected from rain and sun. • As a covered walkway for the customers. • City not planned according to Indian tradition and culture. • Roads being similar to each other creates confusion. • Brutal concrete gives a rough look. • City not planned for lower income people. • Existence of slums around the city. • Large open spaces in front of the city center makes people lost in those places. HISTORY GEOGRAPHY ARCHITECT’S LE CORBUSIER TOWNPLANNING
  • 29. CHANDIGARH : THE CITY BEAUTIFUL
  • 30. Komal Lalwani//Pooja Kawadkar//Jahnavi Kaveeshwar//Saurabh Amrutkar//Arbaaz Khan