Global warming begins when sunlight reaches the earth.
As earth warmed up, this solar energy is radiated by thermal radiation or infrared heat travelling directly out to space, thus cooling the earth.
The concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere were artificially raised by humans since past 250 years.
Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of Earth’s surface.
Since the late 1800’s, the global average temperature has increased about 0.7 to 1.4 degrees.
Global warming would cause much harm, so countries throughout the world drafted an agreement called Kyoto Protocol to help limit it.
GREEN HOUSE EFFECT
After sunrise, when the sunrays fall on the surface of the Earth, the air near the surface of he Earth is heated , after the sunset the heat absorbed by the atmosphere is radiated back
The average surface temperature is 15 degree Celsius.
It is about 33 degree Celsius higher than it would be in the absence of the green house effect.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
GASES RESPONSIBLE CARBON DIOXIDE: It is generated by the human activities like burning of coal, wood, natural gas.oil etc. It is also released by animals & human beings during the process of respiration. The trees take in the carbon dioxide, therefore deforestation is also an important reason for increase in carbon dioxide.
NITROUS OXIDE It is generated due to burning biomass, agriculture, livestock waste, nitrogen rich fuels. It accounts for 6% of the gases responsible for global warming.
METHANE Methane accounts for 16% of all gases responsible for global warming . It is estimated that nearly 30 to 200 million tones of methane is released every year. The main source of methane is rice field.
Chlorofluorocarbon [CFCS] It accounts for nearly 20% of the gases responsible for global warming. These are non-toxic, nonflammable & highly stable compounds. They are also used as coolants in compressors of air conditioners & refrigerators. They are also use in insulators, fire extinguishers, aerosol etc.
ENERGY PRODUCTION India
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING On human Society:
Siberia & Canada might experience increase in temperature from 10 to 12 degrees.
The rainfall have increased by 2 to 3% per decade over tropical regions due to high rate of evaporation.
There is 2% increase in the cloud cover in middle to higher latitude land area during the 20th century.
There may be positive or negative effect on various type of crop in different regions of the world.
Soil moisture may decrease, water requirement of the crop will increase & will affect the crop yield.
Due to Green house effect, several plants cripple down their size, fruits & leaves.
Source Of Soil Pollution Source: World Development Indictors,2004
On Plants & Animals:
The dense Sunderbans in W.Bengal is one of the richest forest in the world
Slowly disappearing & eventually die if the current trend in global warming countries.
There are rapid rise in global temperature in next 100 years.
The wetland & coral reef may also undergo decline due to climatic changes
On Human Health:
It may lead to changes in rainfall pattern & some areas may become breeding ground for mosquitoes & some other insects which are vector of disease like malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, etc.
In low rainfall there will be waterborne disease.
Heat waves are harmful to health.
It is estimated that there will be rise in sea level by 20 to30 cm by 2030.
Due to increase in the temperature, the water expands & require more space.
It also occur as a result of melting of glaciers in non- polar regions during the 20th century.
Due to global warming the ice extent & snow cover have decreased.
AGREEMENT ON GLOBAL WARMING Emission targets: The 38 countries would restrict their emission to a yearly average of about 95% of their 1990 emissions. Approving the agreement: By 2004,more than 100 countries, including nearly all the countries had ratified the agreement.
The first stimulation took in to account both the natural processes & human activities that affect climate.
The second stimulation took in to account only the natural processes, & the third only the human activities.
ANALYZING GLOBAL WARMING
Scientists use information from several sources to analyze global warming that occurred before people began to use thermometers.
Computers help climatologists to analyze past climate change & predict the future changes.
The IPCC also produced & published results predicting temperature until 2010.
Michael.D.Mastrandrea, B.S, Graduate fellow, School of Earth Sciences, Geological & environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Prof of Biological Sciences.
Response To Global Warming Mitigation:
Carbon capture & storage is an approach to mitigation.
Many Environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming.
Measures have been suggested for adaptation to global warming.
It is the deliberate modification .
No large scale geoengineering project have yet been undertaken.
Do’s And Don'ts
They absorb CO2.
It saves energy
Use energy efficient products.
USE RECYCLED PAPER
Save trees from being cut.
DON’T LEAVE APPLIANCES ON.
DON’T USE A CAR OR MOTORBIKE TO TRAVEL SHORT DISTANCES.
BUY FRESH FOODS FROZEN FOOD USES 10 TIMES MORE ENERGY.