Equity Capital Markets


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Martin Kolmhofer

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Equity Capital Markets

  1. 1. Equity Capital Markets International Economic Relations Metropolitan University Prague Martin Kolmhofer 2011/2012
  2. 2. Terminology <ul><li>Equity = Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Shares represent part ownership of a business </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dutch and British East India Companies among the first shareholder-owned businesses (1602 share certificated traded in Amsterdam) (Time of Explorations, trading ventures began to require more capital than a single individual was able to invest ) Investors without firsthand knowledge of their operations relied on accounting information A business that is owned by shareholders is called: CORPORATION History
  4. 5. Raising Capital <ul><li>Equity (ownership, voting rights, share in future profit) </li></ul><ul><li>Loans (Debt – only entitled to principle + interest) </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Act: </li></ul><ul><li>in case of bankruptcy a bondholder will get paid before a shareholder </li></ul><ul><li>However, the bondholder does not share in the profits if a company does well </li></ul>
  5. 6. 24 hour Market: The most important Financial Centers are London (central time zone), Tokyo and New York
  6. 7. Time Zone GMT Sydney Open Sydney Close 10:00 PM 7:00 AM Tokyo Open Tokyo Close 11:00 PM 8:00 AM London Open London Close 8:00 AM 5:00 PM New York Open New York Close 12:00 PM 9:00 PM
  7. 9. How are Stock Prices determined? Order Book: Example: You want to sell 100 stocks for a price of 28,50 EUR 28 EUR: 500 buyers, 100 sellers 28,50 EUR: 500 buyers, 400 sellers 29,00 EUR: 400 buyers, 400 sellers
  8. 10. Vienna Budapest Ljubljana Prague
  9. 11. NYSE Euronext – Deutsche Boerse Merger February 2011: The New York and German stock exchanges have announced a $10-billion merger
  10. 12. How to Read a Stock Table
  11. 13. How to Read a Stock Table <ul><li>Columns 1 & 2: 52-Week High and Low. These are the highest and lowest prices at which a stock has traded over the past 52 weeks (1 year). This typically does not include the previous day's trading. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 3: Company Name and Type of Stock. This column lists the name of the company. If there are no special symbols or letters following the name, it is common stock. Different symbols imply different classes of shares. For example, &quot;pf&quot; means the shares are preferred stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 4: Ticker Symbol. This is the unique alphabetic name which identifies the stock. If you watch financial TV, the ticker tape will quote the latest prices alongside this symbol. If you are looking for stock quotes online, you always search for a company by the ticker symbol. If you don't know a particular company's ticker symbol, you can search for it at Yahoo Finance. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 5: Dividend Per Share. This indicates the annual dividend payment per share. If this space is blank, the company does not currently pay out dividends. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 6: Dividend Yield. The percentage return on the dividend, dividend yield is calculated as annual dividends per share divided by price per share. </li></ul>
  12. 14. How to Read a Stock Table <ul><li>Column 7: Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E ratio). This is calculated by dividing the current stock price by earnings per share from the last four quarters. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 8: Trading Volume. This figure shows the total number of shares traded for the day, listed in hundreds. To get the actual number traded, add two zeros to the end of the number listed. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 9 & 10: Day High and Low. This indicates the price range in which the stock has traded throughout the day. In other words, these are the maximum and the minimum prices that people have paid for the stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 11: Close. The close is the last trading price recorded when the market closed on the day. If the closing price is more than 5% above or below the previous day's close, the entire listing for that stock is bold-faced. Keep in mind, you are not guaranteed to get this price if you buy the stock the next day because the price is constantly changing, even after the exchange is closed for the day. The close is merely an indicator of past performance and, except in extreme circumstances, it serves as a ballpark of what you should expect to pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Column 12: Net Change. This is the dollar value change in the stock price from the previous day's closing price. When you hear about a stock being &quot;up for the day,&quot; it means the net change was positive. </li></ul>
  13. 15. IPO An  initial public offering  or  initial purchase offer  ( IPO ), referred to simply as an &quot;offering&quot; or &quot;flotation&quot;, is when a company issues  shares to the public for the first time.
  14. 17. Underwriting The process by which investment bankers raise investment capital from investors on behalf of corporations and governments that are issuing securities (both equity and debt). The word &quot;underwriter&quot; is said to have come from the practice of having each risk-taker write his or her name under the total amount of risk that he or she was willing to accept at a specified premium. In a way, this is still true today, as new issues are usually brought to market by an underwriting syndicate in which each firm takes the responsibility (and risk) of selling its specific allotment.
  15. 18. Syndicate of Underwriters If investment banks are hesitant to shoulder all the risk of an offering. Instead, they form a syndicate of underwriters. One underwriter leads the syndicate and the others sell a part of the issue. 
  16. 19. Major Players The major players within the ECMs are large financial institutions such Goldman Sachs, Citigroup and UBS.
  17. 20. Major Players League Tables: Investment Banks: Financial institutions that assists individuals, corporations and governments in raising capital (Unlike commercial banks and  retail banks, investment banks do not take deposits)