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Economics Of Gender Equity And Development.

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70% of world’s extreme poor are women. …

70% of world’s extreme poor are women.
In India Women contribute:
41% of Agriculture GDP
32% of work force.
Achievement of human development depends on Empowerment of the 586 million women of India (forming 48.46%) -2011 census most of them rural.

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  • 1. 1
  • 2. Economics Of Gender Equity And Development. By Sravanthi.kolla 2
  • 3. “some historians believe that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fiber and fuel.” - Swaminathan "Yatra naryastu pujyante ramante tatra Devata, yatraitaastu na pujyante sarvaastatrafalaah kriyaah" ... - Manu Nasthree swathantryam arhathi (no women is eligible to be independent ) Aputrasya gathir nasthi ( there is no salvation for parents who donot have son) Women in India continued to be oppressed because of these reasons also. 3
  • 4. Flow of presentation Introduction Glossary and key concepts Why does gender equality matter for growth Contribution of women to Indian economy Stock of the changes in gender outcomes in recent times The persistence of gender inequality Schemes related to women empowerment 4 Conclusion
  • 5. Introduction  70% of world’s extreme poor are women.  In IndiaWomen contribute: 41% of Agriculture GDP 32% of work force.  Achievement of human development depends on Empowerment of the 586 million women of India (forming 48.46%) -2011 census most of them rural. 5
  • 6. Millennium Development Goals Eradicate poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development 6
  • 7. GLOSSARY  Gender: social attributes, opportunities associated with male & female, socially constructed and learned through socialization processes, changes with time.  Gender equality: women & men should have equal conditions for realizing their human rights and contributing, benefiting from economic, social, cultural and political development.  Gender equity: fairness of treatment towards women and men, according to respective needs.  Empowerment: sense of independence. 7
  • 8. KEY concepts Gender gap:  The discrepancy in social and economic opportunities, education, status, attitudes, wages, Incomes, access to capital, resources and so on, between men and women. Variables 1. Economic participation and opportunity – salaries, participation levels, access to employment, skilled, unskilled 2. Educational attainment – basic and higher level education 3. Political empowerment – representation in decision-making structures 8 4. Health and survival – life expectancy and sex ratio
  • 9. Global gender gap index ranking Rank Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1 Iceland 0.7813 0.7836 0.7999 0.8276 0.8496 0.8530 2 Norway 0.7994 0.8059 0.8239 0.8227 0.8404 0.8404 3 Finland 0.7958 0.8044 0.8195 0.8252 0.8260 0.8383 4 Sweden 0.8133 0.8146 0.8139 0.8139 0.8024 0.8044 5 Ireland 0.7335 0.7457 0.7518 0.7597 0.7773 0.7830 16 United Kingdom 0.7365 0.7441 0.7366 0.7402 0.7460 0.7462 17 United States 0.7042 0.7002 0.7179 0.7173 0.7411 0.7412 61 China 0.6561 0.6643 0.6878 0.6907 0.6881 0.6866 113 India 0.60 0.59 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.62 1- equality: 0- inequality (135 economies): No country in the world has equality; India is moving towards equality!!!! source: Global Gender Gap Report 9
  • 10. Gender parity index  Socio-economic index to measure relative access to education of males and females GPI = Indicator value for females Indicator value for Males • IF GPI <1 • GPI=1 • GPI>1 10 unfavorable to females parity of both females and males favorable to females
  • 11. Gender parity index which state has greater gender disparity ? Location 1 Location 2 GER for Boys GER for Girls GPI GER for Boys GER for Girls GPI 86 73.1 0.85 54.9 52.7 0.96 Gross enrolment ratio for Girls = number of Girl students enrolled of given age / population of girls of given age GPI = GER for Girls/GER for boys = 52.7/54.9 = 0.96 Greater disparity exists in Location 1 than Location 2. 11
  • 12. Sex ratio Number of females per 1000 males Balance of males and females in a society at a given time Sex ratio in India in 2011: 940 females per 1000 (implies there are 1063 males per 1000 females !!!!) India ranks XXI in sex ratio 12
  • 13. States with the high sex ratio karnataka 968 Himachal Pradesh 974 Mizoram 975 Odisha 978 Meghalaya 986 Manipur 987 Chhattisgarh 991 andhra pradesh Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh have relatively better sex ratios than Other States. 992 Tamil Nadu Puducherry 995 1038 Kerala 1084 Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_by_sex_ratio 13
  • 14. Gender development index  “Gender-sensitive extension of the HDI” used along with the HDI.  It addresses gender-gaps in life expectancy, education, and income.  GDI assumes average life of women to be 14 5 years more than average life of men.
  • 15. Though economic life of Women is > men – women get discriminated, (For example, women do not get title to property – land) Source: world development report 2012 15
  • 16. Types of gender inequality (1) Mortality inequality (2) Natality inequality: preference to Male child over female child results in Female foeticide. (3) Basic facility inequality (4) Special opportunity inequality 16
  • 17. (5) Professional inequality (6) Ownership inequality (7) Household inequality 17
  • 18. WHY DOES GENDER EQUALITY / EQUITY MATTER FOR GROWTH? 18
  • 19.  Gender equality matters for growth - is smart economics  Removing barriers for access to productive inputs / services / opportunities generate productivity gains crucial for competitive, globalized world.  Misallocation of women’s skills and talents adds to economic cost. 19
  • 20. Gender differences in agriculture productivity disappear when access to and use of productive inputs are considered Source: world development report 2012 20
  • 21.  Women’s endowments, agency, and 21 opportunities shape those of next generation. If a male gets educated, the spread is narrow. If a female gets educated, the spread / diffusion is much wider in the family.  Increasing women’s individual and collective agency produces better outcomes, institutions, and policy choices.
  • 22. GDP per capita and gender are positively correlated (using data from 86 countries) Index measures male female differences in labor force participation, wages, income, political participation, and number of technical workers. 1- equality: 0- inequality Source: world development report 2012 22
  • 23. Estimated Contribution of Women to Indian Economy 23
  • 24. Percentage Distribution of Workers by Sector and Sex, 2004-05 Sl. No Sector Informal Formal Total Men women persons Men women persons Men women persons 1 Agricult ure 57.01 40.67 97.68 1.51 0.81 2.32 58.52 41.48 100 2 Manufa cturing 45.79 25.22 71.01 23.66 5.33 28.99 69.46 30.54 100 3 Trade 84.77 10.78 95.55 4.02 0.43 4.45 88.79 11.21 100 4 Educati on 14.51 12.22 26.73 43.55 29.71 73.27 58.06 41.94 100 5 Househ old 28.67 71.32 99.99 0.01 0.00 0.01 28.68 71.32 100 6 Grand total 100 % 56.88 29.40 86.28 10.89 2.83 13.72 67.77 32.23 100 Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy, Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 24
  • 25. Percentage Distribution of Workers in Each Industry by Sector and Sex, 2004-05 in India figure: 5 Men women 89 72 69 58 58 68 42 42 31 28 32 11 Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy , Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 25
  • 26. Annual Growth rate of Employment 1999-2004 Though growth rate is higher, their contribution is discounted Sl. No Industry group Informal sector Formal sector Total Men women persons Men women persons Men women persons 1.49 0.74 2.99 1.64 1 Agriculture 0.69 3.07 1.64 2.99 -0.99 2 Retail trade 3.77 1.98 3.51 -9.24 -14.33 -9.78 3.20 1.48 2.96 3 Education 2.20 0.36 1.33 4.10 8.48 5.75 3.82 6.83 5.00 4 Spinning, weaving 3.14 8.69 5.62 3.49 5.10 3.70 3.27 8.33 5.09 5 Tobacco products 1.52 2.88 2.59 13.49 2.49 5.50 4.18 2.81 3.12 6 Private households 17.2 8 24.34 22.05 17.28 24.34 22.05 7 Total 2.18 3.67 2.70 2.26 3.74 2.76 2.73 4.57 3.13 Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy by Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 26
  • 27. Percentage Distribution of GDP in Each Industry Group by Sector and Sex, 2004-05 Sl. No. Industry group Informal sector Formal sector Total Men women persons Men women persons Men women Persons 55.14 39.34 94.48 3.60 1.92 5.52 58.74 41.26 100 1 Agricult ure 2 Manufac 19.92 turing 6.91 26.84 62.06 11.10 73.16 81.99 18.01 100 3 Trade 8.42 75.08 22.04 2.88 24.92 88.70 11.30 100 4 Educatio 6.70 n 5.63 12.33 52.13 35.54 87.67 58.83 41.17 100 5 Private 32.43 househo lds 62.86 95.29 3.54 1.17 4.71 35.97 64.03 100 Grand 38.25 11.69 49.94 41.97 8.09 50.06 80.22 total 100 % Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy by Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 19.78 100 6 66.66 27
  • 28. Percentage Distribution of GDP in Each Industry Group by Sector and Sex, 2004-05 Men women 89 82 80 64 59 59 41 41 18 36 11 Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy by Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 20 28
  • 29. Growth Rates in GDP by Industry, Sector and Sex between 1999-2000 and 2004-05 Women contribution growing at higher rate than men in key sectors in India Men women 8 8 9 8.5 8 6 6 4 5.5 4 3 0.77 Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy , Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 29
  • 30. Estimated GDP Contribution of Women and Percentage Shares of Major sectors. N0. Sector Women contribution to GDP (Rs Crores) % of total in the sector % of sectoral GDP of women to total 1 Agriculture 2,21,433 41 % is from Women 39 % of total women contribution is for agriculture 2 Education 41,390 40.92 7.33 3 Retail trade 33 490 13.76 5.93 4 Banking & financial 24,380 14.53 4.32 5 Construction 23,028 12.40 4.08 6 Public admin.& defence 21,009 11.84 3.72 7 others 197432 8 Total 562 162 (Total GDP 27,42,253crore) 2004-05 34.93 20.52 99.51 30
  • 31. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN IN TOTAL WOMEN GDP ACROSS SECTORS Agriculture 39% others 35% Public admin.& defence 4% Construction 4% Banking & financial 4% Education 8% Retail trade 6% Source: Contribution of Women to the National Economy by Raveendran, G. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series 31
  • 32. Women contribution to GDP is under valued ?  Domestic labor and care giving activities create intangible value and social capital.  Women dominate in unorganized sector. Out of 32% of total work force 30% work in informal sector.  Methodologies to value women’s total economic contribution are not robust. 32
  • 33. Calculating economic value of woman 1. Consider opportunity costs. 2. Cost of paying household help to do tasks otherwise performed by the mother. 3. Payment for the same services in the market. 33
  • 34. Estimate of value of rural woman’s work (2006-07) in Bangladesh Work done by rural woman (fulltime housework) Cooking (3 times/day, including preparation) Clothes washing and ironing (2 days/week) Animal nursing – cows, buffaloes, and so on Raising chicken Educating children (help in Homework, ..) Sewing, mending clothes Gardening Washing utensils Cleaning house and yard Nursing the sick Child care Fuel collection Water collection Working in the field Total Hrs./day Value/hr Value/day 6 1 1 0.5 0.75 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 16 60 10 10 5 37.5 5 10 5 5 40.7 5 5 5 10 213 10 10 10 10 50 2.5 10 10 10 81.3 10 10 10 10 13.13 Source: The Economic Contribution of Women in Bangladesh Through Per year – taka 77,800 34 their Unpaid Labor, BICD, 2006 India: Rs. 51,866
  • 35. Rural Women estimated contribution to GDP is double her Per capita income ?  Contribution of rural women to GDP in India is Rs.51,866  Per capita income in India is Rs 22,483. (2006- 07)  Hence an amount equivalent to per capita income 35 of 40% of India's population is discounted in our GDP computation, as rural working women form 20% percent of the total population.
  • 36. Estimate of value of urban women’s work Work done by urban women Cooking (3 times /day, including preparation) Clothes washing and ironing (2 days/week) Taking children to/ from school Educating children (homework) Child care Sewing, mending Washing dishes Cleaning Nursing Gardening, shopping total Hrs./ day (A) 6 Value/ hour Value/ year (B) A*B*365. 3.13 6,844 0.5 13.18 2,520 1 2 2 1 1 0.5 0.5 1.5 16 15 83.33 6.16 8.22 6.57 3.29 81.25 38.35 259.11 5,475 60,833 4,500 3,000 2,400 600 14,828 20,998 INDIAN WOMEN – Rs. 81,330 taka1,21,9 96 36 Source: The Economic Contribution of Women in Bangladesh Through their Unpaid Labor, BICD
  • 37. Stock of the Changes in Gender Outcomes in Recent Times 37
  • 38. FERTILITY RATE decline in developed and developing nations What took the US 100 years, took 40 years for India and 10 years for Iran Transaction costs of women development are lower wrt fertility literacy 38 Source: world development report 2012
  • 39. Literacy rate among the men and women in India, 1951-2011 Figure: 8 Census year Source: census of India, 2011. 39
  • 40. Gender parity in enrollments at lower levels achieved in much of the world, higher education favor women Source: world development report 2012 40
  • 41. Labor participation. The gender gap in labor participation narrowed between 1980 and 2008 Source: world development report 2012 41
  • 42. The persistence of gender inequality 42
  • 43. Maternal mortality = 0 in Sweden in 2000; how other countries compare with Sweden ? Current Maternal mortality for India = 200 per 1 lakh births; Sweden had this in 1890. Source: world development report 2012 43
  • 44. Sex ratio of population and of children aged 0-6 year in India, 1961-2011 Figure: 13 Child sex ratio is drastically falling in India. And this impacts after 20 years, Total Sex ratio will fall drastically Source: census of India, 2011. 44
  • 45. In China death of girls increased between 1990 and 2008 In Africa, death of women increased, In India, female deaths reduced Source: world development report 2012 45
  • 46. why are so many missing girls at birth? Source: world development report 2012 46
  • 47. What explains excess morality among women in reproductive ages? Source: world development report 2012 47
  • 48. Low women education - Female enrollment remains very low Current Female enrollment in schools in India = that of USA in 1940, are we forward? India Source: world development report 2012 48
  • 49. Women are spending more time per day on household work and child care than men – leaving less educational opportunity Source: world development report 2012 49
  • 50. Who controls women income ? In India, 78 % of women have decision making or control over their income Where as in Indonesia and Philippines about 90% of the women have control over their own income. Source: world development report 2012 50
  • 51. Earning gaps between women and men (female earnings relative to $1 of male earnings) Indian salaried woman earning 0. 64$ for every $ earned by Man Source: world development report 2012 51
  • 52. Explaining persistent segregation and earning gaps Source: world development report 2012 52
  • 53. States with GEP (V) consolidated indices, 1971 and 1991. GEP (V) is calculated by consolidating average individual indices for sex ratio, female literacy rate, % area under forest, normal rainfall, % of rural poor. Kerala, Tripura, Mizoram.. are least vulnerable where as Bihar and Rajasthan are highly vulnerable to environmental degradation. Forcing women to spend More time in gathering Fuel, fodder, water For the family. Source: Gender, Environment and poverty interlinks: regional variations 53 and temporal shifts in rural India, 1971-1991. Bina Agarwal, (Gender economist of India
  • 54. Schemes related to women empowerment By department of women and child development, Karnataka. 54
  • 55. 1. KARNATAKA MAHILA ABHIVRUDHI YOJANE (KMAY)  Date of commencement: 3-5-2003  Purpose: to monitor the scheme for inter-sectoral allocation of funds for women (KMAY) to ensure gender equality and to integrate women in the mainstream of development.  The strategy is to earmark 1/3rd resources for women in individual beneficiary oriented schemes and labor intensive schemes of various departments of Government. 55
  • 56. 2. Bhagyalakshmi  Year of commencement: 2006.  Eligibility criteria: BPL Families and Families having income less than 17,000 Rs/year.  Benefits: Rs.19,300 will be deposited in the name of newly born girl child.  Purpose: To discourage the female foeticide. 3. Udyogini scheme:  Year of commencement: 2000-01  Eligibility criteria: Based on the kind of Training required and skills of the applicant.  Benefits: Subsidized loans up to Rs.50,000. Subsidy up to 20% of loan amount or Rs.7,500 direct support.  Purpose: For self- employment along with required training. 56
  • 57. 4. Stree sakthi  Date of commencement: 18-10-2000.  Eligibility criteria: Group of 10 to 20 interested women’s registered at the department.  Benefits: Loan up to 50,000 Rs per group and incentives to groups having savings more than 1 lakh.  Purpose: To empower women economically and socially by organizing them in self help groups.( At present 1,30,000 rural Stree Shakthi groups have been formed in the state and 19.00 lakh women members have been organized in these groups). 5. Scheme for Combating Trafficking of Women and Children  Year of commencement: 2006-07. 57 Training programmes were conducted to create awareness among committee members at taluka and grama panchayat level to sensitization on the issue of trafficking to the members of the committees. A one day awareness programmes through rallies, street plays etc.
  • 58. 6. Hostel for girls  Eligibility criteria : Admissions to the hostels are available for students residing in rural areas, whose family income is less than Rs.10,000 /year and are studying in 6th Std. and above up to post-matric courses.  Purpose: enable girls from rural areas to pursue higher education and reduce school drop out of girls. 7. Santhwana  Year of commencement : 2000-01  Purpose: to assist women who are victims of domestic violence, sexual abuse and dowry harassment. 58
  • 59.  Benefit: It aims at providing legal assistance, temporary shelter, financial relief and training to enable them to be self-reliant and also to achieve social and economic empowerment. If the woman is in immediate need of financial help an amount ranging from Rs. 2000/to a maximum of Rs. 10,000/- is sanctioned as financial relief. 8. SWADHAR – A scheme for women in difficult circumstances  purpose: Central sector scheme for providing holistic and integrated services to women in difficult circumstances  Benefit: The package of services made available include provision for food, clothing, shelter, health care , for the women and their children below the age of 18 years. counseling and legal support, social and economic rehabilitation through education, awareness generation, skill up gradation. 59
  • 60. Gender budgeting scheme grants for researchers Objective:  To 60 guide the Gender Budgeting Cells (GBCs) by Ministries/Departments.  To provide assistance to develop training packages, material and Information booklets for gender budgeting for all stakeholders.  To provide assistance to support research studies, surveys to Research Institutes, NGOs, etc for gender budgeting.  To pilot action on gender sensitive review of national policies such as fiscal, monetary, environment, trade and so on.  Conduct gender based impact analysis, beneficiary needs assessment and beneficiary incidence analysis.
  • 61. ELIGIBILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTING ORGANISATION/AGENCIES  Social Welfare Department, State Government  Women and Child Welfare Department, State 61 Government  Women’s Development Corporations  State Commissions for Women  Women’s Development Centers  Rural (PRI) & Urban Local Bodies  Voluntary Organizations with 3 years experience after registration  Universities & UGC approved Institutions  Public Sector Undertakings etc
  • 62. Grants under the scheme will include: 1. Grants for Research & Documentation 2. Grants for Training 3. Grants for Sustained and Combined Research and Training Activities 62
  • 63. PROSPECT  Policies to reduce gender gaps in human capital         63 endowments (health and education) Reducing excess female mortality Providing education to severely disadvantaged populations Releasing women’s time Closing gaps in access to assets and inputs Addressing discrimination in labor markets Increasing women’s societal voice Policies to prevent the gender inequality across generations Providing financial support
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