Wrapping up a PBL Problem Concept Mapping Hal White Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry ITUE Workshop with Friday 19 January 2001 entitled facilitated by from the presented on who uses
What does it mean when a student says, I understand? .... Does it mean the same thing to him or her that it does to another student or to you?..… How can your students demonstrate their understanding to you?
Wrapping up a PBL Problem: Concept Mapping <ul><li>What is a concept map? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did concept mapping originate? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the features of a concept map? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is concept mapping good for PBL? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you construct a concept map? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning a concept map for your class. </li></ul>
WORDS SYMBOLS CONCEPT LABELS CONCEPTS PERCEIVED REGULARITIES EVENTS OBJECTS CONCEPT MAPS LINKING WORDS PROPOSITIONS COGNITIVE STRUCTURE RELATIONSHIPS HIERARCHY CONTEXT DEPENDENT MOST GENERAL MOST IMPORTANT MOST SPECIFIC LEAST IMPORTANT ROTE KNOWLEDGE CLAIMS LEARNING MEANFUL RAINING EXPLOSION PHOTOSYNTHESIS DOG LEAF WOMAN Can be have have have are To form To form is are are are are Related to Can be Memorized by Achieved by of from to Perception is are in in e.g. e.g. are represents Are stored in form As stored in are for Concept Map Showing Key Concepts in Concept Mapping Adapted from: Joseph Novak (1991) Clarify with Concept Maps, The Science Teacher 58(7), 45-49.
Concept Maps Ideas Propositions Concepts Research & Assessment Tool Misconceptions Feelings & Values Affective Objectives Learning Interest Enjoyment Motivation Learning Effectiveness Learning Processes Metacognition Study & Revision Aid Linear Text Classroom Teachers Adapted from K. S. Taber (1994) Physics Education 29(5) 276-281 of increasing may increase awareness of may develop used as alternative to relate related by consists of suitable for reveals may address used as to assess to do with such as increasing improving CONCEPT MAP OF CONCEPT MAPPING
Problem-Based Learning Cooperative Learning Groups Concept Mapping Process Skills Content Objectives Learning Goals Library & Internet Resources Real World Open-ended Complex Individual Learning Leadership Communication Conflict Management Sharing Information Accepting Information Peer Evaluation Writing Assignments Divide and Conquer Strategies Scholarly Synthesis Organization Disciplinary Rhetoric Student Voice Term Papers PBL Problems Case Studies Individual Accountability Grades Problems Revision Faculty Students Society Academic Dishonesty Examinations uses working on that are to promote depends on reflected in tied to expected by has Group Accountability including Peer Evaluation based on Group Assignments need achieved with should limit seen in such as including such as that display that access that address and minimize that incorporate Peer Feedback informed by reflected in Where does Concept Mapping Fit Into PBL?
Scarlet Cruorine Purple Cruorine Brown Hematin Red Hematin O 2 + O 2 +H 2 CO 3 H 2 O Irreversible Reducing Agents Oxidized Products O 2 Reducing Agents Acid, Heat, Organic Solvents Albuminous Precipitate Acid, Heat, Organic Solvents Reversible Irreversible Decomposition Conceptual model for the reactions of “cruorine” described by Stokes. In the original drawing, the shaded squares were colored to correspond to the spectral properties of the porphyrin involved.
BLOOD Plasma Clotting Factors Fibrinogen Colored Compound Absorption Spectra Spectroscope Red Blood Cells O 2 Oxyhemoglobin (Scarlet Cruorine) Deoxyhemoglobin (Purple Cruorine) Arterial Blood Venous Blood Brown Hematin Heme Anionic Hematin Protein Precipitate OXYGENATION AND DEOXYGENATION BLOOD TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN HEMATIN FORMATION AND SEPARATION OXIDATION AND REDUCTION REACTIONS CELLULAR RESPIRATION CHEMISTRY BIOLOGY H 2 CO 3 H 2 O Reducing Agents Oxidized Products Acid Ether Aqueous Base Reduced Carbon (Food) Carbon Dioxide Sn II Fe II Fe III Colorless Product Tartaric Acid Indigo Sn IV Water Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen irreversible slow fast Stabilized by 2H + Spontaneously reacts with oxygen forming Heat, Acid, Ethanol decomposition to form Reversible dissociation Mimics Mimics In lungs In tissues In tissues Lyse in water to release Contains Contains Has a distinctive Observable with a Which includes Such as Is a Is a Is a Soluble in Soluble in Concept map illustrating the relationships among significant words and ideas in Stokes’ 1864 article.
Academic Metabolism H.S. Graduate M.S. Ph.D. Asst. Prof. Assoc. Prof. Full Prof. Chairperson B.S. Postdoc Industry Career Change Law, Medicine, Computer Science, Organic Farming $ $ Poverty No Tenure DuPont Hercules Shunt Publications Publications Thesis Disillusionment Frustration Govt Lab Director Golden Handshake Higher Administration Walk-on-H 2 O Letters Friends Enemies Publications Publications, Awards ‡ ‡ Unstable intermediate often with sequential states * Job Offers Grad. Students Degraded Grad. Students Grants * Nonobligatory Intermediate # Microscopic Reversibility Questioned #
Evolution of Influenza Virus Changes in Surface Antigens Neuraminidase Hemagglutinin Sialic Acid Residues Host Cell Surface Glycoproteins Virus Infection Virus Release Mutation Selection Genetic Variation Favorable Phenotypes Unfavorable Phenotypes Phenotypic Effect Genetic Drift Host Responses Fever Antibodies SynonymousMutations Recombination Segmented RNA Genome Co-infected Host Cell Pandemics Antigenic Shift 1918 Spanish Flu 1957 Hong Kong Flu Replication 5 Other Proteins Antigenic Drift RNA Polymerase High Mutation Rate Amino Acid Replacements CHEM-647 Biochemical Evolution Concept Map for Case Study 4 University of Delaware H. B. White 10/24/97 associated primarily with namely binds to hydrolyses of during followed by requires such as yield and with little or no leading to generating selected to evade including inhibiting followed by that recognize facilitated by and a of the in results in that causes a leading to known as produces sudden that encodes and slower then leads to such as of the Non-synonymous Mutations that operates on provide
Stages in the Construction of a Concept Map <ul><li>Brainstorming Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Layout Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Linking Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Revising Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Finalizing Stage </li></ul>
Brainstorming Stage <ul><li>List any and all terms and concepts associated with the topic of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Write them on Post It Notes, one word or phrase per note. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't worry about redundancy, relative importance, or relationships at this point. </li></ul><ul><li>The objective is to generate the largest possible list. </li></ul>
Organizing Stage <ul><li>Spread concepts on a table or blackboard so that all can be read easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Create groups and sub-groups of related items. Try to group items to emphasize hierarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify terms that represent higher categories and add them. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to rearrange items and introduce new items omitted initially. </li></ul><ul><li>Some concepts will fall into multiple groupings. This will become important in the linking stage. </li></ul>
Layout Stage <ul><li>Arrange terms so that they represent your collective understanding of the interrelationships and connections among groupings. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a consistent hierarchy in which the most important concepts are in the center or at the top. </li></ul><ul><li>Within sub-grouping, place closely related items near to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Think in terms of connecting the items in a simple sentence that shows the relationship between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Feel free to rearrange things at any time during this phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not expect your layout to be like that of other groups. </li></ul>
Linking Phase <ul><li>Use lines with arrows to connect and show the relationship between connected items. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a word or short phrase by each arrow to specify the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Many arrows can originate or terminate on particularly important concepts. </li></ul>
Revising Stage <ul><li>Carefully examine the draft concept map. </li></ul><ul><li>Rearrange sections to emphasize organization and appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove or combine items to simplify. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider adding color or different fonts. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss any aspects where opinions differ </li></ul>
Finalizing the Concept Map <ul><li>After your group has agreed on an arrangement of items that coveys your understanding, convert the concept map into a permanent form that others can view and discuss. </li></ul><ul><li>Be creative in a constructive way through the use of colors, fonts, shapes. </li></ul>
Evaluating Concept Maps <ul><li>Accuracy and Thoroughness . Are the concepts and relationships correct? Are important concepts missing? Are misconceptions apparent? </li></ul><ul><li>Organization . Is the concept map laid out in a way that higher order relationships are apparent and easy to follow? Does it have a title? </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance . Is the assignment done with care showing attention to details such as spelling and penmanship? Is it neat and orderly or is it chaotic and messy? </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity . Are there unusual elements that aid communication or stimulate interest without being distracting? </li></ul>