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 Variable cannot be manipulated for ethical & practicalreasons. Individuals are not randomly assigned to group. Allow r...
 1 DEPENDENT VARIABLE & 2 OR MORE GROUPS OFPARTICIPANTS. RESEARCHER PREFER THE TERM “GROUPING VARIABLES”RATHER THAN INDE...
GROUPING VARIABLECANNOT BEMANIPULATED• SOSIOECONOMICSTATUSSHOULD NOTBEMANIPULATED• NO OFCIGARETTESSMOKED PER DAYSIMPLYAREN...
SELECT ATOPICIDENTIFYVARIABLESDEVELOP ARESEARCHHYPOTHESISSELECTPARTICIPANTSSELECTINSTRUMENTSTO MEASUREVARIABLES &COLLECTIN...
BASED ON EXPERINCESOR SITUATIONS THATHAVE OCCURRED IN THEREAL WORLD.KNOWLEDGE ON THEEVENT MIGHT IMPACTRESEARCHER’S FUTUREB...
REVIEWING PUBLISHEDLITERATURE ON SPECIFIC TOPIC.IDENTIFY AN INDEPENDENT& DEPENDENT VARIABLES.• THE CHARACTERISTICS / EXPER...
RESEARCHER MUST CONSIDER OTHEREXPLANATIONS SUCH AS REVERSE CAUSATION.RESEARCHER ASSUMED ERRONEOUS THAT ANYRELATED EVENT TH...
STATISTICAL TESTS IS USED TO ACCOUNT FOR EXTRANEOUSVARIABLE.CCR CAN EMPLOY A VARIETY OF METHODS TO CONTROL FOREXTRANEOUS V...
SELECT INSTRUMENTSTHAT ARE RELIABLE &ALLOW RESEARCHER TODRAW VALIDCONCLUSIONS.RESEARCHER DO NOTREQUIRED TO IMPLEMENTA TREA...
HYPOTHESIS REGARDING CAUSALITY CAN BE STRENGTHENED WHENMULTI CCR HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED BY A VARIETY OF RESEARCHERS.IT IS BEC...
RESEARCHERSELECT 2GROUPSEXPERIMENTALGROUPCONTROLGROUPCOMPARISON GROUP
GROUP MAYDIFFERENT IN 2WAYS :EITHER 1 GROUPPOSSESSES ACHARACTERISTIC THATTHE OTHER DOES NOTBOTH GROUPS HAVETHE CHARACTERIS...
THE VARIABLE DIFFERENTIATING THE GROUP MUSTBE CLEARLY AND OPERATIONALLY DEFINED.BECAUSE EACH GROUP REPRESENTS A DIFFERENTP...
CONTROLPROCEDUREMATCHINGCOMPARINGHOMOGENEOUSGROUP / SUBGROUPANCOVA
 Technique for equating groups on one or more variables. Pair-wise grouping The researcher finds a participant in the o...
 Comparing Homogeneous Control for extraneous variables that are homogeneouswith respect to the extraneous variables. L...
 Statistical technique used to adjust scores on adependent variable for initial differences onsome other variable related...
• Central Tendency(mean, median, mode)• Variation(StandardDeviation)DESCRIPTIVESTATISTICS• t-test• Analysis of Variance• C...
 Indicates the average performance of a group ona measure of some variables. Involves mean, median and mode. Indicates ...
 Used to determine whether the scores of 2groups are significant different from oneanother. Used to test for significant...
 Used to compare group frequencies – to see ifan event occurs more frequently in one groupthan another group.
 Used when analysis the result of comparinghomogeneous subgroup (about interest)Researcher can determine the effects on ...
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
Causal comparative
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Causal comparative

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Transcript of "Causal comparative"

  1. 1.  Variable cannot be manipulated for ethical & practicalreasons. Individuals are not randomly assigned to group. Allow researcher to determine what variable causesanother variable. 2 types of CCR:• A researcher starting with effect & investigate cause.• Common in educational research.Retrospective CCR• Starting with cause & investigate effect.Prospective CCR
  2. 2.  1 DEPENDENT VARIABLE & 2 OR MORE GROUPS OFPARTICIPANTS. RESEARCHER PREFER THE TERM “GROUPING VARIABLES”RATHER THAN INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. RESEARCHER CANNOT CONTROL AN ORGANISMIC VARIABLE. ORGANISMIC VARIABLE: IS A CHARACTERISTICS OF ASUBJECT / ORGANISM. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS OFTEN PREVENT MANIPULATIONOF A VARIABLE THAT COULD BE MANIPULATED BUT SHOULDNOT BE, PARTICULARY WHEN THE MANIPULATION MAYCAUSE PHYSICAL / MENTAL HARM TO PARTICIPANTS.
  3. 3. GROUPING VARIABLECANNOT BEMANIPULATED• SOSIOECONOMICSTATUSSHOULD NOTBEMANIPULATED• NO OFCIGARETTESSMOKED PER DAYSIMPLYARENOTMANIPULATEDBUT COULD BE• METHOD OFREADINGINSTRUCTIONS
  4. 4. SELECT ATOPICIDENTIFYVARIABLESDEVELOP ARESEARCHHYPOTHESISSELECTPARTICIPANTSSELECTINSTRUMENTSTO MEASUREVARIABLES &COLLECTINGDATAANALYZE &INTERPRETRESULT
  5. 5. BASED ON EXPERINCESOR SITUATIONS THATHAVE OCCURRED IN THEREAL WORLD.KNOWLEDGE ON THEEVENT MIGHT IMPACTRESEARCHER’S FUTUREBEHAVIOURS.
  6. 6. REVIEWING PUBLISHEDLITERATURE ON SPECIFIC TOPIC.IDENTIFY AN INDEPENDENT& DEPENDENT VARIABLES.• THE CHARACTERISTICS / EXPERIENCE THAT DIFFERSBETWEEN THE GROUPS STUDIES WHERE CANNOT BEMANIPULATED.INDEPENDENTVARIABLE• THE VARIABLE THAT IS IMPACTED IN SOMEWAY BE THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.DEPENDENTVARIABLE
  7. 7. RESEARCHER MUST CONSIDER OTHEREXPLANATIONS SUCH AS REVERSE CAUSATION.RESEARCHER ASSUMED ERRONEOUS THAT ANYRELATED EVENT THAT HAS OCCURRED PRIOR TOTHE DEPENDENT IS THE CAUSE.SHOULD DESCRIBE THE EXPECTED IMPACT OF THEINDEPENDENT VARIABLE ON THE DEPENDENTVARIABLE.
  8. 8. STATISTICAL TESTS IS USED TO ACCOUNT FOR EXTRANEOUSVARIABLE.CCR CAN EMPLOY A VARIETY OF METHODS TO CONTROL FOREXTRANEOUS VARIABLES.MUST BE DETERMINED THAT THE GROUP ONLY DIFFER BASED ONTHE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.GROUPS DEFINED AS COMPARISON GROUP.ALREADY ORGANIZED IN GROUPS.
  9. 9. SELECT INSTRUMENTSTHAT ARE RELIABLE &ALLOW RESEARCHER TODRAW VALIDCONCLUSIONS.RESEARCHER DO NOTREQUIRED TO IMPLEMENTA TREATMENT -TREATMENT HAS ALREADYOCCURRED.
  10. 10. HYPOTHESIS REGARDING CAUSALITY CAN BE STRENGTHENED WHENMULTI CCR HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED BY A VARIETY OF RESEARCHERS.IT IS BECAUSE RESEARCHER CANNOT DETERMINE THAT ONEVARIABLE HAS CAUSED SOMETHING OCCUR.MUST CAREFUL WHEN STATING THAT THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLEHAS CAUSED A SPECIFIC EFFECT TO OCCUR.INFERENTIAL STATISTICS ARE USED FOR THE GROUPS ARESIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER.DATA IS REPORTED AS A MEAN/FREQUENCY FOR EACH GROUP.
  11. 11. RESEARCHERSELECT 2GROUPSEXPERIMENTALGROUPCONTROLGROUPCOMPARISON GROUP
  12. 12. GROUP MAYDIFFERENT IN 2WAYS :EITHER 1 GROUPPOSSESSES ACHARACTERISTIC THATTHE OTHER DOES NOTBOTH GROUPS HAVETHE CHARACTERISTICBUT TO DIFFERINGDEGREES / AMOUNT
  13. 13. THE VARIABLE DIFFERENTIATING THE GROUP MUSTBE CLEARLY AND OPERATIONALLY DEFINED.BECAUSE EACH GROUP REPRESENTS A DIFFERENTPOPULATION AND THE WAY IN WHICH THE GROUPSARE DEFINED AFFECTS THE GENERALIZABILITY OFTHE RESULT.SAMPLE MUST BE REPRESENTATIVE OF THEIRRESPECTIVE POPULATIONS AND SIMILAR WITHRESPECT TO CRITICAL VARIABLES OTHER THAN THEGROUPING VARIABLE.
  14. 14. CONTROLPROCEDUREMATCHINGCOMPARINGHOMOGENEOUSGROUP / SUBGROUPANCOVA
  15. 15.  Technique for equating groups on one or more variables. Pair-wise grouping The researcher finds a participant in the other groupwith the same or very similar score on control variablefor each participant in one group. If participant in either group does not have a suitablematch, the participant is eliminated from the study
  16. 16.  Comparing Homogeneous Control for extraneous variables that are homogeneouswith respect to the extraneous variables. Lowers the no of participants in the study & limits thegeneralizability of the findings. Comparing subgroup Each group represent all levels of the control variable. Researcher can determine whether the target grouping variableaffects the dependent variable differently at control group. Build the control variable into the research design & analyze the resultwith FANOVA.
  17. 17.  Statistical technique used to adjust scores on adependent variable for initial differences onsome other variable related to performance onthe dependent variable.
  18. 18. • Central Tendency(mean, median, mode)• Variation(StandardDeviation)DESCRIPTIVESTATISTICS• t-test• Analysis of Variance• Chi-SquareINFERENTIALSTATISTICS
  19. 19.  Indicates the average performance of a group ona measure of some variables. Involves mean, median and mode. Indicates the spread of a set of scores around the mean. That is whether the scores are relatively close togetherand clustered around mean or widely spread out aroundthem.
  20. 20.  Used to determine whether the scores of 2groups are significant different from oneanother. Used to test for significant differences amongthe scores for 3 or more groups.
  21. 21.  Used to compare group frequencies – to see ifan event occurs more frequently in one groupthan another group.
  22. 22.  Used when analysis the result of comparinghomogeneous subgroup (about interest)Researcher can determine the effects on thegrouping variable (CCR) or independentvariable (Experimental Design) & thecontrol variable both separately & incombination.

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