An Introduction to Self-Sustainable Domestic Aquaculture. NG KOK HONGaquadomest@gmail.com 8th October 2012
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, shellfish andeven plants.It is the science, art and business of cultivating of organisms in waterunder controlled conditions in artificial containments like ponds, cagesand tanks.Fish: Tilapia, catfish, gouramy, ornamental fishes.Shellfish: Prawns, OysterPlants: Seaweeds, submergent plants, edible crops like watercressPond culture
Why aquaculture ?The old Chinese proverb “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day.Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime”• Stagnated and poor landings from captured fisheries.• Fish convert more of the food they eat into body mass than land animals.• Aquaculture farming methodology is flexible. “The confluence of declining wild fish stocks, increasing world seafood demand, problems with conventional aquaculture and the emergence of new technologies are propelling sustainable aquaculture forward.” Cleantech Investment Insight.
Global total wild fish capture and aquaculture production in million tonnes, 1950–2010, as reported by the FAO.
History:Aquaculture has a long history dating as far as 2500 years ago.Around 473 B.C. Fan Li wrote his book, “The Classic of FishCulture” the earliest known monograph of fish culture.Aquaculture Practices:Commercial aquaculture. High density farmingNon-commercial aquaculture Semi and low density farmingDomestic aquaculture Low density farming Organic wastes & water re-cyclingMonoculture or Polyculture
Integrating Domestic Aquaculture in Urban Communities.Objectives:1. To gain fish as food for a good source of high quality but cheap protein.2. To re-cycle organic kitchen wastes & possibility grey water.3. To achieve low costs production of fish or/and plants.4. To retain water for functional consumption.5. For communities to get connected to the natural world by understanding the nature of fish husbandry and water management.
Where to Start ?For domestic fish farming, best to start with small ponds before further ventureinto larger scale farming. Fish farming has no fixed rules but acquiringexperience and knowledge along the way will surely be helpful in the future.Basic subjects to consider are:Pond designWater source & its qualitySeed suppliesFeed and feeding. FCRBasic understanding of water qualityCommon fish diseases
Pond DesignThe pond for fish farming must be able to retain water at a minimal depth of500mm. Therefore, pond should be dug at 800 mm minimal depth with 300mm freeboard.The size of pond recommended depends on needs and functionality. An idealsize would be about 40-50 sq. m. of water surface area for experimentalpurpose. Typical pond size recommended for production best at 1000 sq. m.The well being of fish growth very much relates to water surface area ratherthen the depth of the pond.Best to avoid acidic soil base like those near mangroves or high rocky hills. Typical section of a pond.
Water Source and Its Quality.Generally, most of the natural sources of water have good quality andsuitable for fish farming. Sources of clean fresh water from streams, ponds,tube well and rain are the best.Grey water input has to be calculated and analysed if fishes grown are meantfor food.Those to be avoided are the extreme high and low pH water. Like water fromacidic soil or from ex-mining pond.The pH of water best to be within the range of 6.0 to 7.5The amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water should not be less than 4 ppmbut best to maintain at least 6 ppm. Water DO can be maintained bycontinuous inflowing water from natural source, like a small stream or artificiallyaerated with aeration pumps or paddle-wheels.
Seed Supplies.Young fingerlings can be purchasedfrom local fish hatcheries.Fish Stocking Density.For domestic faming, the stockingdensity recommended should be from3-5 pieces/ sq m depending on fishtype.The lower the stocking density, thefaster the growth of fish and highersurvival rate can be achieved.For beginners, best to start with a lowstocking rate of not more than 5 / sq m High density catfish culture. High feed consumption and irregular growth rate. Catfish are air-breather, therefore, aeration is not necessary.
Poor understanding and management of fish pond in high density farming resulted in massive losses.
Feed and feeding.Commercial fish pellets are readily available in the market.The frequency of fish feeding is once a day. Since fishes are cold blooded,therefore feeding during cold weather or during monsoon season can berecommended on alternate days, „skip feeding‟.Fingerlings can be fed with rice bran until they are ready for pelleted feed.The amount to feed is 5% of body weight for the first 2 months and 2.5% for thesubsequent months.Food Conversion Ration.FCR is the amount of feed required to produce a unit of fish. FCR is the amount(kg) of feed needed to produce 1kg fish. The FCR of fish is more efficient thanland animals. FCR= Total amount of feed fed during a culture period by fishes Total wet weight gained by fishesLow FCR = Good Profits Beef FCR: 8.0 Pork FCR: 4.0 Chicken FCR: 2.0 Fish FCR: <2.0
Basic Understanding of Water QualityFish releases ammoniacle and nitrogenous wastes in water.Accumulation of these wastes can be toxic to the fish itself.Naturally, algae blooms either in suspended or attached form in order to extractthe dissolved wastes. The pond water appears green with algal blooms.Advantage. The algae extracts nitrogenous wastes and also releases oxygen inthe water.Disadvantage. The algae consumes dissolved oxygen from the water throughrespiration.
Common Fish DiseasesFishes in stressed conditions are usually weak and susceptible to diseases. Highdensity stocking, cold water flushing are some of the causes that stressed the fish.Common fish diseases are basically of parasitic, fungal or bacterial infections.Stressed fish tends to loose lots of nutrients. One of the common practice is to addsmall quantity of rough salt in water when necessary. Ichthyophthirius sp. White spot disease Argulus sp.Lernaea cyprinaceaAnchor worm disease Trichodina sp.
Recommended Fish for Domestic Aquaculture: The Giant GouramyThe giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy is an aggressive herbivorous.They consume many type of plants like tapioca & banana leaves as their main diet. Kitchen left-overs, fruit peels and other vegetative wastes can be used to feed them. They also consumepellets and meaty food.Like the catfishes, gouramies are air breathers, therefore no artificial aeration is required even inhigh density culture of these fishes.Growing gouramy in your ponds should be a good start before further venture into commercialaquaculture. The art of fish culture for each species varies from one another.Cumulative stocking of fish fries over a period of time is more a practical approach for domesticfish farming. This will allow constant harvesting and culling for better growth rate.
Gouramy Culture Data.Pond area: 50 sq.m.Pond depth: 0.5 mPond water volume: 25 cu m or 25,000 litresFish fingerlings size to stock : 40-50 mm TLFish fingerlings price : USD 0.15/ pcFish stocking density: 5 */sqm = 250/ pondTherefore, price of fingerlings = US 37.50Fish feed: Tapioca, banana leaves, fruit peelsand organic kitchen left-overs.Costs: USD 0.00Feeding rate from 5 % of estimated body weightSurvivability 90% = 225Average body weight: 0.5 kg per fishPeriod of culture : 8 months.Harvested weight: 112.5 kgMarket price at US 3.00/kg.Harvested value = US 337.50 http://bbat-sukabumi.tripod.com/ikan.html* Rural farmers stock at 1 fish/2 sq.m.
Gouramy Culture. Culture period: 8 monthsPond Area 50 sq.m. 5 10 15Stocking Rate / sq m Low density High densityPond density 250 500 750Price of fingerlings @ US 0.15 USD 37.50 USD 75.00 USD 112.50% Survivability 90 80 70Number of fish to harvest 225 400 525Average weight of fish at 0.5 kg/pc 112.5 kg 200.0 kg 262.5 kgPrice of Fish @ USD 3/kg USD 337.50 USD 600.00 USD 787.50Feeding by leaves & re-cycle wastes 0 0 0Pellet at FCR 2.5 for USD 0.50 USD 281.25 USD 500.00 USD 656.25Profits with commercial pellets USD 56.25 USD 100.00 USD 131.25Production by area by USD/sq m USD 6.75 USD 12.00 USD 15.75Production by fish quantity/month 28 50 65.5
Other Recommended Fish Species for Domestic Aquaculture.Air-breathers.Ikan Lele, KeliIkan Puyu Anabas Clarias sp testudineusHerbivorous Lampam Jawa Ikan Kelah Puntius gonionotus Tor tambroidesNon-indigeneous species Chinese carps Kap Cina Cyprinus carpio Kap Rumput Ctenopharyngodon idellaTropical fishes for aquarium hobbyist Tiger barbs Angelfish Pearl Gouramy
Application of Self-sustainable DomesticAquaculture in Home Gardens.
Application of Self-sustainable Domestic Aquaculture in aUrban ProjectsAyerMatahari River Valley Park, Pos Sigar Highlands, Cameron Highlands. A 980 acres mixed development project.
Conclusion1. Commercial or high density aquaculture is high in costs and risks.2. Wastes discharge from commercial aquaculture farms are polluting the sea, mangroves and riverine systems.3. Domestic aquaculture could be a way to reduce harmful impacts on aquatic ecosystems from large-scale, high density aquaculture farms waste discharges.4. Domestic aquaculture is only practical when it is applicable for functional purpose.5. Fish type selection for domestic aquaculture is very important for a successful application.6. The use of re-cycle organic wastes includes grey water is possible in domestic aquaculture.7. The art of fish farming can only be acquired by practicing.8. Domestic aquaculture yields are for own consumption and it is non- commercial.
TERIMA KASIHNg Kok Hong. AyerMatahari SB.email@example.comIkan kelah from my home pond just right for dinner