Communities of Practicecommunities of practice – an environment connecting people and encouraging the sharing of ideas and experiences 4
Communities of Practice network of individuals allows you to with common problems or interests collaborate and achieve exploring ways of common outcomes working together, identifying common accelerates your solutions, and sharing good practice and ideas. learning puts you in touch with validates and builds on like-minded colleagues existing knowledge and peers and good practice allows you to share your provides the opportunity experiences and learn to innovate and create from others new ideas
Developing SuccessfulCommunities of PracticeStep 1: Establish or identify ? What is a a purpose
Stories That Inspire..... Ethical Business Success Technology/Web 2.0/Productivity Boosters Reverse Migration/Diaspora- Naija/Urban-Rural Going Green/Waste to Wealth
Renewed Interest....... Citizen Engagement Effective Representation Selfless Service Curbing Impunity Constructive Criticism For The Common Good
To Uplift The People..... Poverty Alleviation Healthcare Education Agriculture Jobs
What is Team? What is a Team? A team is any group of people organized to work together interdependently & cooperatively to accomplish a common purpose/goal. Teams are created for both long term and short term interaction. • Long Term Teams: eg, Strategic Engagement team, & Operational Teams. • Short term teams example: FA Colloquium 2012 Team
What is a Work Group? What is a Group? A group interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team.
Characteristics of a Team Common Purpose A team will always have 1 a common task / purpose to accomplish. Clarity of Role & Responsibility Team members have 2 crystal clear roles & responsibilities. Effective Leadership Leaders have participative 3 style of working and team members approve of it. Solid Relationships Teams have a climate of 4 trust which results in strong relationships. Effective Communication Team members stay 5 connected through a robust communication process
Stages in Team Formation / Development Roles & Responsibilities Initial introductions take place and hence roles & responsibilities are unclear Attitude of Team members Some are polite while some are anxious and some are excited about the task ahead. Forming Leadership Style Directing – Since Roles & responsibilities are not clear, leader plays a dominant role.
Stages in Team Formation / Development Roles & Responsibilities Leader discusses roles and responsibilities. Team members may or may not agree. Attitude of Team members Team members give opinion about task priorities, roles & responsibilities, and processes. Storming Leadership Style Selling – Leader needs to sell decisions on roles, and how the task is to be performed.
Stages in Team Formation / Development Roles & Responsibilities Roles & Responsibilities are clear. Hierarchy is established. Attitude of Team members Members accept authority of leader & develop a greater commitment to goals. Norming Leadership Style Supporting – Team members & leaders follow participative style and support each other.
Stages in Team Formation / Development Roles & Responsibilities Team members work as per given roles & responsibilities. Performing Attitude of Team members Supportive, high level of goal orientation, communication, and interpersonal relations. Leadership Style Delegating – Team members expect delegation instead of instructions.
Stages in Team Formation / Development Roles & Responsibilities Complete – Task has been performed. Attitude of Team members Members find it difficult to leave the project and strong interpersonal relations. Adjourning Leadership Style Celebrative – Success is celebrated and recognized.
Stages in Team Formation / Development[Recap] Adjourning
Dynamics of Different Network Types Community of Project Teams Informal networks PracticePurpose Learning Accomplish specific Communication Sharing task flows Creating KnowledgeBoundary Knowledge domain Assigned project Extent of charter relationshipsConnections Common application Commitment to goal Interpersonal of a skill acquaintancesMembership Semi - permanent Constant for a fixed Links made based period on needs of the individualTime scale As long as it adds Fixed ends when Long – term, no value to the project deliverables pre-engineered end community and its have been 23 members accomplished
Members of an active community transactional lurkers peripheral occasional experts active beginners core group leaders facilitator outsiders
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team AdvisorLinker – Co-ordinates &Integerates MaintainerCreator - Initiates Creative ControllerIdeasPromoter – Champions theideas once they are initiated ProducerAssesor - Offers insightfulanalysis of options OrganizerOrganizer – ProvidesStructure AssessorProducer – Provides PromoterDirection and follow-through CreatorController – Examines Linkerdetails & enforces rulesMaintainer – Fights externalbattlesAdvisor – Encourages thesearch for more information
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team Creating Turning Quality Performa Innovati Motivator & Individ Managem nce on s Managing uals ent Enhancer Diversity into s Team PlayersRole 1 Role 2 Role 3 Role 4 Role 5 Role 6 Remember It is not just the team members who have roles & responsibilities, as a combined unit – Team also has roles to play. A Team is responsible for its own success or failures.
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team [Creating & Managing Diversity] Respect Respect each other’s view points and include suggestions if they benefit the team.
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team [Turning Individuals into Team Players] Team Player Reward & Motivateencourage cooperative efforts rather than individual. Continue to recognize 3 individual Reward contributions while & emphasizing the Motivate importance of teamwork. Training Train members to 2 become better team Training players – communication skills, interpersonal skills. Selection 1 Make team skills one Selection of the interpersonal skills in the hiring process.
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team [Quality Management] Support Does the Team have a ‘Go To person’ / ‘Champion’ to go to in case they need guidance?
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team[Performance Enhancers] Synergy People working in a team are able to produce greater output than would have been produced if each person had worked separately. Team members should always work with each other to maximize output.
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team [Innovation] Remember Team leaders should empower the team and make it accountable for innovation process. Team members should uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses.
Roles & Responsibilities of a Team [Motivation] Motivate Team leaders should provide needed social interaction and help members cope with stressors. They should recognize and reward high performance teams.
Steps to Self- Motivate YourselfStep 1 – Get Out of Your Comfort Zone: Step 5 – Self Development:• Be willing to leave your comfort • Spend at least one hour a zone. Step 3 – Stop Limiting Yourself: day in self-development.• The greatest barrier to achieving • Dont indulge in self- • Read good books or listen to your potential is your comfort zone. limiting thinking. inspiring tapes.• Great things happen when you make • Think empowering, • Driving to and from work friends with your discomfort zone. expansive thoughts. provides an excellent opportunity to listen to self- improvement tapes. Step 4 – Be Happy: Step 2 – Mistakes Happen: • Choose to be happy. • Dont be afraid to make mistakes. • Happy people are easily motivated. • Wisdom helps us avoid making mistakes • Happiness is your birthright so dont settle and comes from making a million of them. for anything else.
Steps to Self- Motivate YourselfStep 6 – Finish What You Start: Sept 10 – Live Life to the Fullest:• Train yourself to finish what you • The real tragedy in life is not in start. Step 8 – Never Give Up: how much we suffer, but rather in• Many of us become scattered as we • Never quit when you how much we miss, so dont miss a try to accomplish a task. experience a setback or thing.• Finish one task before you begin frustration. • Charles Dubois once said, "We another. • Success could be just must be prepared, at any moment, around the corner. to sacrifice who we are for who we are capable of becoming.” Step 7 – Live in the Present: Step 9 – Dream and Dream Big: • Live fully in the present moment. • Dare to dream big dreams. • When you live in the past or the future you • If there is anything to the law of expectation arent able to make things happen in the then we are moving in the direction of our present. dreams, goals and expectations.
Effective Communication [Behaviors to Observe] Observe • Who participates - Who doesn’t? • How do people take turns? • Who talks to whom - Who responds to whom? • How are interruptions handled? • Is silence O.K.? • Is anyone dominating the conversation? • How are decisions made? • By consensus? • By voting? • By one person?
Effective Communication [Common Problems in Teams] Beating Dead Talking too Horse much Dead Buffaloestiptoeing around acontentious issue Jumping from one topic to another Getting stuck on the issue
Effective Communication – Always Remember In a Team Never Order / Command Never Warn / Threaten Never Preach / Moralize Never Label / Evaluate / Judge Never Respond with Sarcasm Never Assume, instead Ask / Listen
Why does a person engage witha Community of Practice? Attractive purpose grabs and retains attention Perceived benefits: Socialisation Co-learning, knowledge sharing and co- production Each person chooses to be a member Volition Joining in – and leaving!
Levels of engagement Become an expert Become a mentorLevel of engagement Write a blog Ask a question (with attribution) Comment (with attribution) Register Comment (Anonymously) Browse, search, learn (Anonymously) Type of engagement 41
Patterns of contribution 1% active contributors 9% occasional contributorsNumber of contributions The 1-9-90 rule 90% readers (aka ‘lurkers’) Number of participants
The “1% Rule” For every 100 people online only 1 person will create content and 10 will “interact” with it. The other 89 will just view it. Each day at YouTube there are 100 million downloads and 65,000 uploads The important message is: look after your 50% of all Wikipedia article edits are done by 0.7% of users, andcontent creators!of all articles have more than 70% been written by just 1.8% of all users In Yahoo Groups, 1% of the user population might start a group; 10% of the user population might participate actively. 100% of the user population benefits from the activities of the above groups Source: The Guardian (UK)
Community Archetypes Duelsists In a perpetual personal duel. Generally don’t menace anyone except each other. http://redwing.hutman.net/~mreed/warriorshtm/duelists.htm
Community Archetypes Ego For Ego, the discussion forum is all about him, and he regards discussions that stray from that topic as trivial dalliances. Ego is one the fiercest of all the Warriors and will fight to the death when attacked http://redwing.hutman.net/~mreed/warriorshtm/ego.htm
Community Archetypes Fillibuster Attempts to influence the forum simply by holding the floor. His monotonous hectoring and prodigious output of verbiage rapidly clears the field of other users http://redwing.hutman.net/~mreed/warriorshtm/filibuster.htm
Community Archetypes Big Dog and MeToo Big Dog is a bully who doesnt hesitate to use his superior strength to intimidate other combatants. Me-Too will join the attack. Me-Too is far too weak and insecure to engage in single combat. http://redwing.hutman.net/~mreed/warriorshtm/bigdogmetoo.htm
Community Roles andResponsibilitiesOn a more serious note… Champion/Sponsor is able to envision the services of a CoP over time, and should have a sense of how the CoP can interact across the organisation Facilitator/Coordinator consulting, connecting, facilitating, helping, guiding. Leader serves an integral role in the communitys success by energising the sharing process and providing continuous nourishment for the community Librarian organises information/data (may be part of Facilitator/Coordinator role). Technical Steward understands business needs and ensure the appropriate tools are available to meet these needs. Core Group is a working group that initially performs start-up activities and continues to provide ongoing organisational support. Experts are the subject matter specialist Members/Participants without these there is no community; the essence of a community is its members.
Effective Team Behavior Perioidic Self Evaluation Trust & Conflict Management Shared Responsibility High level of CommunicationShared Vision &Goals
Attributes of a successful CoP Critical Success Seekers Contributors factors I need someone I am someone Social Networking Awareness How do I know who is out How can I become more there? known? Competence Is this person competent? How do I advertise my skills? Benevolence Will this person help me? How do I develop my reputation as a trusted member? Motivation Do I want to work with Why will I cooperate with this Culture this person? person? Access How do I approach this Do I want to be approached?Collaboration person? Skills Does the CoP have the tools to collaborate effectively? Tools Mechanism Do we have a method to collaborate? 51 Based on a slide by IBM
Your community’s life-cycle Sustain/RenewLevel of energy Grow and visibility Start-up Close Plan Discover/ Incubate/ Focus/ Ownership/ Let go/ Time imagine deliver expand openness remember value From: Cultivating Communities of Practice by Wenger, McDermot and Snyder
KEY LEADERSHIP TRAITS1. CONVICTION2. INNOVATION3. PRODUCTIVITY4. COMPLIANCE5. RESILIENCE6. HAVE THE BACKBONE AND INTEGRITY TO BE STRAIGHT WITH PEOPLE7. BALANCE HARD AND SOFT SKILLS8. EMBRACE BOTH RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL LEADERSHIP TRAITS9. STAY GROUNDED10. STAMINA
A Facilitator/Coordinator/Admin cultivates the community
Metrics Don’t rely on 1. The original purpose and intended outcomes of the community. metrics to claim 2. The rhythm or cycle of the your community community. .3. The quality of the interactions is successful. and/or the viewings it attracts. 4. measure of success is likely to be a Use metrics to mix of qualitative and quantitative understand your data. 5 Is community successful, or just an community excuse to waste time chatting better. 6. traditional command and control processes do not work for CoPs 7. instilling corporate processes on communities is likely to stifle and inhibit innovation and learning.
Summary – Conversations toCollaboration Step 1: Establish/identify a purpose Step 2: Identify a Community Step 3: Understand the culture and behaviours Step 4: Develop/support the ‘Practice’ Step 5: Monitor and measure everything!
Conclusion: What makes asuccessful CoP? clear purpose – what will it be used to do? creating a safe and trusted environment committed core group of active participants being motivated knowing the needs of participants having a clear action plan with activities to meet needs blending face-to-face and online activities This can all be achieved by good, active facilitation/Admin