地域での自然エネルギー普及に向けた推進組織についての研究 -岡山県備前市の事例をもとに-(Driving actors to promote sustainable energy policies and businesses in local communities -A case study in Bizen city, Okayama-) 井筒 耕平 (IZUTSU, Kohei)名古屋大学大学院環境学研究科地球環境科学専攻学位論文 博士（環境学） 2011 年
Tariff（フィードインタリフ） 、需要モデルとしては自然エネルギー検討義務制度、自然エネルギー電力のクレジット制度、さらには炭素税や排出権取引などの間接的な価格サポートなどを挙げた。さらに彼らは、政策プログラムについて、それぞれの政策内容とそれらが目指すゴールとの関係性についても評価を行っている。 Pablo del Rio et al.(2008)は、自然エネルギー導入に関する地域レベルでのステークホルダーについて分析を行った。自然エネルギー導入に関わるステークホルダーとしては、自然エネルギー発電事業者、投資家、地方自治体、市民、NGO/NPO などが挙げられる。しかしながら、Komor et al.や Pablo del Rio et al.は抽象的な分析に終始しており、具体的な個別組織や政策に関する分析が行われていない。 Magnoni et al. (2009)は、デンマーク・ロラン島で推進されてきた自然エネルギープロジェクトについて、その推進主体である Baltic Sea Solutions(通称 Bass)のメンバーであり、この島での取組みについてのその意義、活動内容について非常に詳細に示している。特に、地方自治体（ロラン市）と推進主体（Bass）の協働や事業実施のプロセスについて、非常に詳細に示されており、地方レベルでの自然エネルギー普及に関する具体的なプロセスに関する記述は他に例が極めて尐なく、非常に価値があると考える。しかしながら、当事例に関する記述のみに終始しており、モデルケースとしての抽象化に向けての分析は行われていない。1-3 研究目的 このように、先行研究においては、政策やキーパーソン、ステークホルダー、地方組織の活動に関する研究はあるものの、地域レベルの具体的な組織やビジネスモデルに関する分析、およびモデルケースの抽象化に関する分析は無い。本論では、具体的な地域レベルでの活動、特に岡山県備前市での取組みについて焦点を当て、政策と事業に着目し、先行研究にあるような反復アプローチやステークホルダー分析を参照としながら、自然エネルギーの普及において、どのような主体が存在し、どのような役割を担っているかを分析することを目的とする。さらに、政策と事業についても分析を行い、地域レベルでの自然エネルギーに関する総合的でダイナミックな導入アプローチについて明らかにする。1-4 研究方法および構成 本論の研究方法および構成は以下である。第 2 章では、備前と国内外の事例を紹介し、新たな自然エネルギーの導入手法（制度やビジネスモデル等）や備前事例との比較を行いながら、これらを考察する。第 3 章では、備前での筆者の参与観察を通じて、ビジネスモデルやファイナンスモデル等を詳細に分析し、考察する。第 4 章では、先行研究で行われた分析手法で備前事例を考察した上で、新たに地域レベルでの自然エネルギーに関する総合的な導入アプローチに関するフレームワークを提案する。第 5 章では、第 4 章までを通じた結論と、今後の自然エネルギー普及についての展望について議論する。 4
【引用文献】備前みどりのまほろば協議会, 備前みどりのまほろば協議会ウェブサイトURL; http://www.bizen-midori.jp/(2011 年 11 月 11 日確認)千葉大学公共研究センター,NPO 法人環境エネルギー政策研究所. エネルギー永続地帯,2008,2009,2010 年版報告書, 2008,2009,2010Enzensberger N, Wietschel M, Rentz O, Policy instruments fostering wind energyprojects- a multi-perspective evaluation approach. Energy Policy 30, 793-801, 2002European Council, “Working together for growth and jobs A new start for the LisbonStrategy” entitled by the spring European Council of 2 February 2005.EUROPEAN UNION COMMISSION “Local Energy Action” p14-15 and p24-25, 2004Hvelplund Frede, Renewable energy and the need for local energy markets. Energy 31,2293–2302, 2006.Komor P, Bazilian M., Renewable energy policy goals, programs, and technologies.Energy Policy 33, 1873-1881, 2005Magnoni Silvia, and Andrea M. Bassi. Creating Synergies from Renewable EnergyInvestments, a Community Success Story from Lolland, Denmark, Energies, 2,1151-1169; doi:10.3390/en20401151, 2009中村修,山口龍虎,清水耕平,納富正大,渡邊美穂,遠藤はる奈,後藤大太郎. 省エネルギービジョン評価の試み. 長崎大学総合環境研究 v.8(1), 57-64, 2006おひさまエネルギーファンド株式会社, おひさまエネルギーファンド株式会社ウェブサイト（出資者の声）URL; http://www.ohisama-fund.jp/contents/voice_people.html(2011 年 11 月 11 日確認)岡山咲子, 環境コミュニティビジネスの普及要件の考察 ～持続可能な地域コミュニティを目指して～, 京都大学大学院地球環境学舎修士論文, 2008Pablo del Rio, Mercedes Burguillo, Assessing the impact of renewable energy 35
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Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Renewable Energy journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/reneneDriving actors to promote sustainable energy policies and businessesin local communities: A case study in Bizen city, JapanKohei Izutsu a, *, Masao Takano a, Shota Furuya b, Tetsunari Iida ca Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, 7F Kankyo-sogokan, Furocho, Chikusa, Nagoya City, Aichi 464 0814, Japanb Aalborg University, Department of Development and Planning, Fibigerstræde 13, Room 80, 9229 Aalborg Øst, Denmarkc Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), 4-54-11 Chuo, Nakano, Tokyo, Japana r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tArticle history: This paper focuses on the critical actors (herein called Driving Actors) and their activities to promoteReceived 16 June 2011 sustainable energy policies and businesses in cases where renewable energy facilities are graduallyAccepted 20 July 2011 installed in a local area by changes in lifestyle from one based on fossil fuels to a sustainable one. ThisAvailable online 23 August 2011 paper aims to 1) evaluate activity to promote renewable energy in local community using analytical approaches as an iterative approach and stakeholder analysis, and 2) to propose an analytical frameworkKeywords: for the RE implementation process and to describe the important roles of the Driving Actors. WeLocal energy policy investigated the case of Bizen city in Japan by participant observations. Consequently, Driving Actors areDriving ActorCitizen Investment responsible for encouraging RE implementation in the local area. They coordinate and run the REStakeholder (Renewable Energy) program to gain experience and know-how as well as create a business scheme, which has business risk due to the absence of effective policies by the national government during the middle phase to promote local success of RE. If the national government implements effective policies to disseminate RE facilities during the middle phase, then the Takeoff phase is ascertained and existing big companies and ﬁnancial organizations would begin to participate RE businesses. On the other hand, if the national government does not change its policy, Driving Actors must initiate a creative RE project using their expertise in the middle phase. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.1. Introduction  and we deﬁne that “sustainable energy project” denotes a chain of activities, including R&D, projects, dissemination and installation There are two types of approaches in renewable energy systems. of renewable and energy-saving facilities.One is to aspire drastic growth such as building a Mega-watt Around the globe, numerous advanced practices in local com-photovoltaic station with huge funding. The other is the gradual munities have progressed. For instance, the approach to promoteinstallation of renewable energy facilities in a local area by renewable electric power generation in Aachen city contributed toencouraging lifestyle changes from one based on fossil fuels to the national policy of Feed-In Tariff in Germany. In 2006, Spaina sustainable one. This paper focuses on the adequacy of organiza- adopted the Solar Thermal Ordinance in Barcelona city as a nationaltions and their activities as well as the involvement of local busi- policy. Thus, the innovative local approaches are important tonesses to promote sustainable energy policies, because “Renewable advance sustainable energy policies at the national level.Energy (RE) technologies mostly have a site-dependent resource In Japan, energy policies are strongly controlled by the nationalbase” , a sustainable energy policy and businesses should be government because energy is recognized as the basis of the nati-promoted locally. In this paper, “sustainable energy policy” denotes onal economy and people’s life. The industrial community, espe-a policy to build a sustainable society as well as actions against cially power companies, has greatly inﬂuenced the policy-makingglobal warming and climate change based on Yamashita and Iida process . Consequently, energy policies have a tendency to be invisible from local governments and citizens. Few local govern- ments have a clear mission and valid programs in the ﬁeld of energy policy , although more than 700 of 1795 municipalities * Corresponding author. Tel.: þ81 90 2269 9300. drafted Local Energy Visions between 2000 and 2009 in Japan. The E-mail addresses: email@example.com (K. Izutsu), masao@nagoya-u. plan for each municipality is being implemented by a few criticaljp (M. Takano), firstname.lastname@example.org (S. Furuya), email@example.com (T. Iida). actors such as businesses in the local community .0960-1481/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.033
108 K. Izutsu et al. / Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113 Several studies have examined local policies to promote RE and solar water heaters for household use (heat) comprise theprojects. Enzensberger et al.  described a multi-perspective greatest share among the total RE in Okayama Prefecture, whichevaluation approach to foster a wind energy project. They classi- ranks 30th in RE supply among 47 prefectures and 27th with theﬁed stakeholders into three categories: political ﬁeld, RE business, overall supply ratio of RE to the total energy supply.and conventional energy business. They proposed an iterative Bizen city is located in eastern Okayama prefecture, and hasapproach to policy design where the notion to embed RE businesses a population of 38,907 in June 2010. In Yoshinaga town, which is a partinto policy, market, and stakeholders was important because policy of Bizen city, the citizens blocked the construction of an industrialonly works if it receives adequate feedback from the market. waste incinerator via citizen’s movement in 1998. This movementHowever, the paper focused on the energy policy-making process established a common awareness of environmental issues, andat the national level. Komor and Bazilian  analyzed the contri- Yoshinaga municipality has been declared an environmental town.bution of policy for goals from various viewpoints such as energy, Because citizens are expected to spread and enhance the envi-environment, and industrial/economics. They found that to achieve ronmental activities, BIZEN MIDORI NO MAHOROBA KYOGIKAIRE goals, adequate policy programs and technical support are (MAHOROBA Chamber, which means a council for a sustainablenecessary. They classiﬁed policy programs into a supplyÀdemand society in Bizen) was established by the municipality, industrymodel where supplies included competitive tender and feed-in association, forestry cooperative, and citizens on 1 Septembertariff, while demands included renewable obligation tradable and 2005. The aim of the chamber is to establish a sustainable societyrenewable credits, and indirect price support such as carbon taxes through the coordination of various local actors . In particular,and emission trading. Then they evaluated these policy programs the chamber focuses on sustainable energy and bid applications forusing a short-term relationship between goals and programs. Pablo projects. From 2005 to 2008, MAHOROBA Chamber applied fordel Rio and Burguillo  analyzed the local stakeholders of RE:RE funding from the Ministry of the Environment for other sixteengenerators and investors, local government, local population, local projects to promote sustainable energy in Japan. These projects byNGOs/other actors. However, their approach requires concrete and the Ministry of the Environment are both economically andindividual analysis. ecologically related. Additionally, the Institute for Sustainable This study aims to determine the critical actors and the roles Energy Policies (ISEP), which is a non-proﬁt organization, helpthey play in advancing policy and implementing RE businesses in developed a business plan. ISEP supports advocacy and new busi-local areas. These goals are realized in a two-fold manner. First, an ness models incorporating sustainable energy in local areas inanalysis of the policy approaches about local case in Japan, i.e., an Japan. Consequently, Bizen city was selected as a model case by theiterative approach to analyze the contribution of policy and Ministry, and in 2005 the city, which was led by MAHOROBAstakeholders toward realizing RE goals. Secondly, the analysis Chamber, structured a scheme to promote sustainable energy.results are used to propose a new RE implementation process. Weselected Bizen in Japan as local case. Bizen is one of the mostprogressive RE project cases in Japan and an author (K. Izutsu)participated the start of project.2. RE project in Bizen city, Japan In Japan, numerous organizations are involved with RE ona variety of scales. Speciﬁcally, 45 Prefectural Centers for ClimateChange Actions are supported by the Ministry of the Environment,NPO institutes, citizen groups, and SME (Small-and-Middle-sizedEnterprise). These organizations challenge R&D of sustainableenergy by implementing wind or photovoltaic development, whilebig companies install photovoltaic (PV) facilities in huge size asMega-watt solar. In this article, we focus on local non-proﬁt orga-nizations and private companies in Bizen city, Okayama prefectureas a case study of local activities of RE implementations. Thedescriptions in this chapter are based on participant observationsby an author (K. Izutsu) in Bizen city. We introduce progress inbusiness services and fundraising.2.1. Background of the RE project and institute in Bizen city Bizen city is located near Okayama city, and 60% (1.17 million) ofthe population is concentrated in urban areas of Okayama andKurashiki city. On the other hand, the Japanese governmentdeemed 18 of the 27 municipalities in northern and centralOkayama prefecture as depopulated areas in March 2008. Forestoccupies 68% of the land in the prefecture, and the northern areasupports many lumber companies as well as the largest woodenpellet factory in Japan. In addition, the number of ﬁne days, whichare deﬁned as days with less than 1 mm of precipitation, is 276 daysper year (Fig. 1). Table 1 shows the renewable energy supply in the civilian sectorin Okayama Prefecture . Only 3.9% of the total electricity demandin the prefecture is from RE. A small hydroelectric plant (electricity) Fig. 1. Location of Bizen city.
K. Izutsu et al. / Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113 109Table 1 Energy SavingEnergy supply of renewable energy in Okayama Prefecture (made by author basedon “Sustainable Zone Report 2010” published by Research Center on Public Affairsfor Sustainable Welfare Society, Chiba University and Institute for SustainableEnergy Policies). Big ESCO Electricity Estimated annual Supply ratio to total service electricity generated demand supply of (TJ) Okayama Prefecture (%) ESCO service by PV for household 433.4 0.60 PV for business 67.3 Bizen GE Wind for business 0.0 0.00 Geothermal 0.0 0.00 Small hydroelectric 1946.0 2.34 Biomass 120.0 0.14 Total 2566.8 3.09 Heat Estimated annual Supply ratio to total Replacement of facility heat generated (TJ) demand supply of Okayama Prefecture (%) Solar water heater 1098 2.93 for household Small Construction Size Big Solar water heater 5.4 for business Geothermal 1.2 0.09 Fig. 2. Business position of the ESCO by Bizen GE. Spa (bath) 27.9 Spa (not bath) 7.8 Total 1,140.4 3.01 a collaboration between double glass and small air-conditioner facilities or solar water heater and high-efﬁciency oil boiler. Bizen GE targets middle- and small-size construction projects The goal of MAHOROBA Chamber is to create a sustainable such as welfare facilities or accommodations and implementssociety and an economic system with environmental conservation the ESCO service when a customer renews facilities because itby reducing CO2 emissions and economic revitalization through is impossible to recover the initial investment. The cost of thejob creation. On 8 December 2005, MAHOROBA Chamber estab- renewal typically ranges from several million to several tenlished a private company named Bizen Green Energy (Bizen GE) to million yen (several ten thousand dollars to hundred thousandachieve this goal by overseeing various projects. MAHOROBA dollars).Chamber owns 70% of the stock of the company. Its staff coordi-nates job assignment from ISEP, Green Energy Com, and local There are two types of payment options to ESCO: Lease-type andresidents. Specialist staffs have relocated to Bizen city. Bizen GE Sell-type ESCO. In the Lease-type ESCO, the facilities are property ofwas designed to carry out projects to install sustainable energy Bizen GE, and Bizen GE pays for the installation and then leases thefacilities at a business level. MAHOROBA Chamber’s role is to facilities to the customer. In contrast, in the Sell-type ESCO, theimplement various dissemination projects, e.g., Leaﬂets, having customer pays the cost of installation. Bizen GE has carried out botha booth at local events and presentation at local meetings, to types of ESCO service with subsidies, which cover a third to half thecitizens and children. initial investment (Fig. 3). For lease-type ESCO, Bizen GE uses the Citizen Investment, which is explained in Section 2.3, to pay for the remainder of the initial investment. Regardless of the payment2.2. Projects by Bizen Green Energy option, ESCO sets the target of CO2 emission reduction between 30% and 50%. ESCO service has become a core of Bizen GE based on the Bizen Green Energy (Bizen GE) has tried three service projects; expertise of the staff. In a three-year period, 11 ESCO services wereESCO (Energy Service Company), On-site Photovoltaics, and Green installed.Heat Providers. These projects are subsidized by the Ministry of theEnvironment or Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, etc. 2.2.2. On-site photovoltaic service Japan’s national government has enforced the RPS law since2.2.1. ESCO service 2003, and has halted subsidies for the installation of PV in ESCO Service supports the planning and installation ofsustainable energy facilities, as well as maintenance after thesefacilities are operational. In general, ESCO service offsets the initialinvestment. Although large ESCO service companies in cities canhave a huge impact at big construction sites or factories, whichconsume vast amounts of energy, the features of the ESCO Serviceof Bizen GE, which is located in a small town and rural area, are asfollows: Middle range scale in terms of construction size and energy saving between Big ESCO service and small-scale replacement of facility (Fig. 2) Bizen GE has expertise of ESCO service in a rural area where few ESCO service companies exist. Service consists of detailed planning to calculate thermal load and to combine optimum technology, i.e., to coordinate Fig. 3. Scheme of ESCO service in Bizen.
110 K. Izutsu et al. / Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113households because the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry company under RPS, although long-term price stability is necessarydetermined that the number of PV facilities reached the desired for any investor group .level. Around the same time, Germany and Spain’s governments The beneﬁts to the customers are: 1) zero initial cost, 2) elec-enforced Feed-in Tariff (FIT). Consequently, Japanese PV maker tricity per unit from PV and the electric power company are theshifted their targeting market from Japan to Europe, and the same, and 3) PV facilities will last at least 20 years without main-Japanese PV market dropped from the top share in 2005 and 6th in tenance costs. Bizen GE installed totaling 335 kW at seventeen PV2008, which is 0.23 GW and a market share of 3.8% . Consid- facilities. These activities increased the existing installation inering this situation, the government has initiated a FIT for small- Okayama prefecture by 10%, which totaled 3400 kW in 2008. Bizenscale PV less than 10 kW since 2009. This initiative has rejuve- GE has received some ﬁnancial merit as 2 of the seventeen facilitiesnated the Japanese PV market; it is currently 4th in annual sales correspond to the policy transition to a FIT-like since 2009.and has 6% of the world market shares. On the other hand, thegovernment has not enhanced policies regarding wind power, 2.2.3. Green Heat Providerbiomass, and small hydroelectric power, and realistic business Bizen GE sells Green Heat, which means renewable heat energy,models have yet to be realized due to the initial costs and cheap to overcome the poor Heat policy of the Japanese Government.price of non-RE electricity. In 2005, Ohisama-Shinpo Co., Ltd, Since 2005, Bizen GE has tried to install wooden pellet boilers,which is an associated company of Bizen GE located in Iida city, wooden pellet stoves, ﬁrewood stoves, and solar water heaters. DueNagano Prefecture, implemented an on-site photovoltaic service to the full service of Bizen GE, which includes fuel supply, main-(on-site PV) for the ﬁrst time in Japan. Bizen GE implemented tenance, lease, installation of pellet stoves is advantageous fora similar service in March 2008. customers. However, customers have not installed pellet stoves due Fig. 4 presents the scheme of the on-site PV service; Bizen GE to the high startup and fuel costs as well as the physical size of thepurchases PV facilities using a subsidy and Citizen Investment, and equipment.then installs these facilities onto customer’s roof. The customer Bizen GE has installed more than 25 pellet stoves since 2005.pays a service fee for electricity consumption on site, which is at the However, an accident revealed some issues. In winter 2009, a smallsame unit price as that of The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Bizen ﬁre broke out in a customer’s house because a lot of powders withinGE sells surplus electricity generated by PV panels on rooftops to the pellet fuel prevented a smooth supply of fuel, and the accu-The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Hence, the initial cost is mulated pellet fuel suddenly combusted. Although the accidentrecovered over 20 years with the same unit price. Bizen GE also was minor, it did conﬁrm the importance of pellet fuel quality andrecovers part of the initial cost by a green power certiﬁcate. The aim maintaining the pellet supply mechanism. However, customers,of this service is to promote active installation of PV panels under who often use stoves powered by fossil fuels, have difﬁcultyRPS, which is a low incentive system. Bizen GE and investors understanding pellet stove maintenance. Thus, Bizen GE is atassume the risk of ﬂuctuating unit prices for sale to electric power a crossroad because the pellet stove business has a low proﬁt Fig. 4. Scheme of on-site PV service in Bizen.
K. Izutsu et al. / Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113 111margin, but high risk. To ensure future business success, we assume Although Citizen Investment is of unusual style of ﬁnance,that the following is necessary: ordinal ﬁnance companies have begun to support local RE busi- nesses due to the success in the Bizen case. Improved quality of pellet fuel (Currently, Japan lacks a national standard for pellet fuel, although some organizations 2.4. Achievement of the projects have proposed several standards.) Improved stove technology (e.g., Optimizing the angle of the Okayama  evaluated the Bizen project from both economic guide to avoid choking with powders of pellets) impact and CO2 emission reduction by comparing it to 17 other Improved customer understanding about maintenance costs cases assigned by the Ministry of the Environment. The Bizen project produced annual sales of approximately 200e300 million Bizen GE has sold only four ﬁrewood stoves due to the relatively yen (about 2.2e3.3 million dollar) and has reduced CO2 emission bywarm climate and high customer expensive; a stove costs about 430 tons since 2007.a million yen (nine thousand dollars). On the other hand, orders of Bizen GE has delivered visible sustainable energy in the form ofﬁrewood to forestry cooperatives have been increasing. We spec- PV and pellet stoves to citizens in Bizen city. Although residentsulate that people are beginning to use ﬁrewood stoves as they initially had difﬁculty understanding the meaning of the project,reconsider the value of forests in Japan. the installation facilities and dissemination activities have gradu- ally resolved this problem. Consequently, the acceptance of the2.3. Citizen Investment citizens has improved and sustainable energy projects of Bizen GE have progressed. Bizen GE has accepted a kind of cooperative ﬁnancing called In four years from 2005 to 2008, Bizen GE has obtained“Citizen Investment” as an important source of funding as well as specialized knowledge about sustainable energy. In addition, thea subsidy. Citizen Investment ﬁrst began with Danish Citizens to company has created a solid social network with municipalities,install wind power in the 1990s. In 2001, ISEP and Hokkaido Green private companies in the ﬁelds of construction, electricity, andFund collaborated to install wind power using the scheme inspired manufacturers of RE facilities. Although Bizen GE’s knowledge andby Danish Citizen Investment, and in 2010, Japan had 13 citizen’s network were established by trial and error, they are important forcommunal wind power generators. Ohisama-Shinpo ﬁrst imple- embedding sustainable energy in local area.mented PV and energy-saving businesses by Citizen Investment in The Bizen Municipality instituted the Local Energy Vision in Bizen2005. in February 2008. This plan identiﬁed the importance of the rela- Table 2 summarizes these two funds. Since 2006, Bizen GE ﬁrst tionship between MAHOROBA Chamber and Bizen municipality.implemented ESCO Service (2.2.1) and Green Heat Provider (2.2.3) Additionally, the Bizen Municipality also planned to promote ESCO,using the Bizen Green Energy fund. 396 people invested a total of PV, biomass and solar water heater, which are areas that Bizen GE188 million yen (2.09 million dollars). Bizen GE has adjusted the has accumulated a lot of experience and expertise.lease fee to customers with a lease-type ESCO service, and In 2010, the role of Bizen GE is gradually ending in Bizen city duedistributed the proceeds to citizen investor, who received the third to the achievements of the company. In fact, Bizen GE currently hasdividend in 2010. Meanwhile, in 2008, Bizen GE invested 66 million only two projects in Bizen city, but has four projects around Bizenyen (73 thousand dollars) in the on-site PV service (2.2.2) by the city, including Setouchi, Tamba, Ako and Okayama city, which haveOhisama Energy fund . been consulting for sustainable society including RE project. Bizen For both funds, the ﬁnancial risk of citizen investors is very low GE is trying to connect local companies and use local ﬁnancialbecause 1) the revenue structure of lease-type ESCO has long-term institutions and not Citizen Investment to support RE activities.stability and 2) most of customer of ESCO and on-site PV services Additionally, Bizen GE feels that existing local companies can easilyare municipalities. Both funds also have important meaning as incorporate knowledge of RE.social ﬁnance because investors know-how the funds will be used, Bizen GE has carried out its activity in close relation to thewhich drastically differs from deposits at a bank. For instance, MAHOROBA Chamber, which in turn has Bizen GE to the munici-citizen investors have commented, “I want to give a sustainable pality. Municipalities generally cannot participate in close dialog withsociety for future generations”, “The investment target is clear”, and private companies, but in this case, Bizen GE has driven the project by“A present to my grandbaby”. promoting the construction of a plan/vision of the municipality. More than 90% of the investors are from outside of the projectarea, which is a good sign that people are interested in sustainable 3. Driving Actorenergy technologies. Although investors have formal ﬁnancial risks,Bizen GE also has practical ﬁnancial risks. If Bizen GE cannot pay In Bizen case, nongovernmental institutes play critical roles individends to investors, Bizen GE would lose social conﬁdence, advancing RE projects in local communities. These groups work inmaking it difﬁcult to implement future sustainable energy project. close cooperation with the local public sector, and sometimes theirThe chief executive ofﬁcer of Bizen GE bears immense pressure activities exceed national standards. Hence, we call them Drivingfrom this risk. Actor (DA).Table 2Results of Citizen Investment. Number of Periods of Amount of money Rate and Project investors collection (dollar) period Bizen green energy fund 396 2006 2,100,000 2.1% 10 years ESCO and Green (only Bizen city) 2.6% 15 years Heat Provider (GHP) Ohisama energy fund 653 2008 740,000 (only Bizen) On-site PV service (Bizen) (Iida, Bizen and Ishikari city) 4,830,000 (total investment) ESCO, On-site PV and GHP (Iida) Wind power (Ishikari)
112 K. Izutsu et al. / Renewable Energy 39 (2012) 107e113Table 3 Stakeholders are classiﬁed into three categories: RD, local policy,Evaluation of Bizen case using stakeholder analysis. and market. In general, stakeholders drive RE implementations via Bizen a bottom up process. Driving actor Bizen GE Local RE projects are based on national policy. However, local RE generators and Private companies people begin an RE project at the bottom phase, which includes Plant supplier RD or Education/Promotion/Dissemination. They receive Local government Instituted Energy Vision after starting a subsidy from the national government, which is a signiﬁcant RE project by Bizen GE. (rare case) Local population Few response because the business policy tool. target of Bizen is companies or municipalities During the middle phase, actors of local policy and markets Local NGOs/other actors MAHOROBA Chamber implements implement a pilot project using feedback from experiences and dissemination know-how. In this phase, the municipality institutes a local Actors outside the region Citizens’ investment connect citizens and Bizen GE energy vision and supports RE projects via tax support, etc. Investors or funds Investments 396 citizens, but since 2010, Renewable energy generators can take a subsidy from the ﬁnancial institutes have attempted to government or municipality. In Japan, a few organizations have participate in RE projects implemented projects using Citizen Investment as well as a subsidy. In this phase, it is difﬁcult for conventional ﬁnance institutions to provide funding due to the strict lending stan- We applied the stakeholder analysis framework proposed by dards in this middle phase. Hence, the DAs applied a new methodPablo del Rio and Burguillo  to analyze the local RE projects in of fundraising. In this phase, they try and run RE programs tothis case. Because the original framework is sketchy, it is difﬁcult to gain experience and know-how as well as to create a businessanalyze real RE projects. Thus, we expanded the classiﬁcation of scheme, which has risk due to the absence of an effective policystakeholders to include RE generators and investors into RE by the national government. As this phase advances, the DAgenerators and Plant supplier and Investors or funds, and added provides suggestions based on their experience to the nationalDriving Actor (Table 3). government about policy. Bizen GE is a private company established by MAHOROBA Finally, the local government can implement a strict policy toolChamber, which is the ofﬁcial social network, as a DA. They were such as regulations/incentives/guidelines after the middle phase ofestablished or strongly supported by the local government and the program/project is complete. At this stage, if the nationalsocial network. Additionally, their activities support policy making, government adopts effective policies to disseminate RE facilities,dissemination, consulting and installation of RE facilities. then the DAs would attain the Takeoff phase, and existing big Furthermore, the most important role of DA is a personal companies and ﬁnancial organization would begin to participate inconnection in the local community. For instance, some key- RE business. On the other hand, if the national government does notpersons, including the mayor, administrative ofﬁcer, director of change its policy, then the DAs will undertake creative new REforest cooperative, and director and members of Bizen GE, have had projects based on expertise at middle phase. In Bizen, the role of DAmany opportunities to promote RE projects. is gradually being phased out as existing private companies have started RE businesses, and Bizen GE has transitioned into the role of4. Role of RE policy tool for projects and businesses DA in different areas. This framework is 1) an extended version of iterative approach Fig. 5 expresses the role of policy tools to promote local success , 2) includes stakeholder analysis , and 3) recognizes the goalof RE implementation based on the analysis of Bizen case. for valid policy tool analysis . The energy, environment, and Fig. 5. Policy tools to promote local success of RET implementations.
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