Planned Change : Change that is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future events. A performance gap is a direct response to a perceived performance gap.
A discrepancy between the actual and desired state of affairs.
May reflect problems or opportunities.
Reactive Changes: A place meal response to circumstances as they develop.
Model of Change Sequence of Events Environmental Forces Internal Forces Need for change Initiate change Implement change Monitor global competition, and other factors Consider plans, goals, company problems, and needs Evaluate problems and opportunities, define needed changes in technology products, structure, and culture Facilitate search, creativity, idea champions, venture teams, skunk works and idea incubators Use force field analysis, tactics for overcoming resistance
Sources: Based on Harold L. Angle and Andrew H. Van de Ven, “Suggestions for Managing the Innovation Journey,” in Research in the Management of Innovation: The Minnesota Studies, ed. A. H. Van de Ven, H. L. Angle, and Marshall Scott Poole (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger/Harper & Row, 1989); and Jay R. Galgraith, “Designing the Innovating Organization,” Organizational Dynamics (winter 1982) 5-25.
Believes in idea
realities of cost, benefits
Obtains financial &
Championing an idea successfully requires roles in organizations
Steps in organizational change? (or) How to Change?
Phases of planned change.- Kurt Lewin Model
Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors.
Susceptibility to “boiled frog phenomenon.”
Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change.
Maintaining and eventually institutionalizing the change.
Changes in structure, technologies, and products or services do not happen on their own
Changes in any of these areas require changes in people
Model for Planned Organizational Change Source: Adapted from Larry Short, “Planned Organizational Change,” MSU Business Topics , Autumn 1973, pp. 53–61 ed. Theodore Herbert, Organizational Behavior: Readings and Cases (New York: McMillan, 1976), p. 351.
An effort that is planned, organization wide, and mange from the top indented to increase organizational effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization’s process, using behavioural science knowledge.
Problems OD Can Address Problems OD Can Address Problems OD can address
Extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the boundaries of the organization
The boundaries between an organization and its environment are becoming porous so that ideas flow back and forth among different companies that engage in partnerships, joint ventures, licensing agreements, and other alliances
The Innovation Process Development Organization evaluates, modifies, and improves on a creative ideas Application Organizations uses developed idea In design, manufacturing, or delivery of New products or services or processes Launch Organization introduces new products or services to the marketplace. Growth Demand for new products or services growth Decline Demand for an innovation decreases, and substitute Innovations are developed and Applied. Maturity Most competing organizations have access to the ideas
“ The most productive and successful companies focus on increasing market share by staying one step ahead of the customer and coming up with brand-new product innovations that will inspire his imagination, rather than by battling for