The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) Geotech Award 2009“Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW- Now, Next and Future”.KOFI A. ADU-GYAMFICIWM Annual Awards CeremonyOne Great George Street, London20th October, 2009<br />
Overview- Justification for research- Review of energy from waste (EfW) and renewables development in UK- Research Findings- Recommendations and Conclusion<br />
The Case for Renewables and EfW- Energy Supply Security- Climate Change Mitigation- Sustainability/ Resource Efficiency<br />
EfW Technologies<br />Notes: EfW= energy from waste; LFG= landfill gas;<br /> AD= anaerobic digestion; H2= Hydrogen <br />
UK Government Support for EfW and Renewables<br />Climate Change Levy Exemption<br />Low Carbon Buildings Programme Grants<br />Feed-in tariffs (FITs) (from 2010)<br />Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs)<br />EfW<br />Renewables<br />Renewable Heat Incentives (from 2011)<br />Bio- Energy Capital Grants<br />Landfill Tax Escalator +<br />Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme<br />Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) Credits<br />
LandfillGas (LFG) <br /><ul><li>Currently the most important source of UK renewable energy (DECC, 2009a).
Calorific values for undiluted LFG between 15 and 21 MJ/m3, compared with about 37 MJ/m3 for natural gas (Williams, 2005).
6- 8 m3 of LFG per tonne of waste per year.</li></ul>Applications:<br /><ul><li>Power generation eg. electricity, CHP, CCHP (Trigeneration CHP)
Chemical feedstock</li></li></ul><li>Research Findings<br />Opportunities for EfW Expansion:<br /><ul><li> Biomethane use for transport
Community Level EfW/ Microgeneration </li></li></ul><li>Biomethane for Transport<br />Justification:<br /><ul><li>Global car fleet projected to rise from 650 million in 2005 to 1.4 billion units in 2030 (IEA, 2008).
If present policies continue, fossil fuels to account for about 80% of global energy supply by 2030 (IEA, 2008).
UK transport sector accounts for 70% of oil demand (BERR, 2008); and a quarter of all UK CO2 emissions (DECC, 2009).</li></li></ul><li>Biomethane for Transport<br />http://graduate.aecom.com/images<br />www.nzte.govt.nz<br />AD biogas: 60% CH4<br />Biomethane<br />Gas Vehicle Fuel<br />Upgrading<br />≥ 96% CH4<br />www.viridiansystems.com<br />www.sofiaecho.com<br />Gas Grid<br />LFG: 50% CH4 <br />
Biomethane for Transport<br />Advantages:<br /><ul><li>Reduction in emissions of CO2, CO, NOx and particulates.
Economy: 55% more economical than petrol and 40% cheaper than diesel (STSL, 2006).
Gas vehicles less noisy than conventional ones.
Feedstock available in EU and supplies may be augmented with natural gas.
Qualifies for RTFO credits.</li></li></ul><li>Community Level EfW<br />Suitable technologies include: AD, pyrolysis and gasification (Mullis et al, 2009).<br />Advantages:<br /><ul><li>Avoids problems with grid connection.
Public take ownership of their waste management.
Community involvement reduces planning bottlenecks.
Reduced carbon footprint due to minimal waste transportation.
Heat produced can be used efficiently by local households.</li></li></ul><li>Potential Contribution of EfW <br />to 2020 Targets<br />Potential UK Energy Mix in 2020<br /> Based on: AD- max 6 Mtoe (STSL, 2006), LFG- 2 Mtoe, Thermal EfW- 2.1 Mtoe, 2nd Gen. Biofuels- 1.3 Mtoe<br />
EfW: Future Trends<br /><ul><li>EfW and waste management characterised by changes in legislation, technologies and market consolidation.
Changes in waste composition, together with waste prevention and increasing recycling efficiency may render some EfW facilities redundant (Adamson, 2008).
Potential for ‘over capacity’ with technologies like AD and thermal EfW resulting in feedstock shortage.</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Greater support from Government for increased use of EfW and renewables.
Better engagement of UK public through effective communication of benefits.
Greater collaboration among Government, academia and industry to ensure research feeds into deployment of technologies and vice versa.
Renewables and low-carbon technologies should be given higher priority for investment.</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>EfW and renewable technologies are very important for the UK’s energy security and climate change mitigation.
EfW could contribute up to half of the renewables target by 2020.
Greater support for investors needed to ensure more speedy deployment of renewable energy technologies.</li></li></ul><li>Acknowledgements<br />Geotechnical Instruments (UK) Ltd, The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM), Dr. Frédéric Coulon and Dr. Raffaella Villa of the Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency (CRME), Cranfield University.<br />