CIWM Geotech Award Presentation October 09
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CIWM Geotech Award Presentation October 09



Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW: Now, Next and Future

Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW: Now, Next and Future



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    CIWM Geotech Award Presentation October 09 CIWM Geotech Award Presentation October 09 Presentation Transcript

    • The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) Geotech Award 2009“Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW- Now, Next and Future”.KOFI A. ADU-GYAMFICIWM Annual Awards CeremonyOne Great George Street, London20th October, 2009
    • Overview- Justification for research- Review of energy from waste (EfW) and renewables development in UK- Research Findings- Recommendations and Conclusion
    • The Case for Renewables and EfW- Energy Supply Security- Climate Change Mitigation- Sustainability/ Resource Efficiency
    • EfW Technologies
      Notes: EfW= energy from waste; LFG= landfill gas;
      AD= anaerobic digestion; H2= Hydrogen
    • UK Government Support for EfW and Renewables
      Climate Change Levy Exemption
      Low Carbon Buildings Programme Grants
      Feed-in tariffs (FITs) (from 2010)
      Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs)
      Renewable Heat Incentives (from 2011)
      Bio- Energy Capital Grants
      Landfill Tax Escalator +
      Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme
      Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) Credits
    • LandfillGas (LFG)
      • Currently the most important source of UK renewable energy (DECC, 2009a).
      • Calorific values for undiluted LFG between 15 and 21 MJ/m3, compared with about 37 MJ/m3 for natural gas (Williams, 2005).
      • 6- 8 m3 of LFG per tonne of waste per year.
      • Power generation eg. electricity, CHP, CCHP (Trigeneration CHP)
      • Heat
      • Biomethane for grid injection/ transport fuel
      • Chemical feedstock
    • Research Findings
      Opportunities for EfW Expansion:
      • Biomethane use for transport
      • Community Level EfW/ Microgeneration
    • Biomethane for Transport
      • Global car fleet projected to rise from 650 million in 2005 to 1.4 billion units in 2030 (IEA, 2008).
      • If present policies continue, fossil fuels to account for about 80% of global energy supply by 2030 (IEA, 2008).
      • UK transport sector accounts for 70% of oil demand (BERR, 2008); and a quarter of all UK CO2 emissions (DECC, 2009).
    • Biomethane for Transport
      AD biogas: 60% CH4
      Gas Vehicle Fuel
      ≥ 96% CH4
      Gas Grid
      LFG: 50% CH4
    • Biomethane for Transport
      • Reduction in emissions of CO2, CO, NOx and particulates.
      • Economy: 55% more economical than petrol and 40% cheaper than diesel (STSL, 2006).
      • Potentially safer than petrol.
      • Gas vehicles less noisy than conventional ones.
      • Feedstock available in EU and supplies may be augmented with natural gas.
      • Qualifies for RTFO credits.
    • Community Level EfW
      Suitable technologies include: AD, pyrolysis and gasification (Mullis et al, 2009).
      • Avoids problems with grid connection.
      • Public take ownership of their waste management.
      • Community involvement reduces planning bottlenecks.
      • Reduced carbon footprint due to minimal waste transportation.
      • Heat produced can be used efficiently by local households.
    • Potential Contribution of EfW
      to 2020 Targets
      Potential UK Energy Mix in 2020
      Based on: AD- max 6 Mtoe (STSL, 2006), LFG- 2 Mtoe, Thermal EfW- 2.1 Mtoe, 2nd Gen. Biofuels- 1.3 Mtoe
    • EfW: Future Trends
      • EfW and waste management characterised by changes in legislation, technologies and market consolidation.
      • Changes in waste composition, together with waste prevention and increasing recycling efficiency may render some EfW facilities redundant (Adamson, 2008).
      • Potential for ‘over capacity’ with technologies like AD and thermal EfW resulting in feedstock shortage.
    • Recommendations
      • Greater support from Government for increased use of EfW and renewables.
      • Better engagement of UK public through effective communication of benefits.
      • Greater collaboration among Government, academia and industry to ensure research feeds into deployment of technologies and vice versa.
      • Renewables and low-carbon technologies should be given higher priority for investment.
    • Conclusion
      • EfW and renewable technologies are very important for the UK’s energy security and climate change mitigation.
      • EfW could contribute up to half of the renewables target by 2020.
      • Greater support for investors needed to ensure more speedy deployment of renewable energy technologies.
    • Acknowledgements
      Geotechnical Instruments (UK) Ltd, The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM), Dr. Frédéric Coulon and Dr. Raffaella Villa of the Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency (CRME), Cranfield University.
    • Each to their own?
    • Thank you.
      For further information:
      Kofi Adu-Gyamfi