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CIWM Geotech Award Presentation October 09

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Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW: Now, Next and Future

Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW: Now, Next and Future


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  • 1. The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) Geotech Award 2009“Renewable Energy, Landfill Gas and EfW- Now, Next and Future”.KOFI A. ADU-GYAMFICIWM Annual Awards CeremonyOne Great George Street, London20th October, 2009
  • 2. Overview- Justification for research- Review of energy from waste (EfW) and renewables development in UK- Research Findings- Recommendations and Conclusion
  • 3. The Case for Renewables and EfW- Energy Supply Security- Climate Change Mitigation- Sustainability/ Resource Efficiency
  • 4. EfW Technologies
    Notes: EfW= energy from waste; LFG= landfill gas;
    AD= anaerobic digestion; H2= Hydrogen
  • 5. UK Government Support for EfW and Renewables
    Climate Change Levy Exemption
    Low Carbon Buildings Programme Grants
    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) (from 2010)
    Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs)
    EfW
    Renewables
    Renewable Heat Incentives (from 2011)
    Bio- Energy Capital Grants
    Landfill Tax Escalator +
    Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme
    Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RTFO) Credits
  • 6. LandfillGas (LFG)
    • Currently the most important source of UK renewable energy (DECC, 2009a).
    • 7. Calorific values for undiluted LFG between 15 and 21 MJ/m3, compared with about 37 MJ/m3 for natural gas (Williams, 2005).
    • 8. 6- 8 m3 of LFG per tonne of waste per year.
    Applications:
    • Power generation eg. electricity, CHP, CCHP (Trigeneration CHP)
    • 9. Heat
    • 10. Biomethane for grid injection/ transport fuel
    • 11. Chemical feedstock
  • Research Findings
    Opportunities for EfW Expansion:
    • Biomethane use for transport
    • 12. Community Level EfW/ Microgeneration
  • Biomethane for Transport
    Justification:
    • Global car fleet projected to rise from 650 million in 2005 to 1.4 billion units in 2030 (IEA, 2008).
    • 13. If present policies continue, fossil fuels to account for about 80% of global energy supply by 2030 (IEA, 2008).
    • 14. UK transport sector accounts for 70% of oil demand (BERR, 2008); and a quarter of all UK CO2 emissions (DECC, 2009).
  • Biomethane for Transport
    http://graduate.aecom.com/images
    www.nzte.govt.nz
    AD biogas: 60% CH4
    Biomethane
    Gas Vehicle Fuel
    Upgrading
    ≥ 96% CH4
    www.viridiansystems.com
    www.sofiaecho.com
    Gas Grid
    LFG: 50% CH4
  • 15. Biomethane for Transport
    Advantages:
    • Reduction in emissions of CO2, CO, NOx and particulates.
    • 16. Economy: 55% more economical than petrol and 40% cheaper than diesel (STSL, 2006).
    • 17. Potentially safer than petrol.
    • 18. Gas vehicles less noisy than conventional ones.
    • 19. Feedstock available in EU and supplies may be augmented with natural gas.
    • 20. Qualifies for RTFO credits.
  • Community Level EfW
    Suitable technologies include: AD, pyrolysis and gasification (Mullis et al, 2009).
    Advantages:
    • Avoids problems with grid connection.
    • 21. Public take ownership of their waste management.
    • 22. Community involvement reduces planning bottlenecks.
    • 23. Reduced carbon footprint due to minimal waste transportation.
    • 24. Heat produced can be used efficiently by local households.
  • Potential Contribution of EfW
    to 2020 Targets
    Potential UK Energy Mix in 2020
    Based on: AD- max 6 Mtoe (STSL, 2006), LFG- 2 Mtoe, Thermal EfW- 2.1 Mtoe, 2nd Gen. Biofuels- 1.3 Mtoe
  • 25. EfW: Future Trends
    • EfW and waste management characterised by changes in legislation, technologies and market consolidation.
    • 26. Changes in waste composition, together with waste prevention and increasing recycling efficiency may render some EfW facilities redundant (Adamson, 2008).
    • 27. Potential for ‘over capacity’ with technologies like AD and thermal EfW resulting in feedstock shortage.
  • Recommendations
    • Greater support from Government for increased use of EfW and renewables.
    • 28. Better engagement of UK public through effective communication of benefits.
    • 29. Greater collaboration among Government, academia and industry to ensure research feeds into deployment of technologies and vice versa.
    • 30. Renewables and low-carbon technologies should be given higher priority for investment.
  • Conclusion
    • EfW and renewable technologies are very important for the UK’s energy security and climate change mitigation.
    • 31. EfW could contribute up to half of the renewables target by 2020.
    • 32. Greater support for investors needed to ensure more speedy deployment of renewable energy technologies.
  • Acknowledgements
    Geotechnical Instruments (UK) Ltd, The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM), Dr. Frédéric Coulon and Dr. Raffaella Villa of the Centre for Resource Management and Efficiency (CRME), Cranfield University.
  • 33. Each to their own?
  • 34. Thank you.
    For further information:
    Contact-
    Kofi Adu-Gyamfi
    kofiapea@hotmail.com
    07947480599