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Black Athena - A Book Review

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Black Athena - A Book Review: The Egyptian influence of the …

Black Athena - A Book Review: The Egyptian influence of the
Roots of Greece (Behind the Island) from Classical Greek writers.
By
Martin Bernal
Presented by
Kwesi Osafo

Published in: Education, Technology, Travel

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  • 1. Afrikan Study Group Long Beach (ASCAC) Thursday Oct 20 th 2009 Continuing Presentation Series From Afrikan Presences to Early Europe Edited by Ivan Van Sertima Chapter Black Athena: The Egyptian influence of the Roots of Greece (Behind the Island) from Classical Greek writers. By Martin Bernal Presented by Kwesi Osafo
  • 2. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • The purpose of Black Athena is to show how documentary and archaeological evidence support that ancient Egypt (Kmt) and Levant had a fundamental impact on the Aegean (Behind the Island) in this period.
    • The main thrust of Black Athena has been against the influence of racism on scholarship.
    • Black Athena explains Greece beginnings and though the eyes of the Classical Greeks writers themselves, Greece was first inhabited by primitive tribes and later settled by Egyptians (Kmt Nu) and Phoenicians and the Dorian Invasion _ Herodotus, Homer, Hesiod, Euripides and others _ all said so.
    • Classical Greek writers of this era were fascinated by the extravagant and modern standards of ancient Egypt.
    • The first indication of awareness in classical literature appears in Homer’s Iliad and the Odyssey.
    • This fascination led to extensive travels in Afrika by ancient Greek writers of history and geography: Herodotus (Father of Greek History) travel as far south as of Elephantine Island (Aswan or Eso Won) and the Greek awareness of Ethiopia was considerable. He commented that “the Egyptians/Ethiopians are religious to excess and beyond any other nation in the world” _ and their massive temples to confirm the point.
  • 3. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • The Phoenicians brought them the alphabet and the Egyptians/Ethiopians taught the natives the name of the gods and how to worship them.
    • The earliest royal dynasties of Greece were thought to have been descended from the gods (some of whom were Egyptians/Ethiopians in origin).
    • Black Athena analyzes the shifts in the emotional and intellectual climate in Europe and what made scholars reject the more earlier and more authentic eye witness accounts of Greek origins (The Ancient Model) in favor of the completely Caucasoid base civilization (The Aryan Model).
    • Black Athena overwhelmingly affirms Afrika’s prominent role in the development of the world civilizations, a role in which has been too long disregarded because of the legacy of colonialism and imperialism in the African continent.
    • From the start Black Athena Vol. I had become gradually more newsworthy and still not have been reviewed or discussed in Time or Newsweek and been completely ignored by the New York Times.
    • However, immediate positive response had come from the Black and other non-European communities. Intellectuals from these communities have reviewed the book favorably and have vigorously promoted its sale.
  • 4. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Number of ancient historians and classicist who were understanding to Black Athena Vol. I and had in fact begun to articulate similar topics.
    • The most amazing example of this was Molly Levine, classicist who has taught in Israel and now teaches at Howard University. She read Black Athena and was sensitive to her students’ interest in it. She liked the book, but felt unsure of the context_ could she trust or use it for teaching.
    • Therefore, she propose and organized a panel discussion to the American Philological Society at the next annual conference.
    • What was important was the authenticity given by the holding of the panel. The patience of the audience sitting for three straight hours in a hot room. Afterwards, the fact that three professional journals asked to publish the proceedings and had appeared in a special issue of Arethus, one of the well known dynamic classicist journals.
    • In opposition, The attack from the National Review was remarkable_ it informed its reader that Martin Bernal was Black and that Herodotus had written that the Greeks were blond.
    • Information about the book spread by word of mouth from academia and the Black community. Its sales pattern has become unusual and instead of rising to a peak and falling off sales from the Black community were steadily on the rise.
  • 5. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • In Volume II in this series, spotlighted two views of the origins of Ancient Greece.
    • The first of these: Ancient Model, it was maintained that Greece had originally been inhabited by Pelasgian and other primitive tribes. These tribes had been civilized by Egyptians/Ethiopians and Phoenician settlers who had ruled many parts of the place Greece (behind the island) during the heroic age.
    • The second view: The Aryan Model, Greek civilization was the result of cultural mixture following a conquest from the north by Indo-European speaking Greeks of the earlier Pre-Hellenic peoples.
    • The Ancient Model maintains it view of Greece as having been civilized by Egyptians/Ethiopians and Phoenicians and had to be removed because it offended against the laws of racial science.
    • The 19 th century Aryan Model scholars on the issue of ancient Egyptians/Ethiopians influences of Greece were less objective and their close eyes to the references from the ancient Greece writers that would insinuate aspiration to attached ancient model influences suggesting possible culturally inferiority to the Egyptians who were still very much generally disliked.
  • 6. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • How was the Aryan Model Greek city states born?
      • After the Dorian Invasion was quite naturally to lose the artifacts, the use of writing for four centuries (from the 12 th to 8 th centuries BCE. It was also know as the Dark Ages of Greece). Greek religious consciousness remained closed to any idea of the hereafter until the sixth century BCE, at that time when the cult of Isis/Osiris (Asr/Ast) Memphite theology a religion of mystery and salvation of the soul was reintroduced into Greece
      • In Sparta, a handful of nine thousand individual (the number of citizens all of Dorian origin) could make slaves of all the conquered the Helots (Indigenous Pelasgians tribe) under the strictest military discipline of all time.
      • Decency laws forbid the detailed discussion of any moral decay of Greek society especially at the level of its greatest men. Aristotle, Plato and the tyrants of Athens, etc. The high-class privilege of Spartan women was legendary.
  • 7. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
      • Sparta were under the strictest military discipline of all time.
      • Newborns belonged to the state and if they had any physical malformation making them unfit for military service in defense of the state. The order would be that they be fed to predators.
      • Otherwise they were returned to their parents until the age of seven, once seven they were enlisted in the military where they underwent a training of inhumane ruthlessness.
      • Disregarded of any intellectual development, taught endurance, courage and blind obedience.
      • The child was taught to steal to feed himself.
      • To be initiated in the military he had to catch a Helot by surprise at night and kill him. (Killing of an enemy was of ethical belief and test imposed on young Indo-Europeans before he could enter the circle of adults).
      • The male Spartan slept in barracks and his family life did not begin until he was thirty and to have business with his wife only under cloak.
      • They spent their lives in military camps separated from their wives and children.
      • Until he was sixty years old he had to dine every evening at the mess with his military unit.
      • All male adults were career soldiers until the age of sixty.
      • Sparta ordered the reversal of feelings to women whose sons had died in battle had to smile and show joy, whereas those whose children had escaped death were to be sad and to weep.
      • In Athens fared during that period was mired in murder and anarchy.
  • 8. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • I’ve outline some contents of this book in order to give readers some threads to guide them through the facts and opinions that we are about to enter.
    • Chapter I is about Crete before 2100 BCE. This island placed in the midst of three continents, Afrika, Europe and Asia. (What are the influences to define early Minoan III Period).
    • This is a brief survey of the New Stone Age of Neolithic period in Crete from the introduction of agriculture and pottery from there Anatolia and the influences from Egypt and Libya and the Levant as well.
    • Lucy Goodison has attacked the notion that Cretans had a earthly mother goddess and demonstrated thru iconography and the sun was seen as female.
    • In Egypt, while the sun was masculine, the sky was female and the earth tended to be male. Nevertheless, she points out striking parallels with Egyptian religion, such as the notion of the sun sailing across the sky in a boat and the representation of two mourning sisters, who seem to resemble the Egyptian goddesses Isis (Auset) and Nephthys (Het-Heru), who lamented the death of Osiris.
    • Chapter II begins with a survey of the connection seen by classical and Hellenistic writers between Boiotia and Egypt.
    • These were partly the result of both capitals being called Thebes and even more the similarities between the Nile banks and Delta of the marshy shores of Lake Kopais in Boiotia.
  • 9. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Most of the chapter, however is concerned with mythical and cultic parallels between Boiotia and Egypt. In particular, there is the importance of the cult of Athena on the southern shore of Kopais, which can be traced to the cult of Athena’s Egyptian counterpart Neit/Tefnut goddess of water.
    • One Egyptian myth portrays Neit/Tefnut as a cow swimming in the Delta to settle at the spot that later became her sacred city Sais. This is similar to the Greek myth of Kadmos, the founder of Thebes, following a cow until she lay down at the site of this future city.
    • The Pyramid text describe one of her central aspects has Tefnut come to her lakes which are on the edge of the Great Swamp, Tefnut makes green grass on the two banks of the horizon. This clearly meant to prepare the leading of religious and funeral processions often in a bark by water. (water journey of Het Heru of Dendera to Heru of Edfu / Opet festival, etc.)
    • It is therefore fascinating to find that the Greek Thebes was built on the edge of an escarpment over which three streams tumbled.
    • There is also some consideration of another mythical sister closely associated with the Greek Thebes Alkmene, who was seduced by Zeus and as a result gave birth to Heracles. Having considered this strong possibility that Alkmene’s name was Egyptian, we should briefly consider the Egyptian elements in her background.
  • 10. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Just as modern scholars see Heracles as a composite figure. Ancient writers frequently maintained that there were many different figures called Heracles. Diodoros, the general historian of the 1 st millennium saw three Heracles.
    • The most ancient of these was born in Thebes in Egypt and subdued the whole world, the second was a Cretan who had founded the Olympic games and the third was the son of Alkmene and Zeus and was born just before the Trojan War.
    • It is clear that the Theban hero Heracles is complicated figure created from many sources and that they ma not have been the oldest as the Greeks supposed.
      • Heracles Khonsu (ancient gods speak :p.186) and Shu (Athena: p.113)
      • Heracles and the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom
      • Heracles as a hydraulic engineer. There are thus striking similarities between the image of Heracles the hydraulic engineer and the Classical Greek perception of the pharaohs of the 12 th Dynasty undertaking irrigation and land reclamation. (p.116)
  • 11. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Diodoros wrote: Heracles who according to the myth had been born in Egypt Heracles was an extremely passionate and emotional individual, capable of doing both great deeds for his friends and being a terrible enemy and would wreak horrible vengeance on those who crossed him.
    • Together with Hermes (Thoth/Tehuti) he was the champion and protector of gymnasiarch, who supervised athletic games, contest and schools and by conquering dangerous primeval forces he is said to have "made the world safe for mankind" and to be its champion.
    • In Chapter II, Heracles was recorded sometimes has been seen as an Egyptian from the Egyptian Thebes. Herodotus clearly thought so and described Heracles as one of the “Twelve Gods of Egypt”.
    • However, the basic of the name as well that of Hera is the word hero and there and the many solar and heroic similarities between Heracles and Horus/Heru and the Egyptian pharaohs of the middle kingdom whose officially titulary always began with Hr.
    • It is also interesting to note connection with the name Hera that the 18 th Dynasty woman pharaoh Hatshepsut called herself among other things. Hrt nt d m (Female Heru of fine gold).
  • 12. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Recent excavation have shown a high level of prosperity and urbanization in Boiotia, the drainage and irrigation techniques were extremely intricate and sophisticated and showed granaries closely resembled the ones found in Egypt and clearly illustrated in Egyptian tomb paintings.
    • Therefore 3 rd millennium BCE they showed Egyptian influence at this very early period. The existence of such granaries would also indicate large grain surpluses in their districts.
    • It would seem much more plausible, because of the result of artificial drainage and irrigation.
    • One of the most frequent name for a river in Greece is Kephis(s)os this come from the Egyptian toponym which appears frequently in Egypt for streams, rivers and other bodies of water.
    • It is clearly linked to the Egyptian root kbb (cool) and kbh (purify). Kbb was one of the names of the two caverns near Elephantine on the first cataract from where the Nile was supposed to spring and there seems to have been a general associated with the name Kbh with cool purity water spring from the ground.
  • 13. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Chapter III there has been considerable debate on the cause of the Cretan development from the cultivated but largely unurbanized Crete of the Early Minoan period to the palatial society made up of reasonably large bureaucratic run states.
    • The explanation would seem to come from the strong likelihood that the first Cretan palaces were built when Egypt was ruled by the 11 th Dynasty. This dynasty, founded by Black Upper Egyptians from the Theban Nome, restored the unity of Egypt, establishing what was later known as the Middle Kingdom.
    • This and the finds of Egyptian objects of the period in Crete suggests the possibility that the establishment of the Creatan palaces was in some way the result of the contemporary reestablishment of Egyptian power.
    • One of the most striking features of Creatan regal society was an bull cult realm. Evidence for this appears from the remains of the Cretan places as well from the Greek tradition of Minos labyrinth and Minotaur very much in the tradition of Egyptian portraiture of gods with a bull’s head and a human body (Minotaur).
    • There were also other important Egyptian bull cults. At Heliopolis just northeast of the modern Cairo, there was the cult of Mnevis whose Egyptian name was written with the Mdr Ntr (sign_ winding wall). All of these date back to the Old Kingdom.
  • 14. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • At the end of the 3 rd millennium is that around 2000 BCE the Egyptian national cult changed from the bull to the ram Amon. Crete preserved the fundamentality of the bull cult after Egypt had abandoned it.
    • On 7/23/90 LA Times: reported on the front page of a Elite Fraternity…..for Black men by Karen Grigsby Bates, exposing a secret Greek Black fraternity known as the Boule (Sigma Pi Phi) with its own Agenda for the Afrikan Americans.
    • Two important Greek motifs introduced in Minoan Crete were the winged sphinx and the griffin (Iconic symbol for the Boule). Although the sphinx originated in Egypt much earlier, the winged ones appeared in Crete. The griffin was frequently represented for the next 500 years throughout the Aegean Sea.
    • Black Athena states that this is not simply matter of just art history but it strongly suggestions of political importance of griffins flanked the throne.
    • Boule is a Greek word which stand for “an council of leaders who will advised the kings”.
    • Cheikh Anta Diop also states that the Boule are a council of citizens who is chosen for terms. The person would be responsible for each task of any social political issues. (war, peace, budget of public works on which everybody could speak, propose amendments and vote). Read or Paraphrase article and list! Discuss Malcolm X concerns!
    • Just like Yale’s Skull and Bones secret society to which George Bush belongs. The Boule has been criticized by some as a social and historical relic.
  • 15. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • The modern scholars was so heavily affected by their difficulties in accepting a civilized Afrikan armies could have made significant conquests not merely in Southwest Asia but also in Europe. Such a scheme flew in the teeth of systematic racism of the late 19 th and early 20 th century.
    • The odd figure of Senwosre I / Sesostris I _is one of the problems of the second book of Herodotus. (Levi 1971 Vol I, p. 117 and p. 245).
    • There is no doubt that under this dynasty Egyptian military power grew and were expeditions into the Levant (East). We also know from lead isotope analysis that 11 th Dynasty Egypt was importing silver mined from the mines of Laurion of Attica, south of Athens.
    • Chapter 5 and 6 are unyielding with the conquests of the 12 th Dynasty pharaoh Senwosre I or as the Greeks knew him, Sesostris I . Herodotus and later Greek writers cited a story told by Egyptian priests about a Pharaoh Senwosre I / Sesostris, who once led an army nine years northward through Syria and Turkey all the way to Colchis, westward across Southern Russia, and then south again through Romania, until he reached Bulgaria and the Eastern part of Greece. Senwosre then returned home the same way he came, leaving Egyptian colonists behind at the Colchian river Phasis on the eastern shore of the Black Sea were descendants from Senwosre I army were commonly known to be Egyptian colony.
    • The most impressive picture of the scale and effectiveness of the armies of the 12 th Dynasty came from the remains of their fortifications in Nubia most of which are how flooded by the Aswan High Dam.
  • 16. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • When Herodotus referred to Asia, Asia is identified today as Asia Minor or Turkey. The expeditions sent back considerable booty to Egypt, most notably prisoner and metals particularly lead and silver
    • The Discovery of the Mit Rahina inscription and its relationship to the reports by Herodotus and others about the huge conquests of Pharaoh Senwosre I is one of extraordinary importance not only for checking the credibility of Classical sources but also for understanding changes in Anatolia, The Balkans, The Caucasus and Aegean Sea (behind the Island).
    • The Mit Rahina inscription was discovery under one of the colossi of Ramses II (1290-1224 BCE) which had stood in from of the Temple of Ptah built or enlarged by the pharaohs of the 19 th Dynasty of the site of a 12 th Dynasty at Memphis near the present Village of Mit Rahina in 1974.
    • The text refers most frequently to the two Middle Kingdom pharaohs Senwosre I and his son Amenemhe II in the early 12 th Dynasty between 1959 and 1882 BCE and it was almost certainly made soon after the reign of the latter. It is largely concerned with expeditions beyond Egypt by both land and by sea. Some of these were to Afrika but most were to Asia. One expedition went to Sinai, two went to Lebanon, but another in which the pharaoh himself took part was to Stt (Mesopotamia).
    • The inscription also referred to expeditions that destroyed other countries to the north, the names of which have not appeared elsewhere in Egyptian geographical texts.
  • 17. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • What is so startling about this text?
      • From this it was known that Egypt was rich and powerful during the early 12 th Dynasty after seizure of power by its founder Amenemhe I.
      • The dynastic family was from the extreme south.
      • It would seem reasonable to accept the accuracy of sculptures portraying these pharaohs as Blacks.
      • The dynastic family moved their capital to Thebes, from the capital of the 11 th Dynasty to Lisht in Northern Upper Egypt.
    • The results of these campaigns or raids was the sending back to Egypt of huge quantities of goods, livestock, slaves and precious metals.
    • The Story of Sinuhe (literary text of this period)
      • This vivid story which for many centuries remained one of the most popular in Egypt is about Sinuhe, a noble who overheard state secrets of the death of Amenemhe I. Fearing for his life held fled into Canaan. He went north as far as Byblos. And finally settled in Southern Syria. There he became first an adviser to the local king and then a rich chief in his own right.
    • No one doubts the story and it contains both historical fact and creative fiction. The story of Sinuhe’s life contains few descriptions of warfare. However, more of his travels of Sinuhe and his discovery of Egyptian influence in many places he visited.
  • 18. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • After many years there, the pharaoh Senwosre I gave him permission to return to Egypt and welcomed him back to the court and his body was buried.
    • In his text generally know as “the Satire of the Trades”. In this text which encouraged young students to study by describing unpleasantness of all other occupations except for that of the scribe contains the following verse:
      • The noble goes into the desert,
      • Leaving his goods to his children;
      • Fearful of only lions and Asiatic,
      • He knows himself only when he is in Egypt.
    • Manetho, the Egyptian priest and historian of the 3 rd century BCE, according to him the great conqueror and founder of the 12 th Dynasty had been murdered by his own nobles. Senwosre I in the next nine years before his return to Egypt, he subdued the whole of Asia and Europe as far as Thrace and everywhere erecting memorials of his conquest of that people.
    • Whenever he encountered a courageous enemy who fought valiantly for he would erected pillars on the spot and inscribed with his own name a sentence to indicate that by the might of his armed forces he had won the victory and also would engraved for a valiant people a secret part of a man. Accordingly they would be held in esteemed by the Egyptians as the next in rank to Osiris.
  • 19. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • However, if a town fell easily into his hand without a struggle, he would make an addition to the inscription on the pillar _ for not only did he record upon it the same as before, but added a picture of a woman’s genitals meaning to show that the people of that territory were no braver than women. (Homosexual_ coward fought like pussies) contains the signs for both female and male genitalia p. 202 )
    • Senwosre I erected memorial pillars in conquered countries have disappeared however Herodotus had eyewitness himself in Palestine with the inscription “by the strength of my shoulder I won this land” and the drawing of woman’s genitals.
    • Herodotus was informed by Egyptian priests that Senwosre I _ was on his return home with a host of prisoners from the conquered countries and was met a Daphnae near Pelusium by his brother whom he had left to govern Egypt during his absence and invited with his sons to a banquet. While they were at dinner his brother piled faggots round the building and set them on fire… with the result that two of his sons were burnt to death while to others together with their father were saved.
  • 20. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Senwosre was sent by his father with an army into Arabia where he conquered the entire nation of the Arabs which had never been enslaved before his day, then being sent to the regions of the west where he subdued the larger part of Libya though in years still no more than a youth.
    • It’s simply worth noting that Diodoros description of the young Senwosre ambitions to conquer the world after his father’s death sounds very much like Alexander’s ambitions to his father Philip death.
    • After he had made ready his army he marched against the Ethiopians who dwell south of Egypt and after conquering them he forced the people to pay a tribute in ebony, gold and the tusks of elephants. Then he sent out a fleet of four hundred ships into the Red Sea being the first Egyptian to build warships and not only took possession of the islands in those water but also subdued the coast of the mainland as far as India.
    • Classical writer stated after Alexander the Great conquests which had reached India argued that Senwosre had gone equally far.
    • Senwosre has a memorials of his reign he left stone statues of himself and his wife, each 45 feet height and statues thirty feet high of each of his four sons. They were erected in front of the temple of Path. (Mit Rahina)
    • The fact that Sesostris/Senwosre I was worshipped during the New kingdom strongly suggest that the tradition of his special qualities was older still.
  • 21. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • The legendary figure of Senwosre has been massively contaminated by features borrowed from later conquering pharaohs Notably Ramses II.
    • Colchis: An Egyptian Colony? (Ukraine, Georgian and Caucasus Mountains)
    • We should return to Herodotus description: On his way back Senwosre came to the river Phasis it is quite possible that he detached a body of troop from his army and left them behind to settle…when it occurred to Herodotus to asked some question both in Colchis and in Egypt and he found that Colchians often remembered the Egyptians. Conversely, they thought that the original Colchians were men from Senwosre I army.
    • Jason and the Golden Fleece the mythological figure begins when Zeus sent a ram to the top of the mountain to save the children of a Greek King Athamas and the ram took them on it back across Hellespont and to the Black Sea in Colchis. Where the ram was sacrificed and his golden fleece was preserved until Jason stole it.
    • Herodotus was not the only ancient writer to reference Jason’s expedition of attacking the dark-skinned Colchians.
    • Herodotus claims that the knowledge he gained was in Colchis and not in Egypt_ according to him the Egyptian did not know very much about their Colchian colony.
  • 22. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • The Tod Treasure was discovered in the 1930 in the foundations of a sanctuary at Tod upstream from Luxor (Waset) Theban Nome which was the original home of the 12 th Dynasty. Where Senwosre I built a new sanctuary. The treasure itself was placed in four copper caskets which were inscribed with the name of Amenemhe II.
    • These caskets were Egyptian but their contents were all foreign. They included gold ingots, chains, rings, bracelets, ornaments of gold, silver and electrum as well as 143 flattened and 10 unfolded silver bowls etc.
    • There is no doubt that the objects came from Asia. Gold from Nubia and the Gold from Red Sea coast came in bags. The nearest silver came from Anatolia (Turkey), the Caucasus and Lurion in Greece which at this time was more valuable than gold.
    • It appears to have been during the Middle Kingdom that the alloy electrum made up of 70 per cent gold and 30 per cent silver was first used in Egypt. The only mines in the world where this proportion occurs naturally is in the Apusini mountains in Thrace (Transylvania).
    • Senwosre I was living up to a couple of his title (Patron of foreign mines) and (Lord of the Universe)
    • During this time Egypt itself began to use metal on a large scale beginning in this period. It is also interesting to note how quickly the armies of the 12 th Dynasty took on the new weapons made possible by the new metallurgy_ daggers, distinctive axes and the sickle sword.
  • 23. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • In this search he shows that the belief in a Black population in Colchis was still present in the writings of St. Jerome around the end of the 4 th century referred to Colchis as a second “Ethiopia”. Between the ancient and modern reports of Blacks in the region to about twelve hundred years makes continuity possible.
    • Egyptians were not always the “stay at home” conservative people they are usually thought to have been by proponents of the Aryan Model.
    • The Greek legend of Memnon from the epitome of an epic entitled Aithiopis written by Arktinos of Miletos. The title of the lost epic and early representation of scenes from it indicates Memnon (the hero of Troy) being an Ethiopian and hence Black was central focus to the story. The author argue that Memnon was Sesostris I son Ammenemes II.
    • There is the tradition of Memnon wearing a splendid suit of armor as he going to help Troy. He killed Antilochos, son of Nestor, but for all his magnificence, Memnon was killed at Troy by the Greek hero Achilles.
    • From Aischylos lost drama that Memnon’s mother was Susienne (Elam/Eastern Ethiopia) it could also indicate that she was Kushite or simple a Black woman.
    • Homer description of Memnon as the most handsome man at Troy. The report of a tomb in Syria brings us back to the Canaanite Naaman or Adonis the image preserved in Greek tradition of his beauty.
  • 24. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island)
    • Memnon like most Greek heroes resemble Osiris in that he both dies and is made immortal.
    • It is also interesting to note that while Osiris most important tomb and cult center is within Egypt at the Temple of Osiris at Abydos.
    • Even Memnon blackness could be explained in these cultic terms as Osiris was represented as Black. Contrary to the Osiran myth of the resurrection of the body there was a tradition that Memnon’s body had been burnt and were formed from the smoke and the appearance of Memnoides (Black birds that migrate from Central Afrika to Greece_ the same birds that are seen with the Isis/Aset and Hathor/Het Heru as they lament Osiris/Ausar assassination by Seth/Set)
    • This could be a parallel to the story of the Phoenix rising from the ashes and thus relate Memon to the sun cult at Heliopolis. It is also significant that both the smoke and the birds were black.
    • At the same time, black was also the nation color of Egypt. Kmt (the black land) meant Egypt and kmt was determinative of the people meaning Egyptians.
    • Aischylos featured this scene in his lost drama Memnon. The parallels between this scene and that of the weighting of the souls of the dead to assess which should be blessed or dammed which is one of the most common images in Egyptian theology, literature and art.
    • Finally, Osiris was not the only Egyptian god represented by the color black and Amon too was Black.
  • 25. Black Athena: The Afrikan and Levantine Roots of Greece (Behind the Island )
    • Weighting of the heart take a different interpretation with Heroes in the balance_ final battle of Achilles and Memnon (hero of Troy).
    • The confusion is an excellent example of what happens when the paradigm such in this case of the Aryan Model being unable to cope.
    • Of course there is important difference between to two scenes that of Egypt it is not a competition between two souls, but the weighing of a single heart against a feather Maat. The Greek representation of the Judgment Scene, Hermes has a central role in the weighing the of heart just as his Egyptian counterpart Thoth/Tehuti is always recording the balance in the Egyptian judgment scenes.
    • Anubis also is presented at the weighing of the heart with the chief role of guiding one’s soul between life to immortality.
    • It is only within the recent discovery of this influential black middle kingdom influence from the Nile Valley predating other Egyptian dynasties has settled the question once and for all, the root of classical Greek civilization and culture.