A STRUCTURAL APPROACH FOR ONLINE SURVEYS A research presentation by Knut Linke, University of Latvia, at the International Conference: NEW CHALLENGES OF ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MAY 10 – 12, 2012 RIGA, LATVIA
research approachCurrent Environment: In the current time the Internet, as communication channel, is responsible to gather more and more information. Empirical research is preceded on this channel to act fast and cost effective.Research Purpose: The research had as purpose to understand issues during the preceding of online surveys to avoid those issues during the online survey for the doctoral thesis and increase the quality of the survey in the dimensions of results, participation and reception.
prestudies for the surveyWorkshop with 12 students in the age range between 19and 40 years regarding the topics: When do you share information in the Internet? When do you provide valid data or invalid data in the Internet?Followed by a deep interview with a Social Media expertand Internet politican. Focus on actual topics from the net and from the political sector
prestudies findingsFindings Workshop: It must be distinguished in which situation personal information is share with another person or website. It must be clear under which and for which reasons and goals I share the information and with whom I share the information. It must be communicated how serious the environment in which I share information is and to which institution or person I share the information. The participant must understand what the added value from the participation is. It should be clear, what the participant gets out from the interaction. The participant must be aware that information are directly provided by the usage from the Internet itself, such as forums or search engines.
prestudies findingsFindings Interview: A relationship should be established with the person/organization to which I send information, with the target to increase a higher efficiency in the response. Does the participant understand the goals from the requesting of information and does the person agree on the usage. In this context it must be clear who is working with the information, after the information is send. It should be communicated how the participant can influence or change the information which were provided and it should be understandable what will be done with the information and how the result will influence the participants life. The security features and functions, which support the data transfer, must be understandable for the participant.
questionaireBasic demographic data The survey itself was planned with a focus on younger peopleFour sections: Providing of personal information (A1 – A5) Answering honest in the Internet (B1 – B8) Factors which makes a suvery serious (C1 – C5) Influence factors in responsing behavior (D1 – D4)Usage of a 7-Likert-Scale 1 = I do not agree up to 7 = I agree
the survey itselfWas answered manually by 65 people out of the targetgroup from the later research for the doctoral thesis preceded in December 2011 24 women and 41 men average age of 23 years (median: 21, mode: 21) age range between 18 and 54 years Most people were not able to determine their Internet start date
All of the questions were answered in a 20%-80%distribution above the Likert-7-scale. No answers has aresult were >80% from the participants answered similaron the scale and none of the answers has a median were<20% selected the answer.Results were discussed in addition with two Internetbusiness experts to validate the results The interviews displayed the recognition from the findings and provided valuable and additional information.
results A1 – A5 35 30 25Amount 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A1 25 17 6 4 6 3 2 A2 2 5 1 7 11 20 18 A3 2 4 6 6 14 20 12 A4 3 1 1 5 4 14 36 A5 0 10 5 12 11 19 7 Standard deviation Median Mode Standard deviation (sample)A1 You want to test the service: 2 1 1.73 1.72A2 Use the service for a longer period of time: 6 6 1.65 1.63A3 Friends or acquaintance have sign up: 6 6 1.62 1.61A4 You want to use a service for business purpose: 7 7 1.59 1.58A5 You want to use a service for private purpose: 5 6 1.61 1.60
results B1 – B4 35 30 25Amount 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B1 4 7 7 11 15 15 5 B2 2 3 4 10 19 13 13 B3 3 5 5 14 17 12 8 B4 11 16 10 12 11 3 1 Standard Standard deviation Median Mode deviation (sample)B1 You are expecting an added value from the participation: 5 6 1.69 1.68B2 You are expecting an added value from your participation, 5 5 1.54 1.53like a change from the current situation (i.e. in politics):B3 The survey is related to myself: 5 5 1.61 1.59B4 The survey is in combination with a raffle: 3 2 1.58 1.57
results B5 – B8 35 30 25Amount 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B5 2 2 1 9 9 19 22 B6 4 5 6 11 15 18 5 B7 3 0 4 8 11 28 10 B8 6 7 6 23 16 4 2 Standard Standard deviation Median Mode deviation (sample)B5 You are in a relationship with the person how is requesting 6 7 1.53 1.52information from you:B6 The Internet form is secured with a codification like HTTPS: 5 6 1.65 1.64B7 The questioner is serious. 6 6 1.46 1.45B8 You have to fill out an empty attribute: 4 4 1.47 1.46
results D1 – D4 35 30 25Amount 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 D1 8 6 8 11 10 17 4 D2 6 5 11 10 15 12 5 D3 3 2 5 8 22 16 8 D4 7 8 8 16 11 10 4 Standard Standard deviation Median Mode deviation (sample)D1 You can win a price: 4 6 1.85 1.84D2 The answers can be get connected to you: 5 5 1.73 1.72D3 You are in a relation with the institution which sets up 5 5 1.50 1.49the survey:D4 An ID or PIN is displayed on the address from the survey: 4 4 1.74 1.72
research findings1. Trust must be established, which can be supported with the design (non-commercial) from the survey, as also from the way of communication from the questions and descriptions.2. The target and goal of the questionnaire must be understandable for the participants.3. The participant should be receiving possible information after the participation and the provider of the survey should be communicated and it should be understandable which targets the provider has.4. To support the data protection the user should have the possibility to erase his data after the participation. Also it should be possible to change possible answers afterwards.5. It should be possible for a person to receive additional information about the scientific work, also after the participation.
research findings6. Free text field, where participants can insert individual response, should be avoided. This barrier can be a reason for a participant to insert invalid or wrong information, closed questions should be preferred.7. The user should be informed, if private or business related information are requested.8. It should be avoided that the participant has the feeling that s/he can test the survey. A question “Did you filled out the questionnaire honest? If not, if you only tested it, please click here” can help.9. A participant should have the possibility to share the survey with his friends or associates, if this create an added value for the research and to establish an additional relationship with the survey.
summary Strong dependencies and influences factors could be deterimendParticipants needs: support during the participation process A clear and transparent communication The ability to avoid work, to support the process and to establish a relationship afterwards Future usage will be possible in combination with additional „research“
future usageUsage of the information to shape the final survey in the sector of: Communication Technical Providing Application DevelopmentCurrent reserach level - Prototype development: 6 groups of 2-4 Bachelor students are developing different prototypes until the mid of June based on results of the survey Best practices will be used for the final survey. Examples ☺