MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL
NETWORKS THROUGH SOCIAL
STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

Knut Linke, Faculty of Economics and Management
...
Overview
Introduction
Hypothesis
1. Milieus and Lifeworld Models
2. Preliminary Research
3. Main Findings
4. Limitations
5...
Topicality and Aim
Topicality:
necessity to conduct an analysis of German social network users determined by
the increasin...
Scientific interdisciplinarity
Social Science

Economics

Microeconomics
(Business
Administration)

Marketing

Market Rese...
Scientific novelty
Includes: transfer of existing knowledge into new scientific areas,
extension of existing models, an op...
Main hypothesis
H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds
produces more significant results th...
Development of lifeworlds
Geiger (1932, p. 12, p. 24, pp. 30–72) was the first to demonstrate a
differentiation of the Ger...
Development of lifeworlds
Similar divisions of the society can be observed in the SINUS Milieus of
2000, based on the east...
Development of lifeworlds
The most recent milieu differentiation of the SINUS Institute including
Internet users was carri...
Methods of Research I
Preliminary Research in the context of triangulation:
1. Step: Literature review (Requirements)
2. S...
Building SH1-SH10
Preliminary research was used as a basis to create the following subhypotheses 1–10:
SH1: A higher house...
Methods of Research II
Final version contains a total of 364 items and was published in social
networks, forms and via e-m...
Comparison with other samples
Accenture (2012, pp. 4–5, 10), Bitkom (2012, pp. 9–11) and D21 (2012;
p. 4) do not contain t...
Main Results
General Population (GP n=1,607), Digital Vanguard (DV n=152) and
Responsibility-driven Individuals (RI n=128)...
Main Results Ha
Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected
lifeworlds.
As concerns the ...
Main Results Ha
Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected
lifeworlds.
Genre
Detective ...
Main Results Ha
Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typ...
Main Results Hb
Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typ...
Main Results Hb
Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typ...
Main Results Hb
Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typ...
Main Results Hb
Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which
can be described as typ...
Main Results Hc Overview
Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal
significant changes in ...
Limitations
The most significant limitation of the present research lies in the
obtained sample population which does not ...
Limitations
When conducting additional studies, information regarding the
participant's federal state and the principal ea...
Discussion
The results show different usage approaches for the lifeworlds and the
GP. The differences between the lifeworl...
Economic Recommendations
ER 1-3 contains: Time for Mass communication and Social Media activities,
usable media for Social...
Economic Recommendations
ER 4-7 contains: Use of personal data and Marketing activities (Product
information, Communicatio...
Economic Recommendations
ER 8-10 contains: TV advertisement, Content Communication via language
selection and Mobile featu...
Economic Recommendations
ER 11-12 contains: Social network usage pattern and feature integration i.e.
for Start ups.
11. T...
Governmental Recommendations
GR 1-3 contains: Sense of media education, Escape from the vicious circle
and grant education...
Governmental Recommendations
GR 4-6 contains: Support intrinsic learning motivation and modern
learning environments.
5. T...
Governmental Recommendations
GR 7-9 contains: Learning via Media consumption, Political usage and the
understanding of dat...
Scientific Recommendations
SR 1-3 contains: Future research in the section of lifeworld research
(political, additional mi...
Scientific Recommendations
SR 4-6 contains: Transferring lifeworlds into pre-selections for grids
(Riemann, 1983, p. 140-1...
Scientific Recommendations
SR 7-10 contains: Neuromarketing (Bridger/Lewis, 2005; Gaines, 2008)and
Online questionnaires (...
Bibliography
Books and articles:
Allgayer/Kalka 2007

Allgayer, Florian and Kalka, Jochen. Zielgruppen. 2nd ed. Landsberg ...
Bibliography
Ernst et al. 2010

Ernst, Stan, Stoel, Leslie and Jeong, SoWon. “Beliefs of small, independently owned
rural ...
Bibliography
Hradil 1987

Hradil, Stefan. Sozialstrukturanalyse in einer fortgeschrittenen Gesellschaft – Von
Klassen und ...
Bibliography
Bitkom 2011

Soziale Netzwerke, Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue
Medien e.V.,...
Thank you for your attention

40
SH1-SH10 DETAIL

41
Main Results Hc SH1
SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living environment of the ...
Main Results Hc SH2
SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and gender.
SH2a...
Main Results Hc SH3
SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week and at th...
Main Results Hc SH4
SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the duration of using the Internet on a m...
Main Results Hc SH5/SH6
SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the intensity ...
Main Results Hc SH7-8/SH10
SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks, speci...
Main Results Hc SH9
SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political disc...
Main Results Hc Overview
Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal
significant changes in ...
CHANGES

50
Existing Changes
•

The thesis has been reviewed by a language editor

•

Shaping of hypotheses (Ha, Hb and Hc), as well a...
Changed Hypotheses
H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds
produces more significant results...
Planed Changes
•

Additional review (incl. summary) for the final version:
•
•

Moving from tables into the appendix

•

•...
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MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS THROUGH SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS (Department meeting riga 26 June 2013)

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MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS THROUGH SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

Topicality:
necessity to conduct an analysis of German social network users determined by the increasing complexity and market penetration of the Internet. These factors require modernising and extending existing market segmentation and customer group differentiation models.

Aim:
to perform an analysis of data randomly collected within the framework of the study to obtain a better understanding of Internet users and provide a more comprehensive basis for product development and research approaches. To divide social network users into groups and apply existing and established models of lifeworlds and milieus used in the study of societies. This should ensure a qualitative extension of the main model and available sub-models. The results of the study reveal significant differences among both the examined lifeworlds and social network users.

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MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS THROUGH SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS (Department meeting riga 26 June 2013)

  1. 1. MARKET SEGMENTATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS THROUGH SOCIAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS Knut Linke, Faculty of Economics and Management University of Latvia 26 June 2013, Riga, University of Lativa 1
  2. 2. Overview Introduction Hypothesis 1. Milieus and Lifeworld Models 2. Preliminary Research 3. Main Findings 4. Limitations 5. Discussion 6. Recommendations Bibliography Additional Online Resources: Summary: http://de.scribd.com/doc/204231731/Summary-Department-Presentation-Riga-June-2013 Thesis: http://de.scribd.com/doc/204239744/Doctoral-Thesis-version-for-the-department-presentation-at-the-LU-Riga-June-2013 Presentations (i.e. from conferences): http://de.slideshare.net/knutlinke 2
  3. 3. Topicality and Aim Topicality: necessity to conduct an analysis of German social network users determined by the increasing complexity and market penetration of the Internet. These factors require modernising and extending existing market segmentation and customer group differentiation models. Aim: to perform an analysis of data randomly collected within the framework of the study to obtain a better understanding of Internet users and provide a more comprehensive basis for product development and research approaches. To divide social network users into groups and apply existing and established models of lifeworlds and milieus used in the study of societies. This should ensure a qualitative extension of the main model and available sub-models. The results of the study reveal significant differences among both the examined lifeworlds and social network users. 3
  4. 4. Scientific interdisciplinarity Social Science Economics Microeconomics (Business Administration) Marketing Market Research Sociology Macroeconomics Econometrics Macrosociology System theory Social Structure Microsociology Behaviorism 4
  5. 5. Scientific novelty Includes: transfer of existing knowledge into new scientific areas, extension of existing models, an open approach to research without a focus on a market brand, high reusability and valid explorative results. Detail: 1. The analysis performed in the present research has allowed extending and transferring the existing lifeworld model to a new social interaction platform using existing empirical knowledge. This knowledge could serve as a basis for further research and practical recommendations relating to marketing, product development and social development measures. 2. The statements made have been confirmed by means of explorative research methods with the results mostly reaching significant levels and partly proved across the analysed milieus. 3. The large number of respondents taking part in the study, as well as the use and extension of the lifeworld approach have allowed extending and successfully using valid empirical knowledge in a new environment. 4. Rather than analysing only one leading social network, the present study pursues a holistic approach to ensure that the knowledge gained may be useful when conducting further research. The developed research model may be of use for additional studies due to the possibility of adapting it to new conditions quickly and thoroughly. 5
  6. 6. Main hypothesis H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more significant results than analysing the same sample without considering lifeworlds. supported by: · Ha: The selected lifeworlds reveal characteristics relating to their consumption preferences, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. · Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. · Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10. 6
  7. 7. Development of lifeworlds Geiger (1932, p. 12, p. 24, pp. 30–72) was the first to demonstrate a differentiation of the German-speaking world, developed on the basis of the findings by Durkheim. The next step took place in the 1970s when the society of France was studied by Pierre Bourdieu who established very extensive foundations for this field of research (Bourdieu, 1980; Bourdieu, 1982; Bourdieu, 1985). Subsequently, Hradil (1987, p. 14), who focuses on social layers, social inequality and social milieus, developed a social structure analysis in Germany. The most commonly used form of defining the strata and social environment (Flaig et al., 1994, p. 55) is the SINUS representation. The graphical representation of the milieu model, which is still in use today, was introduced by Hradil (1987, pp. 131) as well. 7
  8. 8. Development of lifeworlds Similar divisions of the society can be observed in the SINUS Milieus of 2000, based on the eastern and western German Federal States (Geißler, 2002, pp. 130–133). The 2002 version of the SINUS Milieus (Hohn, 2008, pp. 103–104) was further developed in 2005 (Geißler, 2006, pp. 109–112; Hradil, 2006, pp. 280–283; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11), 2006 (Fritz/Oelsnitz, 2006, pp. 75–77), 2007 (Walczak, 2008, pp. 6–10) and 2008 (Emrich, 2009, p. 78) with alterations in the milieu sizes. Lichy (2011, pp. 470–475), Haferkamp/Herbes (2012, pp. 208–212), Ernst et al. (2010, p. 90), Cha et al. (2009, pp. 1–4) and Zhou (2010, pp. 136–142) reviewed ideas and approaches from these models, but focussed on countries other than Germany, and partly not on social networks or on the usage of a function or set of functions. 8
  9. 9. Development of lifeworlds The most recent milieu differentiation of the SINUS Institute including Internet users was carried out in 2012 (DIVSI, 2012, p. 16). This study focuses on differences in the online communication behaviour, specifically, on requirements regarding security on the Internet. Figure 1. DIVSI Internet Milieus Source: (DIVSI, 2012, p. 33) In-depth analysis of social networks/Internet use has not performed. 9
  10. 10. Methods of Research I Preliminary Research in the context of triangulation: 1. Step: Literature review (Requirements) 2. Step: Qualitative Analysis of Digital Natives (Action Research) 3. Step: Group discussion (Social Networks CEO‘s) 4. Step: Telephone interviews (Social networks personality) 5. Step: Association-Review (Consumption and Internet use) 6. Step: Group discussion (Internet use and networks) 7. Step: Literature review (Demographic) 8. Step: Group Pre-Test (Survey) Additional analysis: Honesty in the Internet (credential for the developed online survey: Group interview, Interview, Questionair, Interviews). 10
  11. 11. Building SH1-SH10 Preliminary research was used as a basis to create the following subhypotheses 1–10: SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living environment of the participant. SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and gender. SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week and at the weekend. SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the time spent using mobile Internet and the use of certain functions within social networks. SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the intensity of using functions in social networks. SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use. SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks, specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks. SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the use of security settings and protection of personal data. SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political discussions and the intensity of using communication functions. SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the user’s degree of interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services which offer music. 11
  12. 12. Methods of Research II Final version contains a total of 364 items and was published in social networks, forms and via e-mail. These activities ensured that 6,986 users visited the questionnaire. 2,409 of them began to fill it in. 1,820 of the 2,409 questionnaires were filled in completely. In total, 1,607 questionnaires remained. Digital Vanguard (n=152) and Responsibility-driven Individuals (n=128) were selected and quantitative analyses (Correlation analyses: Spearman /Pearson and Factor analyses) were used. The DV consists of the Alternative Milieu (Hradil, 1987, p. 129), the Post-modern Milieu, Intellectual Milieu and Adaptive Milieu (Geißler, 2002, p. 131), the Modern Performer Milieu and Experimentalist Milieu (Hradil, 2006, pp. 279–280; Geißler, 2006, p. 111; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11; 26–32), as well as the Movers and Shakers Milieu, Performance-oriented Milieu, Hedonistic Milieu and Adaptive Pragmatist Milieu (DIVSI, 2012, p. 23). The Responsibility-driven Individuals (RI) consist of the sub models of Upper Conservative Milieu and Technocratic Liberal Milieu (Hradil, 1987, pp. 128–131), Milieu of the Established, (Geißler, 2002, pp. 130–133), the Conservative Established Milieu and the Post-modern Milieu (Hradil, 2006, p. 279; Geißler, 2006, p. 111; Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 11), as well as the Upper Conservative Milieu, Liberal Intellectual Milieu and Socio-ecological Milieu (DIVSI, 2012, p. 23, 113–117, 121). 12
  13. 13. Comparison with other samples Accenture (2012, pp. 4–5, 10), Bitkom (2012, pp. 9–11) and D21 (2012; p. 4) do not contain the necessary demographic data for a comparison, focus on other basic populations or use different measuring criteria. A general and direct men and women ratio of 0.80 can be observed. Thus, the proportion of women in the sample group is higher than in the society. Statista (2013) suggests a ratio of 0.93. A general analysis of the obtained convenience sample shows a predominance of young participants who constitute the core of the sample. Deviations from the state statistical data were observed in terms of household size, (DeStatis, 2012) and the age of the participants which mostly lies under 30 in the general population obtained for the present study. 13
  14. 14. Main Results General Population (GP n=1,607), Digital Vanguard (DV n=152) and Responsibility-driven Individuals (RI n=128). Male participants: GP = 44.5%, DV = 60% and RI = 45% GP DV RI Mean Median Mode Mean Median Mode Mean Median Mode Year of birth 1983.2 1987 1991 1985.4 1987.5 1992 1979.5 1981 1990 Start of broadband Internet use 2001.7 2001 2000 2000.3 2000 2000 1999.4 1999 1998 Start of mobile Internet use 2009.7 2010 2011 2009.4 2010 2010 2010 2010 2010 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 1. Year of birth and start of Internet use (years) Significant SRCC values between the range of +.574** and +.610** have been determined for the educational attainment of the parents across the analysed target groups. The education level of the parents and the paternal grandfather reaches SRCC values up to +.594** and +.651**. 14
  15. 15. Main Results Ha Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected lifeworlds. As concerns the possessions that depend on the existing consumption, there is a simple majority of 9 for the GP, 10 for the DV and 14 for the RI. This confirms the possessions of the RI. As regards the consumer wishes, there are no simple majorities; however, noteworthy results concerning wishes can be observed. Brand watch Owner-occupied flat Railcard GP 13.5 25.5 10.6 DV 15.8 32.9 18.4 RI 20.3 22.7 11.7 House Plot of land GP 41.3 27.9 DV 47.4 29.6 RI 34.4 18.8 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 2. Distribution of wishes (percentage) Source: author’s research Obtaining method GP DV RI 2nd-hand shops 12.0 19.7 10.2 Brand shops 41.3 59.9 63.3 Online auction 12.9 19.7 12.5 Online shop 56.8 70.4 64.8 Outlet 35.5 53.3 47.7 Received as a gift 30.2 48.7 22.7 Self-made 5.6 6.6 3.9 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 3. Method of obtaining clothing (percentage) Source: author’s research 15
  16. 16. Main Results Ha Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected lifeworlds. Genre Detective story Magazines GP 27.3 22.0 DV 28.9 22.4 RI 38.3 14.8 Genre Journals Newspapers GP 42.1 50.7 DV 48.0 49.3 RI 51.6 60.2 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 4. Preferred literature genres (percentage) Source: author’s research Genre Animation Horror Science-Fiction GP 17.6 20.7 23.7 DV 15.8 24.3 26.3 RI 10.9 12.5 19.5 Genre Crime Mystery Original GP 31.3 10.8 27.4 DV 30.3 9.9 37.5 RI 39.8 6.3 22.7 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 5. Preferred film genres (percentage) Source: author’s research GP DV RI GP DV RI Public TV stations ARD 38.7 38.2 50.0 WDR 7,7 7,9 14,8 ZDF 29.6 23.7 38.3 ZDF Info 6,1 6,6 10,2 ZDF Neo 14.2 15.1 18.8 Private TV stations N24 14.2 14.5 10.2 RTL 46.2 50.0 42.2 RTL 2 15.8 15.1 10.2 Sat.1 33.6 30.9 38.3 Sky 8.5 9.2 14.1 VOX 32.5 42.1 25.0 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 6. Preferred public TV stations (percentage) Source: author’s research 16
  17. 17. Main Results Ha Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. GP DV RI Mean Median Mode Mean Median Mode Mean Median Mode Broadband during Week 18.13 14 10 20.58 15 10 13.30 10 5 Broadband Weekend 8.82 7 7 9.91 8 10 6.32 4 2 Mobile during Week 6.13 2 0 11.25 7 2 6.38 4 2 Mobile Weekend 3.05 1 0 5.75 3 2 3.04 2 1 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 7. Internet use (hours) Source: author’s research Birthday reminders Chatting Discussing politics Discussing daily events Discussing events Making comments Staying in touch with acquaintances Staying in touch with friends GP 3 3 1 2 2 3 4 4 Median DV 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 5 RI 3 3 2 2 2 3 4 4 GP 3 4 1 1 1 3 5 5 Mode DV 4 4 2 2 2 4 5 5 RI 3 3 1 1 1 3 4 5 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 8. Reasons for social network use (5-point Likert scale) Source: author’s research 17
  18. 18. Main Results Hb Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. Demographic Item Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Internet use Chatting Listening to music Watching videos Using social networks Watching Television GP +.380** +.330** +.341** +.238** +.257** DV +.360** +.360** +.400** +.240* +.352** RI +.354** +.457** +.399** +.315** +.173 GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 9. Year of Birth and Internet use (correlation) Source: author’s research Intensity Internet use Broadband d. week Broadband d. week Broadband d. week Broadband at weekend Broadband at weekend Broadband at weekend Internet use Blogs Listening to music Watching videos Chatting Listening to music Watching videos GP +.204** +.180** +.314** +.226** +.193** +.288** DV +.301** +.219** +.261** +.185* +.344** +.278** RI +.307** +.323** +.466** +.310** +.284** +.429** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 10. Used time and Internet use (correlation) Source: author’s research Internet use Banking Chatting Chatting Internet use E-Mail Listening to music Using social Networks GP +.303** +.289** +.361** DV +.302** +.306** +.403** RI +.242** +.373** +.434** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 11. Similarities in Internet use (correlation) Source: author’s research 18
  19. 19. Main Results Hb Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. Intensity Internet use Broadband d. week Broadband d. week Broadband at weekend Mobile d. week Mobile d. week Mobile at weekend Mobile d. week Mobile at weekend Intensity network or application use LastFM YouTube YouTube Instagram WhatsApp WhatsApp Social Networks Social Networks GP +.246** +.285** +.244** +.272** +.507** +.471** +.332** +.319** DV +.193* +.430** +.368** +.119 +.146 +.189* +.163* +.127 RI +.323** +.473** +.372** +.301** +.323** +.318** +.372** +.315** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = SRCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. * The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05. Table 12. Used time and network use (correlation) Source: author’s research Demographic Item Gender (male) Gender (male) Gender (male) Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Year of birth Intensity network or function use Flickr LastFM LinkedIn ICQ Spotify VZ Netzwerke Tag friends in pictures Tag friends in messages GP +.217** +.232** +.199** +.351** +.228** +.142** +.213** +.264** DV +.218** +.269** +.111 +.258** +.313** +.094; +.225** +.244** RI +.344** +.340** +.337** +.455** +.148 +.315** +.309** +.396** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = SRCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 13. Demographic item and network or function (correlation) Source: author’s research 19
  20. 20. Main Results Hb Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. Network FourSquare (4SQ) Instagram LinkedIn Twitter Flickr LastFM Pinterest YouTube GP +.273** +.298** +.267** +.372** +.349** +.304** +.302** +.243** DV +.404** +.360** +.336** +.343** +.337** +.370** +.295** +.246** RI +.366** +.271** +.209* +.338** +.252** +.390** +.355** +.337** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 14. Intensity of blog and social network use (correlation) Source: author’s research Function Discussing daily events Exchanging content Exchanging opinions Obtaining information Searching for information Sharing of the location GP +.193** +.324** +.217** +.285** +.309** +.183** DV +.320** +.354** +.309** +.354** +.327** +.315** RI +.359** +.428** +.364** +.472** +.343** +.327** GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 15. Intensity of data exchange and functions (correlation) Source: author’s research 20
  21. 21. Main Results Hb Hb: The lifeworlds show characteristics relating to the use of the Internet, which can be described as typical for the respective lifeworld. As considers character preferences of people with whom the participants stay in contact using the Internet, factor analysis reveals a factor for the GP, DV and RI, dominated by the characteristics cheerful and optimistic. A more detailed analysis reveals that the RI prefer more serious characteristics, while the GP and DV tend to favour loose and open character traits. There is a significant SRCC between the year of birth and the characteristic of funny (GP: +.216**; DV: +.170*; VE: +.427**), which is most pronounced among the RI. In this regard, noteworthy correlations have been determined for the DV. Such characteristics as relish-seeking, sociable, cheerful, funny and open together have a notable PCC of ≥ +.3, while sophisticated, relish-seeking, refined and cultivated have a PCC of ≥ +.3. As concerns individual characteristics, the intensity of social network use has a PCC of +.424** for sociable and +.335** for funny. (GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01; * The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05.) 21
  22. 22. Main Results Hc Overview Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10 Sub-hypothesis SH1 SH2 SH3 SH4 SH5 SH6 SH7 SH8 SH9 SH10 GP unconfirmed (1/3) confirmed (4/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (2/5) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) unconfirmed (6/7) confirmed unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed Reference group DV unconfirmed (2/3) unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (1/5) unconfirmed (1/2) confirmed (2/2) unconfirmed (5/7) unconfirmed unconfirmed (0/4) confirmed RI unconfirmed (0/3) unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (0/5) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (7/7) confirmed unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 16. Comparison: SH1-SH10 GP, DV and RI (results) Source: author’s research 22
  23. 23. Limitations The most significant limitation of the present research lies in the obtained sample population which does not correspond to the population of the Federal Republic of Germany. The received population it selves focus on young people from Germany only. Conducting the questionnaire electronically, i.e. in the form of an online questionnaire, can be considered as an additional limitation. In addition, research shows that the number of participants is too small to provide representative lower correlations results for DV and RI. Further research could provide a better differentiation to create a model representing Internet use. The number of items could be increased in particular areas in order to study political and social attitudes, the perception of the society, social roles and other aspects, thus refining the model of investigation. 23
  24. 24. Limitations When conducting additional studies, information regarding the participant's federal state and the principal earner in the participant's family should be obtained. In addition, further studies could focus on mobile Internet users who do not use broadband Internet, as well as 2nd screen application users. The present study focuses on the use of broadband Internet with mobile Internet viewed as an additional type of Internet use, but reaching these users specifically is possible only using new communication channels such as WhatsApp or online advertising media. 24
  25. 25. Discussion The results show different usage approaches for the lifeworlds and the GP. The differences between the lifeworlds may display a low variance, but this could be the quailty of the sample which displays a focus on young people. As overall results it could be confirmed that with lifeworlds convinience sample from the Internet could be used to receive more qualitative results as without lifeworlds. With this the main hypothesis could be confirmed. It can be confirmed that the use of lifewords increase the ability to understand groups in the Internet and that the SINUS approach works in social networks. The results were discussed in addition with peoples from different backgrounds (scientific, business and political), to test the outcome in „reality“. It displays a confirmation of tendencies and providing of new ideas which resulted in recommoncations and conclusions 25
  26. 26. Economic Recommendations ER 1-3 contains: Time for Mass communication and Social Media activities, usable media for Social Media and communication interface selection. 1. The point in time when online advertising material is communicated should be taken into account. Target audiences differ according to the time when the Internet is used, meaning that it needs to be considered whether the particular target audience has time to use the Internet at the moment. In addition, it has been observed across all the studied target groups that more time is spent online at the weekend than during the week. In this regard, the most significant increase in Internet use can be seen for the RI. 2. In order to reach younger target audiences, advertising material should be integrated into chatting, video and musicrelated applications. These can be designed as interactive for the DV. It should be noted that the RI are cautious about sharing data and communicating on the Internet. This can be adopted as a general guideline when designing advertising material for unknown target groups. 3. A correlation between the intensity of using chatting functions or chatting services and age has been detected across all the analysed target audiences as well as the general population. The intensity is more pronounced for younger participants and declines with increasing age. Thus, companies wishing to reach younger audiences may use chatting services as communication channels for their advertising content. 26
  27. 27. Economic Recommendations ER 4-7 contains: Use of personal data and Marketing activities (Product information, Communication behaviour & Time of communication). 4. Information on data use, protection and customisation needs to be illustrated actively and transparently. This applies to target groups consisting of the RI, or broader general populations. 5. As regards the establishing of contacts when communicating on the Internet, it should be noted that such characteristics as optimistic and positive are sought after. With increasing age, this preference is replaced by seriousness and sincerity. This is further supported by TV content preferences. The average age of the RI is higher, and this group prefers more serious content, while the younger GP or DV seek for entertainment and amusement. 6. The differentiated use of social networks should be taken into account when designing marketing activities. As concerns the DV, similar content should be distributed using multichannel marketing in order to reach the target group. The same advertisement can be perceived differently on different distribution channels, thus gaining a higher approval. In order to reach normal, or rather average Internet users, networks with the highest range should be chosen, as demonstrated in the analysis of the use of social network functions in the context of Facebook. 7. The preferred method of obtaining information characteristic for the target group should be considered when communicating product information. People may seek information independently, receive it incidentally, or obtain it from their network. It was revealed that the DV prefer receiving information rather than searching for it independently. This can be useful when designing marketing activities, since the information is likely to be forwarded. This is uncommon for the RI. The RI are used to searching for information independently. This means that the DV are more likely to treat information with caution. 27
  28. 28. Economic Recommendations ER 8-10 contains: TV advertisement, Content Communication via language selection and Mobile feature use. 8. As regards television advertisement, the advertisement should appear on the television channels preferred by the particular target audience. Public broadcasters act as suitable advertising media to promote goods and services intend for the consumption of the RI. A strong preference for private broadcasters can be observed among younger people, as well as the DV. The use of television stations unknown to the target audience should be avoided. This can be the case, for example, the DV and ZDF. 9. The target group should be addressed using words and terms used by the particular group. This is important, since certain target groups may associate their lifeworlds with a particular type of language. Members of a milieu or lifeworld may find incorrect or unfitting words irritating. Content should be created in the language spoken within the particular milieu. Blogs and bloggers can act as a medium for such communication. The results reveal comprehensive correlations between blogs and different networks. This suggests that particular blogs and bloggers, whose content is used alongside regular media and social networks, operate within certain fields. The appearance of products in such an environment may have an impact on the image of the product, which should be the subject of further market studies. 10. As regards mobile applications, it is evident that the strongest correlations within mobile Internet use occur between the location function and the uploading of images. This should be viewed in the context of the time spent using the Internet during the week by the DV and at the weekend by the RI. When planning marketing activities, attention should be paid to the time when a message is communicated and whether the content is requested by the receiver of the message. 28
  29. 29. Economic Recommendations ER 11-12 contains: Social network usage pattern and feature integration i.e. for Start ups. 11. The social network environment is subject to constant change and development. Differentiation and niche formation can occur individually or within a user group. This can lead to different types of use for a single network or to a preferred use of a network by a niche customer group. In this regard, the influence of a network (very) is limited. 12. With the approach to implement offers into existing networks, the entry barrier can be lowered. As a result of this, the application may not be seen as independent. Nevertheless, this allows quickly reaching the necessary base potential and diminishing the interaction obstacles. 29
  30. 30. Governmental Recommendations GR 1-3 contains: Sense of media education, Escape from the vicious circle and grant education. 1. This should be facilitated by a government policy aimed at improving media literacy already in kindergarten or primary school and providing appropriate training opportunities for teachers and pupils alike. Thus, people would be educated on the independent information receiving, assessment and exchanging skills. In addition to mobile services, broadband Internet use should be emphasised in order to promote a focused and targeted work activity. 2. The analysis also shows that Internet use depends on the level of income. Income correlates significantly with the educational attainment and the living environment. A direct correlation can be assumed with the latter, and a state subsidy would be expensive in this case. There might be a correlation with the educational attainment. In addition, a correlation can be observed between the education of the parents and the grandfather, and a closed cycle, as described in the theory, can be observed in this regard. Education might serve as the key attribute for people aspiring to escape from this vicious circle. A policy should be developed to promote this across classes and genders. 3. As the cost of Internet access is minor in relation to other cultural participation opportunities and ways of acquiring content, receiving training or changing the living environment, the government should consider a possible funding for the promotion of a targeted Internet use. Socially disadvantaged individuals may not have access to broadband Internet, which correlates with games and social networks less significantly than mobile Internet. As regards the possible funding, a grant for performance-oriented further education might be considered. This further education could be adapted to the life development or lifeworld of the person to prevent a general discrimination. 4. Intrinsic learning, cultural participation and the possibility of forming opinions speak in favour of a possible funding for Internet access. 30
  31. 31. Governmental Recommendations GR 4-6 contains: Support intrinsic learning motivation and modern learning environments. 5. The motivation for intrinsic learning should be used and promoted additionally. 6. Intrinsic learning motivation should be used and promoted. Use should be made of a pronounced use of online media, detected within the framework of the present study, which could be used for teaching purposes and promoted by the state. Although the present study does not investigate online media use for studying purposes, it may be assumed that media content is used for self-education. Openness to use other languages suggests that the participants of the analysed target groups are open to acquiring knowledge using videos or other types of content pertaining to e-learning. This could result in the use of alternative teaching methods e.g., the flipped classroom (Lage et al., 2000, pp. 32–34) for particular groups of students, such as the DV. This should be further researched and supported by government policies. In the long term, it might result in a shift in the education paradigm towards Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)-related approaches to teaching (Cormier et al., 2010, pp. 4–5; 10–11). 31
  32. 32. Governmental Recommendations GR 7-9 contains: Learning via Media consumption, Political usage and the understanding of data exchange. 7. The study reveals the conspicuous feature that an extensive Internet use leads to an increased media consumption. It can be pointed out in this regard that a preference for films in the original language is particularly marked for the DV. Promoting the linguistic abilities of a society deserves particular support in view of globalisation and the internationalisation of the society. An intrinsic motivation for learning or sharpening the knowledge of a foreign language can be seen. Therefore, the government should consider the possibility of introducing policies that provide discounts or other forms of social support to ensure access to cultural participation and education. 8. As regards Internet use, there are pronounced, although not significant across for the researched participants, correlations between discussion functions and the intensity of discussing politics on the Internet. This allows concluding that the Internet is used to form opinions. This possibility is denied for people without Internet access, thus depriving them from developing a differentiated political opinion. Thus, the state should promote Internet use, as well as media literacy. In addition, such promotions could help temporarily unemployed people, as well as those looking for career change. The promotion can be linked with performance outcome. 9. The results show a mixed picture regarding the use of the Internet for data exchange. As regards the general data exchange and sharing network abatement, the policies should determine which user groups have a propensity for criminal behaviour which can be decreased by educating. Meanwhile, the exchanging of data for educational, training and opinion forming purposes should be encouraged. 32
  33. 33. Scientific Recommendations SR 1-3 contains: Future research in the section of lifeworld research (political, additional milieus and internationalization). 1. As lifeworld research originates from the field of political research, it should be studied how political preferences appear on the Internet and within the milieus, and how opinions are formed in this environment. 2. It should be investigated whether the Hedonistic Milieu forms an anti-image of the RI and DV in terms of Internet use. In this regard, it should be possible to demonstrate the capital differences according to the traditional class model with a low, medium and high level of capital. It could also be examined in this context how the gender roles are perceived in the lower areas and if a stronger identification exists, especially concerning the males. 3. The fundamentals of milieu differentiation have been successfully transferred to analysed the social structure of such countries as the USA, the UK (Imomus, 2008), Austria (Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 82), Switzerland (Allgayer/Kalka, 2007, p. 84) and Poland (Golonka, 2009, p. 55). It should be possible to transfer the empirical knowledge gained in researching milieus in Germany to other European countries. Thus, the research findings should be useful in defining product development and marketing activities in the form in which they have been outlined for the German-speaking world in these conclusions. 33
  34. 34. Scientific Recommendations SR 4-6 contains: Transferring lifeworlds into pre-selections for grids (Riemann, 1983, p. 140-148) to increase data quality for item lists (Kruse, 2009) and their use (Nextpractice, 2013). 4. The information from such a study could be used to make fine adjustments to the milieus and result in more significant and consistent content represented by the grids. 5. The created grids can be used to detect the mobile habitus in that the grids are periodically created using the same test subjects. This also provides the option for similar individuals to make statements about future decisions, based on the preferences of the test subjects. 6. In advance of a grid study, the participants can fill in an online questionnaire. The resulting customer groups should improve the quality of subsequent studies. 34
  35. 35. Scientific Recommendations SR 7-10 contains: Neuromarketing (Bridger/Lewis, 2005; Gaines, 2008)and Online questionnaires (Text fields and personal communication) 7. In conjunction with milieu analysis and grids, neuromarketing provides a basis for a more precise study of customer group behaviour and allows demonstrating customer action patterns. Thereby, the results should be more precise and authoritative from the point of view of behavioural science. 8. Such a study may prove useful in tailoring marketing messages to the needs of the customer. It can be studied which types of social network content or Internet services cause irritation or satisfaction. Thus, application use can be expected to differentiate and the situations and stimuli can be expected to differ depending on the target group. 9. Text fields should also be avoided, as there is a barrier that can cause people to answer incorrectly or not to answer at all. It should be stated clearly whether the questionnaire concerns professional information in order to provide the participants with a basis for making a decision, as well as to reduce the complexity of the questionnaire. 10. In addition, a personal connection with the respondents should be established, e.g. if the author of the survey personally helps the respondents follow it. It should also be possible to share the survey with friends and acquaintances and find out if they have already participated in it without viewing the results or other data. 35
  36. 36. Bibliography Books and articles: Allgayer/Kalka 2007 Allgayer, Florian and Kalka, Jochen. Zielgruppen. 2nd ed. Landsberg am Lech: mi, 2007. Print. Bourdieu 1980 Bourdieu, Pierre. Sozialer Sinn. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1980. Print. Bourdieu 1982 Bourdieu, Pierre. Die feinen Unterschiede – Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1982. Print. Bourdieu 1985 Bourdieu, Pierre. Sozialer Raum und >Klassen< Leçon sur la leçon – zwei Vorlesungen. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1985. Print. Bridger/Lewis 2005 Bridger, Darren and Lewis, David. “Market Researchers make Increasing use of Brain Imaging.” ACNR 5.3 (2005): 36–37. Print. Cha et al. 2009 Cha, Meeyoung, Gummadi, Krishna P., Mislove, Alan and Viswanath, Bimal. “On the Evolution of User Interaction in Facebook.” Barcelona: WOSN, 2009. 37–42. Print. Cormier et al. 2010 Cormier, Dave, McAuley, Alexander, Stewart, Bonnie, Siemens, George. The MOOC Model for Digital Practice. Charlottetown: University of Prince Edwards Island, 2010. Print. DIVSI 2012 DIVSI Milieu-Studie zu Vertrauen und Sicherheit im Internet – Eine Grundlagenstudie des SINUS-Instituts Heidelberg im Auftrag des DIVSI. Hamburg: DIVSI, 2012. Print. Emrich 2009 Emrich, Christin. Multichannel-Management. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2009. Print. 36
  37. 37. Bibliography Ernst et al. 2010 Ernst, Stan, Stoel, Leslie and Jeong, SoWon. “Beliefs of small, independently owned rural retailers about Internet use.” Marketing Intelligence & Planning 28.1 (2010): 88– 104. Print. Flaig et al. 1994 Flaig, Berthold, Meyer, Thomas and Ueltzhöffer, Jörg. Alltagsästhetik und politische Kultur. Bonn: Dietz, 1994. Print. Fritz/Oelsnitz 2006 Fritz, Wolfgang and von der Oelsnitz, Dietrich. Marketing. 4th ed. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2006. Print. Gaines 2008 Gaines, Jeannie, Hill, Ronald and Wilson, Mark: “Neuromarketing and Consumer Free Will” The Journal of Consumer Affairs 42.3 (2008): 389–410. Print. Geiger 1932 Geiger, Theodor. Die soziale Schichtung des deutschen Volkes. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1932. Print. Geißler 2002 Geißler, Rainer. Die Sozialstruktur Deutschlands. 3rd ed. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2002. Print. Geißler 2006 Geißler, Rainer. Die Sozialstruktur Deutschlands. 4th ed. Wiesbaden: VS, 2006. Print. Golonka 2009 Golonka, Joanna. Werbung und Werte. Wiesbaden: VS, 2009. Print. Haferkamp/Herbes 2012 Haferkamp, Nina and Herbers, Martin R. “What if Bourdieu had played Farm Ville? Examining users’ motives for playing the browser game Farm Ville in relation to socio-demographic variables.” Publizistik, 57.2 (2012): 205–223. Print. Hohn 2008 Hohn, Stefanie. Public Marketing. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: Gabler, 2008. Print. 37
  38. 38. Bibliography Hradil 1987 Hradil, Stefan. Sozialstrukturanalyse in einer fortgeschrittenen Gesellschaft – Von Klassen und Schichten zu Lagen und Milieus. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 1987. Print. Hradil 2006 Hradil, Stefan. Die Sozialstruktur Deutschlands im internationalen Vergleich. 2nd ed.. Wiesbaden: VS, 2006. Print. Lage et al. Lage, Maureen, Platt, Glenn and Treglia, Michael. “Inverting the Classroom.” Journal of economic education Vol. 31.1 (2000): 30–43. Print. Lichy 2011 Lichy, Jessica. ‘Internet user behaviour in France and Britain: exploring socio-spatial disparity among adolescents.’ International Journal of Consumer Studies 35.4 (2011): 470–475. Print. Riemann 1983 Riemann, Rainer. “Die Erfassung individueller Einstellungen mit Hilfe der Gridtechnik.” Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 14 (1983): 139–151. Print. Walczak 2008 Walczak, Dagna. SINUS-Milieus. Norderstedt: Grin, 2008. Print. Zhou 2010 Zhou, Baohua. “New media use and subjective social status.” Asian Journal of Communication 21.2 (2011): 133–149. Print. Electronic sources: Accenture 2012 Mobile Web Watch Germany –Austria –Switzerland, Accenture, 2012, Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <http://www.accenture.com/SiteCollectionDocuments/PDF/Accenture-Study-Mobile-WebWatch-Germany-Austria-Switzerland-EN.pdf>. 38
  39. 39. Bibliography Bitkom 2011 Soziale Netzwerke, Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue Medien e.V., Dec. 2011. Web. 23 Jun. 2013. <http://www.bitkom.org/files/documents/SozialeNetzwerke.pdf>. D21 2012 (N)ONLINER Atlas 2012 - Basiszahlen für Deutschland, Initiative D21, Jun. 2012. Web. 23 Jun. 2013. <http://www.initiatived21.de/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/NONLINER-Atlas2012-Basiszahlen-f%C3%BCr-Deutschland.pdf>. DeStatis 2012 Haushalte nach Haushaltsgrößen. Statistisches Bundesamt, 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/GesellschaftStaat/Bevoelkerung/Haushalte Familien/Tabellen/Haushaltsgroesse.html> Imomus 2008 Kartoffelgrafiken – market segmentation potato graphics. n.p., 12 Jan. 2008. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. <http://imomus.dreamwidth.org/335188.html>. Kruse 2009 Peter Kruse erklärt den Nextexpertizer, Ulrike Reinhard, 20 Sep. 2009. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eunJtuOk9eM>. Nextpractice 2013 Produktinformationen Nextexpertizer. Nextpractice, n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.nextpractice.de/leistungen/nextexpertizer/produkt/information/>. Statista 2013 Geschlechterverteilung. Statista, Oct. 2008. Web. 27 Jan. 2013. <http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/ studie/180038/umfrage/geschlechterverteilung/>. 39
  40. 40. Thank you for your attention 40
  41. 41. SH1-SH10 DETAIL 41
  42. 42. Main Results Hc SH1 SH1: A higher household income has a positive and significant impact on the living environment of the participant. SH1a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ -0.3 between the household income and the first time of installing an Internet connection in the household. SH1b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the household income and its residential environment. SH1c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the household income of the participant and his educational qualification. Sub-hypothesis SH1a broadband SH1a mobile SH1b SH1c SH1 GP -.290** -.227** +.407** +.270** unconfirmed Reference group DV -.196** -.213** +.369** +.354** unconfirmed RI +.000 -.114** +.230** +.212* unconfirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=SRCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. * The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05. Table 17. Comparison SH1a–SH1c (correlation values) Source: author’s research 42
  43. 43. Main Results Hc SH2 SH2: There is a significant and positive correlation between particular media content and gender. SH2a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the female participants and consumption of romantic films. SH2b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the male participants and consumption of action films. SH2c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the male participants and consumption of TV content relating to sports. SH2d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the female participants and consumption of romantic literature. Sub-hypothesis SH2a SH2b SH2c SH2d SH2 GP +.458** +.342** +.331** +.387** confirmed Reference group DV +.381** +.336** +.239** +.345** unconfirmed RI +.549** +.313** +.246** +.452** unconfirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 18. Correlation SH2a–SH2d (correlation values) Source: author’s research 43
  44. 44. Main Results Hc SH3 SH3: There is a significant correlation between the duration of Internet use during the week and at the weekend. SH3a: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.5 between the duration of using broadband Internet during the week and at the weekend. SH3b: There is a highly significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.5 between the duration of using mobile Internet during the week and at the weekend. SH3c: There is no correlation of at least ρ≥ +0.3 between the duration of using mobile or broadband Internet. Sub-hypothesis SH3a all SH3a mobile SH3b all SH3b mobile SH3c SH3 GP +.724** +.745** +.864** +.776** confirmed confirmed Reference group DV +.693** +.693** +.756** +.756** confirmed confirmed RI +.748** +.782** +.805** +.735** confirmed confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=SRCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 19. Comparison SH3a–SH3c (correlation values) Source: author’s research 44
  45. 45. Main Results Hc SH4 SH4: There is a positive and significant correlation between the duration of using the Internet on a mobile device and the use of certain functions within social networks. SH4a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the intensity of uploading pictures. SH4b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in pictures. SH4c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the intensity of tagging friends in messages. SH4d: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the time spent online from a mobile device and the intensity of using the location function. SH4e: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH4a–SH4d. Sub-hypothesis SH4a week SH4a weekend SH4b week SH4b weekend SH4c week SH4c weekend SH4d week SH4d weekend SH4e SH4 GP +.280** +.256** +.232** +.211** +.241** +.262** +.347** +.346** confirmed unconfirmed Reference group DV +.275** +.186* +.150 +.194* +.254** +.237** +.249** +.220** confirmed unconfirmed RI +.120 +.173 +.102 +.130 +.129 +.163 +.211* +.307** unconfirmed unconfirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ = SRCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. * The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.05. Table 20. Comparison SH4a–SH4e (correlation/factor analysis) Source: author’s research 45
  46. 46. Main Results Hc SH5/SH6 SH5: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using Facebook and the intensity of using functions in social networks. SH5a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the core functions of social networks and Facebook. SH5b: The functions of social networks allow defining a significant factor for Facebook. Sub-hypothesis SH5a SH5b SH5 GP confirmed confirmed confirmed Reference group DV unconfirmed confirmed unconfirmed RI confirmed confirmed confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC Table 21. Comparison SH5a–SH5b (correlation/factor analysis) Source: author’s research SH6: There is a significant correlation between social networks and the intensity of their use. SH6a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between social networks. SH6b: Significant factors consisting of social networks can be defined. Sub-hypothesis SH6a SH6b SH6 GP confirmed confirmed 3 factors confirmed Reference group DV confirmed confirmed 4 factors confirmed RI confirmed confirmed 7 factors confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC Table 22. Comparison SH6a–SH6b (correlation/factor analysis) Source: author’s research SH6b has been confirmed for all reference groups with significantly differentiated results. 46
  47. 47. Main Results Hc SH7-8/SH10 SH7: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using business networks, specific users and the factors motivating them to use business networks. Sub-hypothesis SH7 GP unconfirmed (6/7) Reference group DV unconfirmed (5/7) RI confirmed (7/7) GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 23. Comparison SH7 (results) Source: author’s research SH8: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the use of security settings and protection of personal data. Sub-hypothesis SH8 SH8 GP +.422** confirmed Reference group DV +.297** unconfirmed RI +.430** confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 24. Comparison SH8 (correlation) Source: author’s research SH10: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the user’s degree of interest in listening to music as a leisure activity and the intensity of using online services which offer music. Sub-hypothesis SH10 SH10 GP +.486** confirmed Reference group DV +.442** confirmed RI +.422** confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 25. Comparison SH10 (correlations) Source: author’s research 47
  48. 48. Main Results Hc SH9 SH9: There is a significant correlation between the intensity of using the Internet for political discussions and the intensity of using communication functions. SH9a: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and the intensity to leave comments. SH9b: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the motivation to hold political discussions and to exchange opinions. SH9c: There is a significant correlation of at least ρ ≥ +0.3 between the motivation to hold discussions relating to politics and to share web-sites within social networks. SH9d: A significant factor can be defined for the functions of SH9a-SH9c. Sub-hypothesis SH9a SH9b SH9c SH9d SH9 GP +.294** +.442** +.315** confirmed unconfirmed Reference group DV +.185* +.281** +.264** unconfirmed unconfirmed RI +.309** +.445** +.462** unconfirmed unconfirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128; ρ=PCC ** The correlation has a (2-tailed) significance of 0.01. Table 26. Comparison SH9a–SH9c (correlation/factor analysis) Source: author’s research 48
  49. 49. Main Results Hc Overview Hc: In a direct comparison of the milieus, the selected lifeworlds reveal significant changes in the results of the SH1-SH10 Six of the sub-hypotheses are confirmed for the RI. 22 of the 32 sub-hypotheses of SH1–SH10 are confirmed for the RI. As regards the GP, 6 sub-hypotheses are considered as confirmed; as a result, 25 sub-hypotheses of the SH1–SH10 have been confirmed. It was possible to confirm only 3 hypotheses for the DV. Only 18 of the 32 sub-hypotheses of SH1–SH10 have been confirmed for the DV. Sub-hypothesis SH1 SH2 SH3 SH4 SH5 SH6 SH7 SH8 SH9 SH10 GP unconfirmed (1/3) confirmed (4/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (2/5) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) unconfirmed (6/7) confirmed unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed Reference group DV unconfirmed (2/3) unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (1/5) unconfirmed (1/2) confirmed (2/2) unconfirmed (5/7) unconfirmed unconfirmed (0/4) confirmed RI unconfirmed (0/3) unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed (3/3) unconfirmed (0/5) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (2/2) confirmed (7/7) confirmed unconfirmed (3/4) confirmed GP n=1,607; DV n=152; RI n=128 Table 27. Comparison: SH1-SH10 GP, DV and RI (results) Source: author’s research 49
  50. 50. CHANGES 50
  51. 51. Existing Changes • The thesis has been reviewed by a language editor • Shaping of hypotheses (Ha, Hb and Hc), as well as SH8 and SH10, to include more detail. • Changing the translation for the milieu names in a more common direction • Changes in chapter 1.5 regarding a converting mistake, understanding of analyses and definition of p. • Implementation of additional information regarding the cluster analysis (3.4) and the regression analyses (in the appendix) • Replacement of text with tables in sections 4.1–4.3 • Implementation of scatterplots (in the appendix) • A slightly reduced chapter 4.4 • New recommendation regarding learning approaches (MOOC) • Adjusted formatting of quotes • Summary: Removing of smaller mistakes and implementing of language improving 51
  52. 52. Changed Hypotheses H: Analysing convenience samples of Internet users through lifeworlds produces more significant results than analysing the same sample without considering lifeworlds. supported by: • Ha: It is possible to detect consumption preferences typical for the selected lifeworlds. • Hb: It is possible to detect patterns of Internet use typical for the selected lifeworlds. • Hc: A direct comparison of the Digital Vanguard and Responsibility-driven Individuals with the general population reveals significant changes in the results of SH1–SH10. 52
  53. 53. Planed Changes • Additional review (incl. summary) for the final version: • • Moving from tables into the appendix • • Implementation of additional tables Providing more information about the meta level Latvian summary 53

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