2. Chromalveolata To determine if a protist species is a part of this phylum is based on two pieces of confirmation. First of all, some of the DNA sequence data propose that this phylum forms a monophyletic group. It also needs to be proved that the Chromalveolata phylum was established over a billion years ago. The ancestral species of this phylum is thought to be red algae.
3. Chromalveolata Continued Alveolata: Alveolates are a group of protist’s whose monophyly is well supported by molecular systematic. Alveoli are membrane-bounded sacs, in the plasma membrane. Scientist has researched the use of the alveoli but have come to no conclusion as to why it exists. o Dinoflagellata: Characterized by cells that are reinforced by cellulose plates. They are mechanisms of both marine and freshwater plankton. Some of the most important photosynthetic species. These heterotrophs contain toxins have caused many mass murdering throughout the invertebrate. o Apicomplexa: Parasites of animals and some cause serious human disease. They spread through their hosts as tiny infectious diseases. Apicomplexans obtain a group of organs that manage the creation of tissues and strong host cells. Most of the protists in this group have both
4. Chromalveolata Continued Stramenopiles: This is a group of marine algae that also includes some of the worlds most photosynthetic organisms. Stramenopiles main characteristic is the flagellum that each protist has. In most protists in this phylum, the hairy flagellum is paired with a short smooth flagellum. o Diatoms: Diatoms are unicellular and are producers of the food chain. These organisms have a cell wall that is made of silica. There about 200 living species of diatoms. o Golden Algae: The main characteristic of golden algae is their color which comes from yellow and brown carotenoids. Golden algae does contain both flagella at one end of the protist. o Brown Algae: Most organisms in this very complex group are multicellular. These protists have leaf-like blades and have specialized tissues and organs. o Oomycetes: Oomycetes were previously classified as fungi, until it was determined all the differences between fungi and Oomycetes. They have cells walls made of cellulose and do not undergo photosynthesis.
5. Excavata Excavata organisms are unicellulr eukaryotes. Some are missing mitochondria while others have mitochondria with internal divisions so cellular respiration can occur. Euglenozoans: These are the most important parasites. Most have two flagella and chloroplasts that are surrounded by membranes. Diplomonads: Most diplomonads are double cells, meaning they have two nuclei and four flagella. They lack mitochondria and a golgi apparatus. Parabasalids: Parabasalids possess a reduced mitochondria. They create some energy anaerobically and discharge hydrogen gas as a by-product.
6. Rhizaria Rhizaria consists on mainly species of amoebas which are a tread-like shaped organism. The amoebas can create swellings or lumps on any potion of a cell. The knots help with the capture of prey and are involved in the movement of these species. Radiolarians: These organisms have symmetrical skeletons made up of silica. The pseudopodia of the protists radiate from the central body and are resistant because of the microtubules. Forams: Foraminiferans are known for their shells, also called tests. Some forams are capable of receiving nutrients out of their tests. Chlorarachniophytes: Chlorarachniophytes participate in photosynthesis and capture prey by connecting cells together to form a net. Also, they have one flagellum, depending on the species.
7. Archaeplastida This group includes red, green algae, and land plants. Red algae and green algae include unicellular species, colonial species, and multicellular species. These protists have a special photosynthetic species that are the base of the food web in some habitats. Rhodophyta: This is the oldest group of eukaryotic algae. Red algae are multicellular and are missing centrioles and flagellas and other important parts. They receive their red color from a red pigment. Land Plants: Land plants established from green algae but have many similar qualities to the red and green algae.
8. Archaeplastida Continued Green Algae: Green algae has a good structure and pigment chloroplasts , similar to those of land plants. Most cells contain two flagella and are unicellular. o Chlorophytes: The old classification of Chlorophytes was including all the green algae within the green plants. The newer classification includes the two clades that created the Viridiplantae. o Charophyceans: This is the closest group to land plants. Depending on the organism, a cell may or may not
9. Unikonta These eukaryotes includes amoebas that have lobe or tube-liked shape pseudopodia. It is suggested that Unikonts might have been the first group of eukaryotes to diverge from other eukaryotes, but this idea is still unknown. Amoebozoans: Amoebas have a tube-shaped pseudopodia. o Slime Molds: They were thought to be fungi in the beginning, but researchers soon realized that was a mistake. Molds grow in masses and tends to their pseudopodia by consuming food particles. o Gymnamoebas: These unicellular protists feed on bacteria, other protists, and some organic matter.
10. Unikonta Continued Opisthokonuts: A common characteristic that all eukaryotes in this group have is a single posterior flagellum. o Nucleariids: These organisms contain scales and or spines. o Fungi: Eukaryotic species are similar to some protist because they grow by repeated cell division. (same with animals) o Animals: They are eukaryotic and multicellular organisms. o Choanoflagellates: Choanoflagellates possess a posterior cilia.