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Managing Change & Conflict
 

Managing Change & Conflict

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A guide on Managing Change & Conflict.

A guide on Managing Change & Conflict.

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    Managing Change & Conflict Managing Change & Conflict Presentation Transcript

    • Managing Change and Conflict Chapter 14 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
    • Chapter Objectives
      • Identify and describe four types of organizational change according to the Nadler-Tushman model.
      • Explain how people tend to respond differently to changes they like and those they dislike.
      • List a least six reasons why employees resist changes and discuss what management can do about resistance to change.
      • Describe how the unfreezing-change-refreezing analogy applies to organization development (OD).
    • Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
      • Describe tempered radicals and identify the 5Ps in the checklist for grassroots change agents.
      • Contrast competitive and cooperative conflict styles, and identify five conflict resolution techniques.
    • Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives
      • Types of Organizational Change
        • Anticipatory changes: planned changes based on expected situations.
        • Reactive changes: changes made in response to unexpected situations.
        • Incremental changes: subsystem adjustments required to keep the organization on course.
        • Strategic changes: altering the overall shape or direction of the organization.
    • Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives (cont’d)
      • Tuning
        • The most common, least intense, and least risky type of change.
          • Also known as preventive maintenance and kaizen (continuous improvement).
          • Key is to actively anticipate and avoid problems rather than waiting for something to go wrong.
      • Adaptation
        • Incremental changes that are in reaction to external problems, events, or pressures.
      • Re-Orientation
        • Change that is anticipatory and strategic in scope and causes the organization to be significantly redirected.
          • Also called “frame bending” (Nadler and Tushman).
      • Re-Creation
        • Intense and risky decisive change that reinvents the organization.
          • Also called “frame breaking” (Nadler and Tushman).
      Change: Organizational and Individual Perspectives (cont’d)
    • Individual Reactions to Change
      • How People Respond to Changes They Like
        • Three-stage process
          • Unrealistic optimism
          • Reality shock
          • Constructive direction
    • Individual Reactions to Change (cont’d)
      • How People Respond to Changes They Fear and Dislike
        • Stages
          • Getting off on the wrong track
          • Laughing it off
          • Growing self-doubt
          • Buying in
          • Constructive direction
    • Why Do Employees Resist Change?
      • Surprise
        • Unannounced significant changes threaten employees’ sense of balance in the workplace.
      • Inertia
        • Employees have a desire to maintain a safe, secure, and predictable status quo.
      • Misunderstanding and lack of skills
        • Without introductory or remedial training, change may be perceived negatively.
    • Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d)
      • Emotional Side Effects
        • Forced acceptance of change can create a sense of powerlessness, anger, and passive resistance to change.
      • Lack of Trust
        • Promises of improvement mean nothing if employees do not trust management.
      • Fear of Failure
        • Employees are intimidated by change and doubt their abilities to meet new challenges.
      • Personality Conflicts
        • Managers who are disliked by their managers are poor conduits for change.
      • Poor Timing
        • Other events can conspire to create resentment about a particular change.
      • Lack of Tact
        • No showing sensitivity to feelings can create resistance to change.
      Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d)
      • Threat to Job Status/Security
        • Employees worry that any change may threaten their job or security.
      • Breakup of Work Group
        • Changes can tear apart established on-the-job social relationships.
      • Competing Commitments
        • Change can disrupt employees in their pursuit of other goals.
      Why Do Employees Resist Change? (cont’d)
    • Overcoming Resistance to Change
      • Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change
        • Education and communication
        • Participation and involvement
        • Facilitation and support
        • Negotiation and agreement
        • Manipulation and co-optation
        • Explicit and implicit coercion
    • Making Change Happen
      • Two Approaches to Organization Change
        • Organization Development (OD)
          • Formal top-down approach
        • Grassroots Change
          • An unofficial and informal bottom-up approach
      • Change Agent Characteristics
        • Foresight
        • Responsiveness
        • Flexibility
        • Adaptability
    • Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD)
      • Organization development (OD)
        • Planned change programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively.
          • Applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories to create and cope with change.
          • OD creates fundamental change in the organization, as opposed to fixing a problem or improving a procedure.
        • OD programs generally are facilitated by hired consultants,
    • Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD) (cont’d)
      • Objectives of OD
        • Deepen the sense of organizational purpose.
        • Strengthen interpersonal trust.
        • Encourage problem solving rather than avoidance.
        • Develop a satisfying work experience.
        • Supplement formal authority with knowledge and skill-based authority.
        • Increase personal responsibility for planning and implementing.
        • Encourage willingness to change.
    • Planned Change Through Organization Development (OD) (cont’d)
      • The OD Process (Kurt Lewin)
        • Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems
          • Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change.
          • Changing: implementing the planned change
          • Refreezing: systematically following a change program for lasting results.
    • Unofficial and Informal Grassroots Change
      • Grassroots Change
        • Change that is spontaneous, informal, experimental, and driven from within.
      • Tempered Radicals
        • People who quietly try to change the dominant organizational culture in line with their convictions.
          • Guidelines for tempered radicals
            • Think small for big results.
            • Be authentic.
            • Translate.
            • Don’t go it alone.
    • Managing Conflict
      • Conflict
        • Incompatible behaviors that make another person less effective
      • Dealing with the Two Faces of Conflict
        • Competitive conflict: parties are pursuing directly opposite (win-lose) goals.
        • Cooperative conflict: a mutually reinforcing experience (win-win) that serves the best interests of both parties.
    • Managing Conflict (cont’d)
      • Conflict Triggers
        • Conflict trigger: any factor that increases the chances of conflict.
          • Types of triggers
            • Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions.
            • Competition for scarce resources.
            • Communication breakdowns.
            • Time pressure.
            • Unreasonable standards, rule, policies, or procedures.
            • Personality clashes.
            • Status differentials.
            • Unrealized expectations.
    • Managing Conflict (cont’d)
      • Resolving Conflict: Conflict Resolution Techniques
        • Problem solving
        • Superordinate goals
        • Compromise
        • Forcing
        • Smoothing
    • Career Advancement Behaviors
      • Best Behaviors
        • Perspective taking
        • Creating solutions
        • Expressing emotions
        • Reaching out
      • Worst Behaviors
        • Avoidance
        • Winning at all costs
        • Displaying anger
        • Demeaning others
        • Retaliating