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Influencing & Leading

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A guide for effective leadership.

A guide for effective leadership.

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  • 1. Influencing and Leading Chapter 13 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  • 2. Chapter Objectives
    • Identify and describe eight generic influence tactics used in modern organizations.
    • Identify the five bases of power and explain what it takes to make empowerment work.
    • Explain the concept of emotional intelligence in terms of Goleman’s four leadership traits.
    • Summarize what the Ohio State model and the Leadership Grid® have taught managers about leadership.
  • 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
    • Describe the path-goal theory of leadership, and explain how the assumption on which it is based differs from the assumptions on which Fiedler’s contingency theory is based.
    • Identify the two key functions that mentors perform, and explain how a mentor can develop a junior manager’s leadership skills.
  • 4. Influence Tactics in the Workplace
    • Influence
      • Any attempt by a person to change the behavior of superiors, peers, or lower-level employees.
        • Is not inherently good or bad.
        • Can be used for purely selfish reasons.
        • Can be used to subvert organizational objectives.
        • Can be used to enhance organizational effectiveness.
      • Gender appears to play no significant role in the choice of influence tactic.
  • 5. Influence Tactics in the Workplace (cont’d)
    • Eight Generic Influence Tactics
      • Consultation
      • Rational persuasion
      • Inspirational appeals
      • Ingratiating tactics
      • Coalition tactics
      • Pressure tactics
      • Upward appeals
      • Exchange tactics
  • 6. Power
    • What Is Power?
      • The ability to marshal the human, informational, and material resources to get something done.
      • Power affects
        • Decisions
        • Behavior
        • Situations
  • 7. Power (cont’d)
    • What Is Power?
      • Types of power
        • Power over: the ability to dominate.
        • Power to: ability to act freely.
        • Power from: ability to resist the demands of others.
  • 8. Power (cont’d)
    • Five Bases of Power
      • Reward power: having the ability to grant rewards.
      • Coercive power: gaining compliance through threats or punishment.
      • Legitimate power: gaining compliance based on the power associated with holding a superior position.
      • Referent power: gaining compliance based on charisma or personal identification.
      • Expert power: gaining compliance based on the ability to dispense valued information.
  • 9. Power (cont’d)
    • Empowerment
      • Making employees full partners in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards.
        • Power is viewed as an unlimited resource.
        • Traditional authoritarian managers feel threatened.
      • Threats to empowerment
        • Dishonesty
        • Untrustworthiness
        • Selfishness
        • Inadequate skills
  • 10. Leadership
    • Leadership Defined
      • The process of inspiring, influencing, and guiding others to participate in a common effort.
    • Formal Leadership
      • The process of influencing relevant others to pursue official organizational objectives.
    • Informal Leadership
      • The process of influencing other to pursue unofficial objectives that may or may not serve the organization’s interests.
  • 11. Figure 13.1 The Evolution of Leadership Theory
  • 12. Leadership (cont’d)
    • Trait Theory
      • The search for universal traits possessed by all leaders.
      • An early review 100 trait studies found moderate agreement on five traits common to leaders
        • Intelligence
        • Scholarship
        • Dependability in exercising responsibilities
        • Activity and social participation
        • Socioeconomic status
  • 13. Leadership (cont’d)
    • A Modern Trait Profile: Leaders with Emotional Intelligence
      • Emotional Intelligence (EI): the ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex social settings.
      • Leadership traits associated with EI
        • Self-awareness
        • Self-management
        • Social awareness
        • Relationship management
  • 14. Leadership (cont’d)
    • The Controversy Over Male and Female Leadership Traits
      • Rosener’s research: Female leaders are better at sharing power and information.
        • Later research found no significant differences in the leadership styles of men and women.
        • Women did not fit the female stereotype.
        • Men did not fit the male stereotype.
  • 15. Leadership (cont’d)
    • Behavioral Styles Theory
      • WWII studies of the patterns of leader behaviors (leadership styles) rather than who the leader was (traits).
        • Democratic style
        • Authoritarian style
        • Laissez-faire (hands-off style)
  • 16. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership
    • The Ohio State Model
      • Initiating structure: leader’s efforts to get things organized and get things done.
      • Consideration: the degree of trust, friendship, respect, and warmth that the leader extended to subordinates.
      • Identified four leadership styles
        • Low structure, high consideration
        • High structure, high consideration
        • Low structure, low consideration
        • High structure, low consideration
  • 17. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership (cont’d)
    • The Leadership Grid®
      • The belief that there is one best style of leadership.
        • Concern for production: the desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profits.
        • Concern for people: promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people.
  • 18. Behavioral Styles Theories of Leadership (cont’d)
    • The Leadership Grid® Styles
      • 9, 1 style: primary concern for production; people secondary.
      • 1, 9 style: primary concern for people; production secondary.
      • 1, 1 style: minimal concern for production or people
      • 5, 5 style: moderate concern for both production and people to maintain the status quo.
      • 9, 9 style: high concern for both production and people (commitment, trust, and teamwork)
  • 19. Situational Theories of Leadership
    • Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
      • Performance of the leader depends on:
        • the degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence ( favorableness of the situation ).
        • the leader’s basic motivation to either accomplish the task or having supportive relationships with others ( task or relationship motivation ).
      • The challenge is to match the leader with a suitable situation: easier to move the leader than to change the leader’s style.
  • 20. Situational Theories of Leadership (cont’d)
    • Path-Goal Theory
      • Derived from expectancy motivation theory.
      • Effective leaders enhance employee motivation by
        • clarifying perceptions of work goals.
        • linking rewards to goal attainment.
        • explaining how goals and rewards can be achieved.
      • Leadership styles
        • Directive  Supportive
        • Participative  Achievement-oriented
  • 21. Transformational Leadership Theory
    • Transformational leaders
      • Are capable of charting new courses for their organization.
      • Are visionaries who challenge people to do exceptional things, above and beyond the plan.
    • Transactional leaders
      • Monitor people to see that they do the expected, according to plan in order to maintain the status quo.
      • Get people to do things by offering a reward or threatening them with a punishment.
  • 22. Servant Leaders: Putting to Work What You’ve Learned
    • The Servant Leader (Greenleaf)
      • An ethical person who put others—not herself or himself—in the foreground.
      • Characteristics
        • Are servants first
        • Inspire trust
        • Are masters of feedback
        • Emphasize personal development
        • Articulate goals
        • Know how to listen
        • Rely on foresight
  • 23. Mentoring
    • Learning from a Mentor
      • Mentor: someone who develops another person through tutoring, coaching, and guidance.
    • Dynamics of Mentoring
      • Mentoring’s key functions
        • Serving as a career enhancement function.
        • Providing psychological support.