Communicating For Results
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Communicating For Results

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Better results are achieved through better communication.An analysis on effective communication.

Better results are achieved through better communication.An analysis on effective communication.

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  • 1. Communicating for Results Chapter 10 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  • 2. Chapter Objectives
    • Identify each major link in the communication process, and explain the concept of media richness.
    • Identify the five communication strategies and specify guidelines for using them.
    • Discuss why it is important for managers to know about grapevine and nonverbal communication.
    • Explain ways in which management can encourage upward communication.
  • 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
    • List two practical tips for each of the three modern communication technologies (e-mail, cell phones, and videoconferences), and summarize the pros and cons of telecommuting.
    • List at least three practical tips for improving each of the following communication skills: listening, writing, and running a meeting.
  • 4. The Importance of Communications
    • Effective communications help individuals to understand and pursue organizational objectives.
    • Organizational communications cover every management function.
    • Organizational culture depends on communications.
    • Communications improve both organizational and individual performance.
  • 5. The Communication Process
    • Communication
      • The interpersonal transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.
        • A linked social process of sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback.
  • 6. Figure 10.1 The Basic Communication Process
  • 7. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Encoding
      • Translating internal thought patterns into a language or code the intended receiver of the message will likely understand and/or pay attention to.
        • Choice of words, gestures, or other symbols for encoding depends on the nature of the message.
          • Technical or nontechnical
          • Emotional or factual
          • Visual or auditory
        • Cultural diversity can create encoding challenges.
  • 8. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Selecting a Medium
      • Face-to-face conversations
      • Telephone calls
      • E-mails
      • Memorandums
      • Letters
      • Computer reports
      • Photographs
      • Bulletin boards
      • Meetings
      • Organizational publications
      • News releases
      • Press conferences
      • Advertising
  • 9. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Media Selection in Cross-Cultural Settings
      • Moving between low- and high-context cultures can create appropriate media selection problems.
        • In low-context cultures, the verbal content of the message is more important than the medium through which it is delivered.
        • In high-context cultures, the context (setting) in which the message is delivered is more important than the literal words of the message.
  • 10. A Contingency Approach (Lengel and Daft)
    • Media richness
      • A given medium’s capacity to convey information and promote learning.
      • Characteristics of rich mediums
          • Provide simultaneous multiple information cues.
          • Facilitate immediate feedback.
          • Have a personal focus.
      • Characteristics of lean mediums
          • Convey limited information (few cues).
          • Provide no immediate feedback.
          • Are impersonal.
  • 11. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Decoding
      • Successful decoding depends on the receiver having
        • a willingness to receive the message.
        • knowledge of the language and terminology used in the message.
        • an understanding of the sender’s purpose and background situation.
  • 12. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Feedback
      • The choice factors for the form to provide feedback are the same factors governing the encoding process.
      • Feedback affects the form and content of follow-up communication.
      • Effective feedback is timely, relevant, and personal.
  • 13. The Communication Process (cont’d)
    • Noise
      • Noise: any interference with the normal flow of communication.
      • Understanding decreases as noise increases.
      • Dealing with noise
        • Make messages more understandable.
        • Minimize and neutralize sources of interference.
  • 14. Dynamics of Organizational Communication
    • Communication Strategies
      • Spray & Pray
        • Impersonal and one-way communications (lectures).
      • Tell & Sell
        • A restricted set of messages with explanations for their importance and relevance.
      • Underscore & Explore
        • Information and issues that are keys to organizational success are discussed and explained.
  • 15. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)
    • Communication Strategies (cont’d)
      • Identify & Reply
        • Responding to employee concerns about prior organizational communications.
      • Withhold & Uphold
        • Telling employees only what they need to know when you think they need to know it.
  • 16. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)
    • Seeking a Middle-Ground (Communication Strategy)
      • Avoid Spray & Pray and Withhold & Uphold.
      • Use Tell & Sell and Identify & Reply sparingly.
      • Use Underscore & Explore as much as possible.
    • Merging Communication Strategies and Media Richness
      • Managers need to select the richest medium possible when employing Tell & Sell, Identify & Reply, and Underscore & Explore strategies.
  • 17. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)
    • The Grapevine
      • The unofficial and informal communication system in an organization
    • Managerial Attitudes Toward the Grapevine
      • Managers have predominately negative feelings about the grapevine.
      • The grapevine is more prevalent at lower-levels of the managerial hierarchy.
      • The grapevine appears to be more influential in larger organizations.
  • 18. Dynamics of Organizational Communication (cont’d)
    • Coping with the Grapevine
      • Managers can keep abreast of grapevine communications by regularly conversing with known gatekeepers.
      • The grapevine cannot be extinguished; attempts to stifle the grapevine as likely to stimulate it instead.
      • Monitoring and officially correcting grapevine information is perhaps the best strategy for coping with the grapevine.
  • 19. Nonverbal Communication
    • Body Language
      • Nonverbal communication based on facial expressions, posture, and appearance.
    • Types of Body Language
      • Facial
      • Gestural
      • Postural
    • Receiving Nonverbal Communication
      • Awareness of nonverbal cues can give insight into deep-seated emotions.
  • 20. Nonverbal Communication (cont’d)
    • Giving Nonverbal Feedback
      • Nonverbal feedback from authority figures significantly affects employee behavior.
        • Smiles, positive head nods, and eye contact
        • Frowns, head shaking, and avoiding eye contact
      • Positive feedback builds good interpersonal relations
      • Sensitivity and cross-cultural training can reduce nonverbal errors when working with individuals from other cultures.
  • 21. Upward Communication
    • Upward Communication
      • The process of encouraging employees to share their feelings and ideas with management.
    • Options for Improving Upward Communications
      • Formal grievance procedures
      • Employee attitude and opinion surveys
      • Suggestion systems
      • Open-door policy
      • Informal meetings
      • Internet chat rooms
      • Exit interviews
  • 22. Communicating in the Online Workplace
    • Getting a Handle on E-mail
      • Put short messages in the subject line.
      • Be sparing with graphics and attachments.
      • Never assume privacy with company e-mail.
      • Workplace e-mail is for business only.
      • Typing in ALL CAPS is considered shouting.
      • Use bullet lists for brevity and clarity.
      • Inform recipients when no reply is needed.
      • Save only e-mail that is likely to be needed again.
      • Always include your name in the message.
  • 23. Hello! Can We Talk?
    • Cellular Telephones
      • Advantages: mobility and convenience.
      • Disadvantages: distracted drivers and disturbing calls in public places, and the risk of disclosing private information.
  • 24. Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d)
    • Video Conferences
      • A live television exchange between people in different locations that reduces costly and possibly dangerous travel time.
      • Video conferencing tips:
        • Test the system and the seating setup beforehand.
        • Dress for the occasion.
        • Introduce everyone.
        • Speak loudly and clearly.
        • Keep background noises to a minimum.
  • 25. Communicating in the Online Workplace (cont’d)
    • Telecommuting
      • Sending work to and from one’s office via a computer modem while working at home.
      • The key to successful telecommuting is selecting the jobs and the employees best suited for working away from the office.
  • 26. Becoming a Better Communicator
    • Effective Listening
      • Tolerate silence; keep listening.
      • Ask stimulating, open-ended questions.
      • Encourage the speaker with attentive eye contact, alert posture, and verbal encouragers.
      • Paraphrase what you have just heard.
      • Show emotion to show your sympathy with speaker.
      • Know your biases and prejudices.
      • Avoid premature judgments.
      • Summarize by reiterating what the speaker said.
  • 27. Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d)
    • Effective Writing
      • Effective writing is the product of regular practice
        • Keep words simple.
        • Don’t sacrifice communication to rules of composition.
        • Write concisely.
        • Be specific.
  • 28. Becoming a Better Communicator (cont’d)
    • Running Meetings
      • Prepare ahead of time.
      • Have a reason for the meeting.
      • Distribute an agenda.
      • Give participants at least a day’s notice.
      • Limit attendance and designate a leader.
      • Have a specific start and end time.
      • Encourage participation but keep to the agenda.
      • Use visual aids.
      • Follow up.