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PE SG Revision Activities and The Body
 

PE SG Revision Activities and The Body

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    PE SG Revision Activities and The Body PE SG Revision Activities and The Body Presentation Transcript

    • Physical Education Department Standard Grade
    •  
    • Activities
      • Types of activities
      • Activities-different roles
      • Equipment for activities
      • Rules and codes of conduct
      • Scoring systems
      • Tactics and strategies
      • Being creative in activities
      • Size and shape
      • Adapting activities
    • 1. Types of activities
      • Activities can be:
      • Individual
      • OR
      • Team
    • 1. Types of activities
      • Individual activities can be performed by one person, for example, table tennis
      • Or
      • Individual activities can be performed totally alone, for example, golf
    • 1. Types of activities
      • A team may consist of only two people as in ice dancing.
      • However
      • A team may have many members, as in rugby union
    • Lacrosse, association football, Squash, wrestling Lots of team mates ‘ on my own’ Badminton doubles, 4 man bobsleigh 2,3 or 4 team-mates Team activity Pistol shooting, archery Totally alone Individual activity
    • 1. Types of activities
      • Activities can be competitive or non-competitive.
      • A competitive activity is a contest involving two or more rivals. Each rival tries to win.
      • A non-competitive activity involves performers who take part for self-satisfaction (sense of achievement, thrill, fitness, enjoyment, etc)
    • 1. Types of activities
      • Contests are either:
      • Directly competitive
      • You have a direct bearing or influence on what your opponent does.
      • OR
      • Indirectly competitive
      • Your performance does not affect the performance of your opponent
    • Team indirectly competitive Team directly competitive Team non-competitive Individual indirectly competitive Individual directly competitive Individual non-competitive 4 in a team, must stay in lane, only way to win is by running faster than the opposition 4 x 100m relay 6 ’ 11 v 11’, can play tactically, can attack and defend; a ‘versus’ activity Hockey 5 For safety reasons, go with at least one companion; a self satisfying activity Hill walking 4 Alone, absolutely powerless to affect the performance of competitors Orienteering 3 ‘ 1 v1’, a ‘combat’ activity, involving hands on contact Judo 2 Alone; a self-satisfying activity, often for fitness reasons Jogging 1 Description Example Type of activity
    • 2-Different Roles
      • Throughout the Standard Grade course you will adopt a variety of roles other than ‘performer’
    • I timed a basketball match, stopping the clock every time the ball went out of play. Basketball Official I scored a game of badminton, awarding a point only when the rally was won by the server Badminton Team-mate Opponent I refereed a 10 minute game. I blew for free hits when the rules were broken. Hockey I played the ball with a variety of shots, angles and spins, making my shots difficult for my opponent to return. Table Tennis I bound together with 2 team mates to form the front row of a scrum. Working as a unit with our scrum half, we managed to retain possession of the ball. Rugby Union I used a skills checklist to note my partners performance and suggested ways to make it better Tennis I provided ‘passive opposition’ in a ‘3 v 1’ coaching grid exercise Associated Football I fed the ball accurately and repeatedly for my partner to dig pass Volleyball I Supported my partner’s hips in a headstand, until she was balanced Gymnastics Helper
    • 3-Equipment for activities
      • There are two main reasons why the wearing of proper clothing, footwear or equipment is important:
      • Be safe
      • AND
      • To help your performance
    • 3-Equipment for activities
      • SAFETY
      • In some activities you must wear certain items for safety, for example, a batsman’s leg pads in cricket.
      • In other activities some items are only recommended, for example. A mouth guard in rugby.
      • Some people need very special equipment to be safe, for example, a hockey goal keeper
    • 3-Equipment for activities
      • HELPING PERFORMANCE
      • Improvements in the design of equipment have helped both beginners and world champions. For example:
      • Reducing the weight of a piece of equipment but maintaining its power. This has been achieved in sports like golf and tennis where clubs and rackets are now made from graphite.
      • Improving grip or friction to improve a skill or speed; for example, goalkeepers’ gloves or running shoes
      • Reducing friction (improving slide or glide); for example skiing. Much work has gone into the design and maintenance of skis to make you go faster. A wide range of waxes is available; they are applied to the ski sole to aid speed and control according to the snow conditions
    • 4.Rules and codes of conduct
      • A competitor in shot putt must begin and end his putt within a specified area ( the ‘circle’). He is not allowed to overstep the kick board at the front of the circle. The shot must be pushed, not thrown, must land within a specified scoring area, and must be identical to all other shots used by all the competitors.
      • What effect does rules like these have on this activity
      • These rules ensure that all competitors have an equal chance of winning
    • 4-Rules and codes of conduct
      • In football when a attacker is ‘brought down’ by a defenders unfair tackle.
      • Why will the referee stop play ?
      • The defender has made an illegal challenge, preventing the attacker from being successful.
      • Why does the rule like this exist ?
      • To keep the activity as safe as possible for all performers-illegal challenges often cause injury
    • 4-Rules and codes of conduct
      • Shaping activities
      • In netball only the goal shooter and the goal attack players are allowed to shoot. Only the goal keeper and the goal defence players are allowed to defend in the circle.
      • What effect does this rule have on the game ?
      • It shapes the game, by preventing the scoring area from being crowded. Attacking situation are therefore always 2 v 2
    • 4-Rules and codes of conduct
      • Codes of conduct
      • A code of conduct gives details of how an individual or team should behave. A code of conduct, which may be unwritten, stresses good behaviour. Performers ho fail to follow the code are sad to be badly behaved or unsportsmanlike.
    • 5-Scoring Systems
      • There are two types of scoring systems:
      • Objective Scoring
      • OR
      • Subjective Scoring
    • 5-Scoring Systems
      • Objective
      • In objective scoring, a number value is either counted or measured.
      • Goals, points, runs and strokes can all be counted.
      • Time is measured by a stopwatch; distance and height are measured by tape measure; and weight is measured in scales.
      • Objective scoring is based on fact .
    • 5-Scoring Systems
      • Subjective Scoring
      • In subjective scoring, judges score a performance out of a possible maximum.
      • They compare the actual performance to a perfect performance
      • Any mistake is penalised by the deduction of marks.
      • Subjective scoring is based on opinion.
    • Different scoring measurements Height Time Objective points Weight Runs Strokes Subjective points Goals Distance Pole vault 9 5,000m 8 Tennis 7 Weight lifting 6 Cricket 5 Golf 4 Gymnastics 3 Handball 2 Long jump 1 Low score best High score best Measurements
    • 6-Tactics and strategies
      • In all competitive activities, the aim is to win.
      • Competitors hope to make the most of their own strengths whilst exploiting the weaknesses of the opposition.
      • A variety of tactics and strategies can be used to outwit and outmanoeuvre opponents.
      • Before the activity begins, most competitors have a ‘game-plan’ in mind. A game plan can be adapted during play or at official stoppages.
    • 6-Tactics and strategies
      • Examples:
      • In racket games, a player tries to make his opponent move in order to create space for a winning shot.
      • In target activities, for example bowls. The players don’t always play to ‘hit the target’ A player can prevent an opponent from having a clear route by intentionally playing a short ‘blocker’ bowl. Also, a bowl delivered with force can be used to break up an opponents’ good position.
    • 7-Being creative in activities
      • What do these activities have in common ?
      • Each performer moves in response to a musical stimulus
      • The rehearsed actions are linked together to form a routine of quality movements
      • Each performer uses his or her body as a means of self expression
      • The final performance is shaped by both the music and the interpretation of it by the performer
      • If the activity is competitive, the scoring system will be subjective
    • 7-Being creative in activities
      • All movement can be analysed in terms of weight, time, flow and space.
      • Weight-The degree of power
      • Firm movement fine touch
      • Time-How quickly an action is performed
      • Sudden sustained
      • Flow-the way in which one action links to the next
      • Free Bound
    • 7-Being creative in activities
      • Space-’where’ the action takes place
      • high
      • Forward
      • To the left
      • Backwards
      • to the right
      • deep
    • 7-Being creative in activities High Sideways Low Wide Smooth Jerky Fluent Stopping Fast Held Quick Soft Light Firm Delicate Strong Heavy Space Flow Time Weight
    • 8-Size and Shape
      • Classifying body shape
      • The classification of body shape is known as somatotyping . A body shape is measured in terms of three features:
      • Endomorphy (round)
      • Mesomorphy (muscular)
      • Ectomorphy (lean and long)
    • 8-Size and Shape
      • Endomorph
      • A stock body; large and round; a short, thick neck; short arms and legs; considerable body fat.
      • Mesomorph
      • A muscular body; strongly build; broad chest and shoulder; very muscular arms and legs; little body fat
      • Ectomorph
      • A narrow body; wiry muscles; tall and thin; spindly arms and legs; little body fat
    • 9-Adapting Activities
      • Adapting activities (Example)
      • Association football
      • The playing area
      • The full-size pitch can be divided into smaller pitches. For example, the halfway line conveniently splits the pitch into two –both games can be played ‘across’ the pitch at the same time.
      • The equipment
      • Younger players should use a smaller, lighter ball: a size 3 or 4 instead of the adult size 5. Young goalkeepers have difficulty making saves in adult goals. Smaller goals are better; the posts are closer together and the crossbar is lower.
      • The playing season
      • Although the weather cannot be changed, the playing season can. Association football is one of Britain’s traditional winter games ( August to May). If youngsters played from April to October, the worst of the British winter weather would be avoided.
    • 9-Adapting Activities
      • Continued:
      • The rules
      • Younger players only need basic rules. Complex rules would confuse them and prevent the game from flowing. For example, youngsters can play without offside.
      • Number of players
      • The adult game has 22 players. Therefore, on average, a player touches the ball once every 22 times. If youngsters play a small sided, e.g. ‘3v3’, ‘4v4’ or ‘5v5’. Each player should touch the ball more often, This leads to skills being mastered. There is also less chance of any player being left out.
      • Time
      • The adult game has two halves of 45 minutes. It is more appropriate for youngsters to play a shorter game, perhaps 2x25minutes.
    • Standard Grade The Body in Action
    • The Body in Action
      • Fitness overview
      • The skeletal and muscular systems
      • The cardio-respiratory systems
      • Endurance
      • Strength fitness
      • Power
      • Speed
      • Flexibility
      • Preparing for action
    • 1. Fitness overview
      • What is fitness?
      • ‘ Being fit means being able to cope with the demands of your activity ’
      • The type of fitness depends on the activity. One activity may require a lot of strength, for example, shot putt. Another might need more cardio-respiratory endurance; for example, long-distance running.
      • The level of fitness you need depends on your reason for taking part-low lever for ‘enjoyment’ and ‘meeting friends’, high level for ‘keeping fit’ and ‘competing at the top level’
    • The Body in Action
      • Fitness Factors
      • Health-related Fitness
      • Skill related fitness
      • Cardio-respiratory Endurance
      • Flexibility
      • Muscular endurance
      • Strength
      • Agility
      • Balance
      • Co-ordination
      • Reaction time
      • speed
    • The Body in Action
      • Improving Fitness
      • To impress fitness a planned programme of training is need. In any programme, you need to gradually work the body harder, more often and for longer than it is used to. This is known as ‘overload’, and is based on three important principles of training:
      • Intensity
      • Frequency
      • Duration
    • The Body in Action
      • Principles of Training
      • Frequency
      • Decide on how many training sessions you will undertake each week
      • Intensity
      • Decide how hard you will work during each training session
      • Duration
      • Decided how long you will spend on each training session
    • The Body in Action
      • Other principles
      • As you become stronger, your workload and work rate should be steadily increased to ensure you sill overload the muscles. This is known as the principle of progression .
      • In planning any programme, you will need to choose exercises which suit the specific demands of the activity. This is known as the principle of specificity.
      • What happens if you stop training?
      • When you stop, you quickly lose your level of fitness. This is known as the principle of reversibility.
    • 2-The skeletal and muscular systems
      • Bones and muscles
      • The bones in the body form the skeletal system. This provides a framework for the body. This framework provides support for muscles; it also protects vital organs. Together, the bones and muscles allow the body to move.
      • Joints
      • Joints are where two or more bones meet. There are three types of joint:
      • Fixed
      • Slightly movable
      • Freely movable
      • The most common is the freely movable joint which allows movement in one or more directions.
    • 2-The skeletal and muscular systems
      • The freely movable joint
      • The freely movable joint is protected in four ways.
      • Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant, reducing friction between the bones.
      • Cartilage, covering the ends of bones, helps to reduce stress or strain by making the bone surface smooth
      • The muscles which act on the joint help to make it stable
      • Ligaments hold the connecting bones together, and prevent over-twisting and over-stretching.
    • 2-The skeletal and muscular systems
      • The freely movable joint
      • The knee is a hinge joint-it can only ‘open and close’ like the hinge on a door. A skier makes good use of this hinge action
      • The shoulder is a ball and socket joint-it allows movement and rotation in all directions. A javelin thrower needs this range of movement in order to throw as far as possible
    • 2-The skeletal and muscular systems
      • Tendons
      • A muscle for movement is known as a skeletal muscle. Each skeletal muscle is attached to a bone at one end, and to a different bone at the other, by tendons.
      • Tendons play an important part in movement. One tendon is attached to a bone that does not move. This point is known as the origin. The other tendon is attached to a bone which moves. This point is known as the insertion. As a muscle contracts, it shortens in length, pulling on the bone which moves.
    • 2-The skeletal and muscular systems
      • Movement can be explained using the following example of an arm bending. The muscles that causes the movement is called a prime mover or agonist . Usually another muscle works in the opposite direction at the same time. This muscle is known as the antagonist muscle . In our example, the biceps is the agonist and the triceps is the antagonist. Many skills are based on the way muscles can work together in pairs.
    • 3-Cardio-respiratory System
      • Why is oxygen important?
      • Your body needs a regular supply of oxygen to stay alive
      • Working muscles need energy which is supplied by oxygen
      • There is an increase in the amount of oxygen needed as an activity becomes more demanding
      • How does oxygen reach the muscles ?
      • The body’s respiratory and circulatory systems work together to provide the muscles with oxygen. This is known as the oxygen transport system .
    • 3-Cardio-respiratory System
      • The respiratory system
      • The respiratory system consists of the breathing passages from your nose to your lungs.
      • As you breathe in, oxygen in the air enters your lungs. There, oxygen is absorbed into your blood. It is carried all around your body to your cells which need energy to live and work.
      • When your cells make energy, a waste product called carbon dioxide is produced. This is carried by the blood back to the lungs, and is removed from your body when you breathe out.
      • Breathing is controlled automatically by the brain-you breathe without thinking about it.
    • 3-Cardio-respiratory System
      • The circulatory system
      • The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessels. It is continuous systems through which the blood flows around the body. Pulmonary circulation takes blood from the heart to the lungs, and back to the heart. Systematic circulation takes blood from the heart, around the body and back to the heart.
    • 3-Cardio-respiratory System
      • What is the main benefit of an improved oxygen transport system ?
      • With improvement, the body is more able to cope with exercise. As a person becomes fitter, less effort is needed for the same amount of work.
      • A regular programme of training will improve the efficiency of the heart and lungs.
      • One improvement
      • The size of the heart will increase. As the body’s pump becomes bigger, more blood can be pushed along the vessels per beat (more blood=more oxygen)
    • 4-Endurance
      • There are two types of endurance:
      • Cardio-respiratory Endurance
      • And
      • Muscular Endurance
    • 4-Endurance
      • Cardio-respiratory Endurance
      • Some performers need their whole body to work continuously-for example, a middle distance athlete.
      • This is known as cardio-respiratory endurance because it makes extra demands on the heart (‘cardio’) and the lungs (‘respiratory’, from ‘respiration’)
      • Whole-body work is ‘aerobic’-working with oxygen.
    • 4-Endurance
      • Why is cardio-respiratory important ?
      • Many games and sports involve a considerable amount of running, often for long periods of time. Whole-body activity like this needs a high level of cardio-respiratory endurance.
      • What are the benefits of an improved level of cardio-respiratory endurance?
      • You can work longer or harder before becoming exhausted
      • You can do the same amount of work with less effort
      • You recover from work more quickly
    • 4-Endurance
      • Cardio-respiratory endurance can be improved through training.
      • The aim of the training programme is to improve the efficiency of the heart and lungs. An efficient cardio-respiratory system provides sufficient oxygen to match the demands of the working muscles.
      • What are the results of training ?
      • The lungs will be more effective-there is an increase in the amount of air taken in each breath (vital capacity)
      • The size of the heart will increase, allowing more blood to be pumped per beat (stroke volume)
      • More oxygen will reach the muscles more quickly, allowing a person to work longer or harder (aerobic threshold)
    • 4-Endurance
      • What happens if you do not have enough energy to keep working ?
      • If the amount or level of work is too demanding, you become unable to supply the working muscles with enough oxygen. From this point onwards, you work anaerobically -without a supply of oxygen. This lack of oxygen is known as ‘ oxygen debt ’
      • As you work anaerobically, lactic acid builds up in the muscles. This causes pain, and lessens the ability of the muscles to contract
      • The anaerobic system can be improved with training. An improved anaerobic system makes a person more able to cope with lactic acid and continue to work.
    • 4-Endurance
      • Improving cardio-respiratory
      • Before planning a training programme, decide on the level of fitness needed for your activity.
      • Work at a moderate level for long periods
      • A mix of moderate and higher levels of activity
      • A sustained period of intense activity.
      • Aerobic training is based on working the cardio-respiratory system in a more demanding way on a regular basis. Ti is important to find out your ‘ training zone ’
    • 4-Endurance
    • 4-Endurance
      • Improving cardio-respiratory endurance
      • For example, the training zone for a 16 year old would be worked out as follows:
      • Max 220-16(age)=204
      • 60% of 204=122
      • 85% of 204=173
      • The training zone is therefore from 122 up to 173 beats per minute.
      • Cardio-respiratory endurance will improve if the heart rate is raised into the training zone, and kept there, for 20 minutes.
    • 4-Endurance
      • There are three main types of running training:
      • Long continuous running
      • This can be increased gradually in terms of speed or distance. It will provide the basis for aerobic endurance needed in many activities.
      • Varied pace running
      • This involves steady continuous running and a series of faster runs or sprints, and therefore combines aerobic and anaerobic endurance. This is known as ‘ fartleck ’ training.
      • Interval running
      • This involves a number of runs over specific distances in a certain tie, with only a short rest or recovery in between. Interval running can improve both aerobic and anaerobic endurance.
    • 4-Endurance
      • Muscular Endurance
      • Some performers need a muscle or a group of muscles to work continuously. This is known as muscular endurance .
      • For example, muscular endurance in the arms and shoulders is needed in canoeing.
    • 4-Endurance
      • Improving muscular endurance
      • The more often you make a muscle perform, the less likely it is to become exhausted. Overloading muscles will provide more oxygen, and gradually their ability to cope will improve.
      • Circuit training is a popular way of improving muscular endurance. A basic circuit has four, five or fix stations; a full station has a maximum of ten.
      • The exercises at each station should be appropriate to the muscles groups used in the activity.
      • The circuit may involve only ‘body weight’ exercises-0here, the resistance is the body weight of the performer.
    • 4-Endurance
      • Continued:
      • Four popular body weigh exercises are:
      • Press up
      • Step up
      • Sit-up
      • dips
      • Most circuits are based on time or number :
      • Time
      • Build up the time spent on each exercise
      • Reduce the rest time between each exercise
      • Number 1
      • Find out the maximum number of repetitions you can do for each exercise
      • Follow a training programme, three sessions a week, three circuits each time, doing half-maximum repetitions
      • Regularly re-test to find out your maximum for each exercise (and therefore increase workload)
      • Number 2
      • Find out the maximum number of repetitions you can do for each exercise.
      • From this decided whether you follow the low, moderate or high level circuit (low to high number of repetitions)
      • Colour-coding is often used-for example, red=low, blue=moderate, and green=high
      • Regular re-test to find out if you can move up a level
    • 5-Strength
      • “ Strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle, or group of muscles, can exert in a single effort. The amount of force depends on the size of the muscle. The larger the muscle, the stronger it is.”
    • 5-Strength
      • Why is strength important ?
      • All physical activities require a performer to have some strength. However, strength is most important when heavy weights need to be held, lifted, carried or thrown. (sometimes the heavy weight can be the performers own body, the body of a partner or an opponent.)
    • 5-Strength
      • There are two types of contraction
      • Isometric contraction
      • Here, the working muscles contract to hold the body still-no movement takes place. For example, the handstand position
      • Isotonic contraction
      • Here, the working muscles produce body movement as they contract and relax. For example, a press-up involves the bending and straightening of the arms (flexion and extension of the elbow joint)
    • 5-Strength
      • How can muscle strength be improved ?
      • A training programme can be devised to improve strength in most major muscle groups.
      • Any programme will be based on progressive resistance.
      • Here, you overload the working muscle by placing a resistance, usually a weight or load, against it. This resistance is gradually increased as the muscle becomes stronger.
    • 5-Strength
      • What types of strength training are there ?
      • Isotmetric exercises
      • This involves a series of static exercises where muscles are held tense and still; for example, a person hanging on a bar. Isometric exercising is rare today.
      • Isotonic exercises
      • It is now thought better to follow a programme of exercises which are similar in action to the activity for which the performer is training. These exercises are known as isotonic exercises. They involve specially designed weight machines or free standing weights.
    • 5-Strength
      • Continued:
      • Weight machines are expensive but safe. They include exercises to develop a wide range of muscle groups.
      • Isokinetics
      • The latest weight machines have been developed to control the speed of the exercise. They can vary the resistance throughout the full range of movement to maintain the same muscle tension
      • Free standing weights
      • Free standing weights are more limited and take time to assemble. A partner is needed for safety reasons.
    • 5-Strength
      • How do you plan a strength training programme?
      • Decide which muscle groups you wish to make stronger
      • Select the type of training programme to be used
      • Select the exercises to be used
      • A strength programme should be based on high workloads (resistances) and few repetitions. All programmes need the following:
      • Name……………………….
      • Workload (70-80% of your maximum capacity)
      • Repetitions ( between 4 and 6)
      • Sets (build up to at least 4)
      • Exercises (begin with 3 or 4)
      • Each session should last at least 30 minutes. If you do three sessions a week, you should see a significant improvement in eight weeks. Plan a rest day between each session
    • 5-Strength
      • What is ‘speed’ strength?
      • Strength is an important part of power. Power can be described as ‘fast strength’.
      • When working on a strength programme, the speed of each contraction can vary. Sometimes this depends on the muscle group being used. The slower the repetition, the more effective it becomes in improving strength. In exercising, you may find it helpful to work at the same speed as that used when performing a specific skill.
    • 6-Power
      • What is power?
      • “ Power is the combination of strength and speed. Power is increased by using more strength or speed ”
      • Explosive power is when you use your maximum (or near maximum) strength and speed.
      • Why is power important in physical activities?
      • Power is needed to perform many physical skills. The main sources of power in the body are the working muscles of the arms in legs.
    • 6-Power
      • Power is needed:
      • To push a performer as fast, as high or as far as possible
      • To hit, kick or throw an object or implement as fast or as far as possible
    • 6-Power
      • Improving your power
      • Power can be improved by undertaking a training programme. This would include speed work and exercises to improve the strength of muscles.
      • Measuring power
      • Tests have been designed to assess power, for example, a standing long jump measures leg power.
    • 7-Speed
      • What is speed?
      • “ Speed means being able to cover a distance or perform a movement in a short time ”
      • For a sprinter, this can involve the whole body.
      • For others, only part of the body is used. For example, a cricketer must pull his bowling arm forward very quickly.
    • 7-Speed
      • Why is speed important?
      • In many activities, speed is necessary to perform certain skills. In many team games, short bursts of near maximum speed are often needed.
      • Reaction time
      • Reaction time is an important part of speed: it is the length of time from the cue to the first muscular contraction in response. For example a sprinter explodes out of the blocks on hearing the sound of the gun.
      • Improving reaction time
      • Reaction time can best be improved by practising in situations identical or similar to the activity e.g. a series of sprint starts
    • 7-Speed
      • Your running speed depends on a number of factors:
      • Range of movement in ankles, hips and shoulders
      • Strength of muscles (quadricepts, gluteals and gastrocnemius)
      • Stride length and frequency of strides
      • Correct technique
      • Force exerted by leading leg
      • Ability of muscles to cope with build-up of lactic acid
    • 7-Speed
      • Speed can be improved through training. It could include:
      • A programme of strength training. This strengthens the leg muscles, which allows them to contract at a faster rate.
      • A programme of aerobic and anaerobic exercises. An individual is asked to work for extended periods at near maximum. This increases muscular endurance, allowing the muscles to improve their ability to cope with a build-up of lactic acid.
      • A programme of flexibility exercises. This improves flexibility of ankles, hips and shoulders
    • 8-Flexibility
      • What is flexibility ?
      • “ Flexibility is the range of movement across a joint. This gymnast has a poor range of movement across his hip joints ”
      • What type of flexibility is being demonstrated ?
      • They gymnast shows static flexibility, he is attempting to move into, then hold, a fixed position .
    • 8-Flexibility
      • The other type of flexibility is dynamic flexibility.
      • Dynamic flexibility is different from static flexibility because the action being performed is fast and is not held for any time.
      • For example, a karate competitor needs to be able to kick up high and fast. He needs dynamic flexibility instead of static flexibility
    • 8-Flexibility
      • Two other activities requiring flexibility are:
      • Activity 1
      • In rugby, dynamic flexibility in the hips is very important for a goal kicker. A big range of movement across his hips means he has a bigger follow-through which allows him to kick further.
      • Activity 2
      • A freestyle swimmer needs good dynamic flexibility in the shoulder. A big range of movement across the shoulder joints means the swimmer is able to make each stroke bigger. This allows her to swim, further with every stroke
    • 9-Preparing for action
      • “ It is always important to be properly prepared for any activity. For all performers, this means being both physically and mentally ready”.
      • Warm up
      • Before starting any activity, a physical warm up is needed. A warm up prepares you for the work ahead. It helps prevent injuries to muscles, tendons and joints.
      • A warm up should include 2 parts
      • A gradual build up from walking or jogging to light running. This should last for at least 5mins. Your heart rate will increase; more blood and heat will flow to the muscles. Muscles react more quickly when warmed up
      • Moving, circling or stretching the large muscle groups and joints (legs, arms, hips and shoulders)
    • 9-Preparing for action
      • Continued
      • There are two methods of stretching muscles and joints;
      • Static
      • Where the joint or muscle is slowly stretched to its limit
      • Dynamic
      • Where stretching is faster and more vigorous
      • Stretching the muscles has two benefits
      • It allows them to move more easily
      • It improves the flexibility of a joint
      • For some activities a third part to the warm up may be needed. This involves practising the actions or movements which are found in the activity.