A team may consist of only two people as in ice dancing.
A team may have many members, as in rugby union
Lacrosse, association football, Squash, wrestling Lots of team mates ‘ on my own’ Badminton doubles, 4 man bobsleigh 2,3 or 4 team-mates Team activity Pistol shooting, archery Totally alone Individual activity
You have a direct bearing or influence on what your opponent does.
Your performance does not affect the performance of your opponent
Team indirectly competitive Team directly competitive Team non-competitive Individual indirectly competitive Individual directly competitive Individual non-competitive 4 in a team, must stay in lane, only way to win is by running faster than the opposition 4 x 100m relay 6 ’ 11 v 11’, can play tactically, can attack and defend; a ‘versus’ activity Hockey 5 For safety reasons, go with at least one companion; a self satisfying activity Hill walking 4 Alone, absolutely powerless to affect the performance of competitors Orienteering 3 ‘ 1 v1’, a ‘combat’ activity, involving hands on contact Judo 2 Alone; a self-satisfying activity, often for fitness reasons Jogging 1 Description Example Type of activity
Throughout the Standard Grade course you will adopt a variety of roles other than ‘performer’
I timed a basketball match, stopping the clock every time the ball went out of play. Basketball Official I scored a game of badminton, awarding a point only when the rally was won by the server Badminton Team-mate Opponent I refereed a 10 minute game. I blew for free hits when the rules were broken. Hockey I played the ball with a variety of shots, angles and spins, making my shots difficult for my opponent to return. Table Tennis I bound together with 2 team mates to form the front row of a scrum. Working as a unit with our scrum half, we managed to retain possession of the ball. Rugby Union I used a skills checklist to note my partners performance and suggested ways to make it better Tennis I provided ‘passive opposition’ in a ‘3 v 1’ coaching grid exercise Associated Football I fed the ball accurately and repeatedly for my partner to dig pass Volleyball I Supported my partner’s hips in a headstand, until she was balanced Gymnastics Helper
Improvements in the design of equipment have helped both beginners and world champions. For example:
Reducing the weight of a piece of equipment but maintaining its power. This has been achieved in sports like golf and tennis where clubs and rackets are now made from graphite.
Improving grip or friction to improve a skill or speed; for example, goalkeepers’ gloves or running shoes
Reducing friction (improving slide or glide); for example skiing. Much work has gone into the design and maintenance of skis to make you go faster. A wide range of waxes is available; they are applied to the ski sole to aid speed and control according to the snow conditions
A competitor in shot putt must begin and end his putt within a specified area ( the ‘circle’). He is not allowed to overstep the kick board at the front of the circle. The shot must be pushed, not thrown, must land within a specified scoring area, and must be identical to all other shots used by all the competitors.
What effect does rules like these have on this activity
These rules ensure that all competitors have an equal chance of winning
A code of conduct gives details of how an individual or team should behave. A code of conduct, which may be unwritten, stresses good behaviour. Performers ho fail to follow the code are sad to be badly behaved or unsportsmanlike.
In racket games, a player tries to make his opponent move in order to create space for a winning shot.
In target activities, for example bowls. The players don’t always play to ‘hit the target’ A player can prevent an opponent from having a clear route by intentionally playing a short ‘blocker’ bowl. Also, a bowl delivered with force can be used to break up an opponents’ good position.
The full-size pitch can be divided into smaller pitches. For example, the halfway line conveniently splits the pitch into two –both games can be played ‘across’ the pitch at the same time.
Younger players should use a smaller, lighter ball: a size 3 or 4 instead of the adult size 5. Young goalkeepers have difficulty making saves in adult goals. Smaller goals are better; the posts are closer together and the crossbar is lower.
The playing season
Although the weather cannot be changed, the playing season can. Association football is one of Britain’s traditional winter games ( August to May). If youngsters played from April to October, the worst of the British winter weather would be avoided.
Younger players only need basic rules. Complex rules would confuse them and prevent the game from flowing. For example, youngsters can play without offside.
Number of players
The adult game has 22 players. Therefore, on average, a player touches the ball once every 22 times. If youngsters play a small sided, e.g. ‘3v3’, ‘4v4’ or ‘5v5’. Each player should touch the ball more often, This leads to skills being mastered. There is also less chance of any player being left out.
The adult game has two halves of 45 minutes. It is more appropriate for youngsters to play a shorter game, perhaps 2x25minutes.
‘ Being fit means being able to cope with the demands of your activity ’
The type of fitness depends on the activity. One activity may require a lot of strength, for example, shot putt. Another might need more cardio-respiratory endurance; for example, long-distance running.
The level of fitness you need depends on your reason for taking part-low lever for ‘enjoyment’ and ‘meeting friends’, high level for ‘keeping fit’ and ‘competing at the top level’
To impress fitness a planned programme of training is need. In any programme, you need to gradually work the body harder, more often and for longer than it is used to. This is known as ‘overload’, and is based on three important principles of training:
The bones in the body form the skeletal system. This provides a framework for the body. This framework provides support for muscles; it also protects vital organs. Together, the bones and muscles allow the body to move.
Joints are where two or more bones meet. There are three types of joint:
The most common is the freely movable joint which allows movement in one or more directions.
A muscle for movement is known as a skeletal muscle. Each skeletal muscle is attached to a bone at one end, and to a different bone at the other, by tendons.
Tendons play an important part in movement. One tendon is attached to a bone that does not move. This point is known as the origin. The other tendon is attached to a bone which moves. This point is known as the insertion. As a muscle contracts, it shortens in length, pulling on the bone which moves.
Movement can be explained using the following example of an arm bending. The muscles that causes the movement is called a prime mover or agonist . Usually another muscle works in the opposite direction at the same time. This muscle is known as the antagonist muscle . In our example, the biceps is the agonist and the triceps is the antagonist. Many skills are based on the way muscles can work together in pairs.
The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessels. It is continuous systems through which the blood flows around the body. Pulmonary circulation takes blood from the heart to the lungs, and back to the heart. Systematic circulation takes blood from the heart, around the body and back to the heart.
What happens if you do not have enough energy to keep working ?
If the amount or level of work is too demanding, you become unable to supply the working muscles with enough oxygen. From this point onwards, you work anaerobically -without a supply of oxygen. This lack of oxygen is known as ‘ oxygen debt ’
As you work anaerobically, lactic acid builds up in the muscles. This causes pain, and lessens the ability of the muscles to contract
The anaerobic system can be improved with training. An improved anaerobic system makes a person more able to cope with lactic acid and continue to work.
“ Strength is the maximum amount of force a muscle, or group of muscles, can exert in a single effort. The amount of force depends on the size of the muscle. The larger the muscle, the stronger it is.”
All physical activities require a performer to have some strength. However, strength is most important when heavy weights need to be held, lifted, carried or thrown. (sometimes the heavy weight can be the performers own body, the body of a partner or an opponent.)
This involves a series of static exercises where muscles are held tense and still; for example, a person hanging on a bar. Isometric exercising is rare today.
It is now thought better to follow a programme of exercises which are similar in action to the activity for which the performer is training. These exercises are known as isotonic exercises. They involve specially designed weight machines or free standing weights.
Strength is an important part of power. Power can be described as ‘fast strength’.
When working on a strength programme, the speed of each contraction can vary. Sometimes this depends on the muscle group being used. The slower the repetition, the more effective it becomes in improving strength. In exercising, you may find it helpful to work at the same speed as that used when performing a specific skill.
In many activities, speed is necessary to perform certain skills. In many team games, short bursts of near maximum speed are often needed.
Reaction time is an important part of speed: it is the length of time from the cue to the first muscular contraction in response. For example a sprinter explodes out of the blocks on hearing the sound of the gun.
Improving reaction time
Reaction time can best be improved by practising in situations identical or similar to the activity e.g. a series of sprint starts
Speed can be improved through training. It could include:
A programme of strength training. This strengthens the leg muscles, which allows them to contract at a faster rate.
A programme of aerobic and anaerobic exercises. An individual is asked to work for extended periods at near maximum. This increases muscular endurance, allowing the muscles to improve their ability to cope with a build-up of lactic acid.
A programme of flexibility exercises. This improves flexibility of ankles, hips and shoulders
In rugby, dynamic flexibility in the hips is very important for a goal kicker. A big range of movement across his hips means he has a bigger follow-through which allows him to kick further.
A freestyle swimmer needs good dynamic flexibility in the shoulder. A big range of movement across the shoulder joints means the swimmer is able to make each stroke bigger. This allows her to swim, further with every stroke
“ It is always important to be properly prepared for any activity. For all performers, this means being both physically and mentally ready”.
Before starting any activity, a physical warm up is needed. A warm up prepares you for the work ahead. It helps prevent injuries to muscles, tendons and joints.
A warm up should include 2 parts
A gradual build up from walking or jogging to light running. This should last for at least 5mins. Your heart rate will increase; more blood and heat will flow to the muscles. Muscles react more quickly when warmed up
Moving, circling or stretching the large muscle groups and joints (legs, arms, hips and shoulders)