THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT-The Evolutionary Approach- Bowlby’sTheory
Theories ofAttachmentLearningTheoriesInfants have no innatetendency to formattachmentsThey LEARN attachmentsbecause of FOODEvolutionaryTheoriesThe tendency to formattachments is INNATEThis tendency is present inBOTH infants and mothers
What is Evolution?Discussion Point – Using what you know aboutattachment, how might attachmentbehaviour have given our species anincreased chance of survival?John Bowlby (1969) saw humans as being justlike other animals – we need an INNATEtendency to form attachments with acaregiver.This tendency gives us an ADVANTAGE, i.e.,makes it more likely that we will survive.
Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory Attachments are Adaptive. This means they give our species an ‘adaptiveadvantage’, making us more likely to survive. This is because if an infant has an attachment to acaregiver, they are kept safe, given food, and keptwarm. Forms the basis for future relationships which willpromote survival and reproduction.A = ADAPTIVEA S C M I
Babies have Social releasers, which ‘unlock’ theinnate tendency of adults to care for them. These Social releasers are both:1. Physical2. Behavioural – e.g. crying, cooingS =SOCIAL RELEASERSA S C M I
Babies have to form the attachmentwith their caregiver during acritical, sensitive period. This is between birth and 2½ years old. Bowlby said that if this didn’thappen, the child would be damaged forlife and difficulties forming attachmentswill increase.A S C M IC = CRITICAL PERIOD
Bowlby believed that infants form one very specialattachment with their mother (person whoresponses most sensitively to their social releasers). This special, intense attachment is called Monotropy(focus on one person). If the mother isn’t available, the infant could bondwith another ever-present, adult, mother-substitute.A S C M IM =MONOTROPY
Infant will develop an INW based on thisrelationship with the primary caregiver . The PC’s behaviour will be a model for whatthe infant will expect from others. Future relationships will be based upon theseexpectations.A S C M II = INTERNAL WORKINGMODEL
Research into Evolutionary TheoryKonrad Lorenz (1903-1989)https://www.youtube.com/
Activities- Read P5-71. What are the strengths and limitations ofthe EvolutionaryTheory?2. Note down research evidence related toBowlby’sTheory.3. Write down KeyTerms in your glossary.