Unit 3


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  • Inexpensive and widely used, most computers still have a floppy disk drive.
  • There also used to be an 8” floppy disk in 1971 (100k to 500k). 5.25” in 1976 (100k to 1.2MB). 3.5” in 1980 developed by Sony (400k, 800k, 1.4MB, special custom formats can give 2MB). http://oldcomputers.net/floppydisks.html
  • Unit 3

    1. 1. Features of Good Filing Systems Standard Grade Administration Unit 3a
    2. 3. Why Do We File? <ul><li>We file to find information that we have previously stored . </li></ul><ul><li>Information must be: </li></ul><ul><li>Kept tidy </li></ul><ul><li>Kept safe </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in an accessible place </li></ul><ul><li>Able to be found easily and quickly when needed </li></ul><ul><li>This information could have been stored either manually (paper-based) or electronically . </li></ul>
    3. 4. Features of a Good Filing System <ul><li>Quick and Simple to Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The speed of finding (or retrieving ) information is very important in information storage. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does Not Require Lots of Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In modern offices the use of floor space is very important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Able to Meet Future Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This means you should be able to add files to the system or reduce the number of files kept. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Located in a Convenient Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you operate a centralised filing system there must be easy access from all departments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organised Filing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents should be stored so that they are kept safe as well as tidy . This means that filing systems must be secure . </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. Filing Procedures <ul><li>Documents should be filed daily </li></ul><ul><li>Check they have a release mark </li></ul><ul><li>Sort into order </li></ul><ul><li>Paper clip where necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Most recent documents at front of file </li></ul><ul><li>Use out guides when files are borrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Use cross-reference cards when a file could be placed in more than one place </li></ul><ul><li>Confidential documents should be kept in a separate lockable filing cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Remove old papers/files on a regular basis </li></ul>
    5. 6. Out Guide Date Returned Date Borrowed Department Borrower Name of Document OUT
    6. 7. Cross Reference Sheet/Card CROSS REFERENCE SHEET Waring & Simpson Ltd FOR CORRESPONDENCE ON/WITH Swift Engineering Company Ltd SEE:
    7. 8. File Management <ul><li>File Management describes the methods in which information is stored and organised. </li></ul><ul><li>Good file management allows documents/files to be found quickly, reducing time spent searching. </li></ul>
    8. 9. An effective file management system would include: <ul><li>All files have an appropriate filename (relevant to the information they contain) </li></ul><ul><li>All related files are stored in an appropriate named folder </li></ul><ul><li>Folders may be stored in a directory (if electronic filing system in use) </li></ul><ul><li>All out-of-date files are deleted/ removed regularly </li></ul>
    9. 10. Manual/Paper-Based Document Storage Standard Grade Administration Unit 3b
    10. 11. Storing Information Manually <ul><li>Vertical Filing Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Can have 2, 3 or 4 drawers. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked pockets suspended on runners at the edge of the drawers. </li></ul><ul><li>Only one drawer can be open at a time (Health & Safety). </li></ul>
    11. 12. Storing Information Manually <ul><li>Lateral Filing Cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>Files are arranged side-by-side (like books in a library). </li></ul><ul><li>Less floor space required as there are no drawers to open. </li></ul><ul><li>Files are suspended on rails in horizontal rows. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Storing Information Manually <ul><li>Filing Trays </li></ul><ul><li>Trays can be stacked one on top of the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Trays can be labeled - e.g. IN OUT or PENDING. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows papers to be stored neatly during the day. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Storing Information Manually <ul><li>Lever-Arch Files </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for storing papers which are referred to often. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used with dividers to show separate sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Often multi-coloured, helping you to find the right folder. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Storing Information Manually <ul><li>Personal Organiser </li></ul><ul><li>A cross between a personal filing system and a diary. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in different sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to buy a selection of accessories and pre-printed pages - e.g. to do lists, address books, diary pages. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Customers’ folders are arranged in alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Most widely used </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for people to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Does not need an index </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know filing rules </li></ul><ul><li>Slow when many customers have same surname </li></ul>Methods of Filing - Alphabetical
    16. 17. Methods of Filing - Numerical <ul><li>Files are arranged in numerical order </li></ul><ul><li>A new customer is given the next number </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for large organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to expand </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Needs an alphabetical index </li></ul><ul><li>Index needs to be constantly updated </li></ul>
    17. 18. Methods of Filing - Chronological <ul><li>Files are arranged in date order </li></ul><ul><li>Used when using other methods </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Useful where dates are key feature of information to be filed </li></ul><ul><li>May be used along with another method of filing </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Unlikely to be main method of filing </li></ul><ul><li>Needs some form of index </li></ul>
    18. 19. For each of the following organisations suggest an appropriate method of filing alphabetical or numerical: <ul><li>Small corner shop selling groceries, one person business </li></ul><ul><li>Large medical centre with thousand of patients </li></ul><ul><li>A local law firm with three employees </li></ul><ul><li>A multinational insurance company </li></ul>
    19. 20. Electronic Files Standard Grade Administration Unit 3b
    20. 21. When You Save A Document … <ul><li>If you save a document on a computer you are creating an Electronic File . </li></ul><ul><li>Files can be created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using an applications package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning in information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downloading from the Internet </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Different Application Packages … <ul><li>Application packages are also known as computer programs . </li></ul><ul><li>What computer programs have you used in Administration? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DTP (e.g. PageMaker) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Databases (e.g. Microsoft Access) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Scanning Documents <ul><li>Mail received (internal and external) can be scanned - the originals may be kept for a short period before being destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning documents saves space - no need for filing cabinets. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Downloading From The Internet <ul><li>Electronic Files can be downloaded from the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images from Google </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music (There are legal download sites which you pay for the music files.) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>Create the fields to hold the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the information - in the records. </li></ul><ul><li>You can have as many records as you need in your database. </li></ul>
    25. 26. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>Fields can be created in various formats for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>You can add , delete , and alter fields and field formats. </li></ul>
    26. 27. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>Databases let you search for information quickly . </li></ul><ul><li>It does not matter what order the database is in, you can still find the correct record quickly. </li></ul>
    27. 28. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>Databases let you sort information easily . </li></ul><ul><li>You might want to sort an Employee Records Database into alphabetical order by surname . </li></ul>
    28. 29. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>Databases can be made secure with passwords . </li></ul><ul><li>This means that only authorised people have access to the information. </li></ul>
    29. 30. What Do Databases Let You Do? <ul><li>You can merge information from a database with other documents. </li></ul><ul><li>You might want to send a letter to all your customers and personalise it with the customer’s name. </li></ul><ul><li>This is called mail-merge . </li></ul>
    30. 31. File Management <ul><li>Use an appropriate file name </li></ul><ul><li>Save files in named folders </li></ul><ul><li>Label discs clearly and store in lockable boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Make regular back-ups </li></ul>
    31. 32. Advantages of Electronic Storage <ul><li>Access information quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Edit information easily </li></ul><ul><li>If information on a server more than one person can use at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Storage space less </li></ul><ul><li>Can access information from anywhere. </li></ul>
    32. 33. Disadvantages of Electronic Storage <ul><li>Equipment failure stops access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Power failure can cause loss of information </li></ul><ul><li>Fire can cause the loss of all data </li></ul><ul><li>Human error could overwrite files </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses could be a big problem </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to lose data if staff are not trained properly </li></ul>
    33. 34. Electronic Document Storage Standard Grade Administration 2005
    34. 35. Document Storage <ul><li>Information needs to be found quickly . </li></ul><ul><li>To do this, it must be kept in some form of storage device . </li></ul><ul><li>This applies to both manual and electronic filing methods. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Electronic Storage <ul><li>Floppy Disk </li></ul><ul><li>3.5” hard cased disk. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4MB Storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Disk must be formatted. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to a filing cabinet - hierarchical filing system. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Electronic Storage <ul><li>Why Floppy Disk? </li></ul><ul><li>The first floppy disk did not have the protection of the hard case. </li></ul><ul><li>This disk was larger - 5.25” </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity was also much less. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Electronic Storage <ul><li>Hard Disk </li></ul><ul><li>The storage medium provided internally within a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>These can also be attached externally. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage is measured in GB. </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store computer programs and documents. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Electronic Storage <ul><li>Zip Disk </li></ul><ul><li>A newer form of storage than the floppy disk. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage capacity of either 100MB, 250MB or 750MB. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Electronic Storage <ul><li>USB Drive </li></ul><ul><li>The most recent form of portable storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Some can be attached to a key-ring. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in various sizes, usually measured in GB. </li></ul>
    40. 41. Electronic Storage <ul><li>CD-ROM/CD-R/CD-RW </li></ul><ul><li>Stores up to 700MB of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Most computer programs are now supplied on CD-ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a CD writer it is possible to store information on your own CDs. </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW disks allow you to erase and ‘burn’ the disc again. </li></ul>
    41. 42. Electronic Storage <ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>(Digital Versatile Disc) </li></ul><ul><li>There are many different formats of DVDs. </li></ul><ul><li>Stores up to 17GB of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to CDs, but can store large files, particularly sound and vision files, e.g. feature films. </li></ul>
    42. 43. Security of Information Standard Grade Administration Unit 3c
    43. 44. Procedures for Backing Up Information <ul><li>Basic policy for organisations should state: </li></ul><ul><li>When and how back-ups are taken </li></ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for making back-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Where back-ups are stored </li></ul>
    44. 45. Security and Confidentiality of Electronic Filing Systems <ul><li>Breakdown </li></ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Staff mistakes eg deleting files </li></ul><ul><li>Poor office practice </li></ul><ul><li>Hackers </li></ul><ul><li>Computer fraud </li></ul>
    45. 46. Computer Virus <ul><li>Programme created to interfere with computer systems </li></ul><ul><li>May result in system failing, hard disk drives wiped </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-virus software essential eg Norton </li></ul>
    46. 47. Restricting access <ul><li>Protection by passwords – restrict access </li></ul><ul><li>Changing passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Locking access </li></ul><ul><li>Securable storage </li></ul><ul><li>Place terminals in a restricted area </li></ul>
    47. 48. Leaving your workstation <ul><li>Activate a password-protected screensaver </li></ul><ul><li>Shut down </li></ul><ul><li>Lock computer </li></ul>
    48. 49. Data Protection – Personal Data <ul><li>name </li></ul><ul><li>address </li></ul><ul><li>date of birth </li></ul><ul><li>parent/guardian </li></ul><ul><li>and much more!!!!!!! </li></ul>
    49. 50. Dangers <ul><li>Data may be: </li></ul><ul><li>inaccurate </li></ul><ul><li>out-of-date </li></ul><ul><li>misleading </li></ul>
    50. 51. Data Protection Acts 1998 <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To protect individuals who have information about them on computer </li></ul>
    51. 52. 8 Main Principles <ul><li>Information about you must be obtained lawfully </li></ul><ul><li>Data only held for specified and lawful purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be adequate, relevant and not excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data will be accurate and up-to-date </li></ul>
    52. 53. 8 Main Principles <ul><li>Data will not be kept longer than necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Data must be processed so that individuals’ legal rights are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Personal data must be kept secure against loss, damage and unauthorised and unlawful processing </li></ul><ul><li>Data must not be transferred to other countries </li></ul>