HBM Operations CMD


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HBM Operations CMD

  1. 1. Operations Management Higher/Int 2 Business Management 2009 - 2010
  2. 2. Operations <ul><li>A memory aid! </li></ul><ul><li>Think of what happens in an operating theatre </li></ul>
  3. 3. Operating System <ul><li>An Operating System is a configuration of resources to provide a product or service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Operating System <ul><li>What could we make? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper, Scissors, People </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Operating System <ul><li>We need to be organised </li></ul><ul><li>We need to develop procedures </li></ul>
  6. 6. Operations Management <ul><li>Operations Management is a transforming process turning inputs (resources) into outputs (goods and services) </li></ul><ul><li>The key here is efficient management of resources </li></ul>
  7. 7. Operations Management <ul><li>A Transformation Process </li></ul>PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT Information Finance People Materials Machinery Goods Services Customer/Employee Satisfaction
  8. 8. THE PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR BREAD INPUT Raw Materials ( LAND ) eg flour, yeast, water Human Resources ( LABOUR ) the workers and managers Man-made Resources ( CAPITAL ) eg ovens and baking trays PROCESS The process for the manufacturing of bread will include measuring, sifting, mixing, kneading the bread, heating and cooling. OUTPUT The finished product, loaves of bread, distributed to the consumers
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  16. 16. Some Product Thoughts <ul><li>Deluxe Double Chocolate Chip Cookies </li></ul><ul><li>Freddie’s Fish </li></ul><ul><li>Collette’s Computer Manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Krazy Kazz’s Cars </li></ul>
  17. 17. Input Issues <ul><li>Best Price </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Times </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities Available </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Space (Raw Materials) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Process Issues <ul><li>Average Demand per Week </li></ul><ul><li>Production Capacity Available </li></ul><ul><li>Working Procedures (eg H&S) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Space (Finished Product) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency/Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Payment Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Control </li></ul>
  19. 19. Output Issues <ul><li>Packaging Individual/Groups of Items </li></ul><ul><li>Nature/Size of Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Space (Before Dispatch) </li></ul><ul><li>Organising Customer Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation (Storage/Customers) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Requirements </li></ul>
  20. 20. A Complicated Function <ul><li>Operations Management is a complex area which can be further broken down into the following key areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C) purchasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D) storage and stock control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E) distribution/logistics </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Planning <ul><li>To be most efficient production should take place at a constant level </li></ul>
  22. 22. Planning <ul><li>In reality this is not possible: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery Breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Production Systems <ul><li>How will the manufacturer produce goods? </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the factory layout - where will each part of production take place? Who will complete? </li></ul><ul><li>The splitting up of production into a number of different jobs is called the division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>A successful system will need a flow of stocks from one job to another to make sure that there are no delays due to shortages or bottlenecks </li></ul>
  24. 24. What Production System? <ul><li>The Nature of the Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washing Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Bridge </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. What Production System? <ul><li>Market Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the firm is producing large numbers of standard products the production can be simplified eg Irn Bru </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customised products for individual clients need a great deal of client input eg customised software or stained glass windows </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. What Production System? <ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery/Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. What Production System? <ul><li>Business Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small firms, small productions, production system limited eg Wallace & Gromit Cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As firms grow they can increase their capacity and produce a greater variety of goods </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. What Production System? <ul><li>Labour Intensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A labour intensive system is one which relies more heavily on its workforce than machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Tattie Holidays’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strawberry Picking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing Promotion </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. What Production System? <ul><li>Labour Intensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour is cheaper than machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill in craftsmanship required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t use machinery - working environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability required to think/reason/use initiative/make decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility in production </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. What Production System? <ul><li>Capital Intensive Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Capital Intensive System is most common when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply of labour is limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production benefits from machine efficiency and consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production is routine and repetitive </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Automation <ul><li>CAM (Computer Aided Manufacture) </li></ul><ul><li>CAD (Computer Aided Design) </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Allows firms to design, develop and produce products with high quality </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to make a wider range of similar products to appeal to different segments of the market </li></ul>
  32. 32. Automation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated tasks completed quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality consistent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery is more likely to break down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow range of tasks </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Sony Walkman <ul><li>At present, Sony has at least 12 different versions of the Sony Walkman on the market. Each has the same basic features, all of which are made on the same production line </li></ul><ul><li>Using technology in the design and production of the Walkman, Sony can add different features to each model to appeal to different consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Prices vary as more advanced features are added </li></ul>
  34. 34. Activities <ul><li>Wallace & Gromit - Stinking Bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Research and produce a short report on the production of the cheese Stinking Bishop and the Wallace & Gromit effect </li></ul>
  35. 35. Activities <ul><li>Sony Walkman Research </li></ul><ul><li>The Sony Walkman has evolved over the years resulting in products unconceivable 20 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Create a short report detailing the current range of ‘Walkmans’, their features and what market they would appeal to </li></ul>
  36. 36. Purchasing <ul><li>This varies according to the size/nature of the organisation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services - very little purchasing, ‘production’ depends on staff skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - may have a purchasing department </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Purchasing Department <ul><li>Team of specialists with the aim to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase the best quality materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the lowest cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With the correct quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the correct time </li></ul></ul>Purchasing Mix
  38. 38. The Importance of Purchasing <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity and quality that the firm requires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase at the most competitive prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure speedy delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange delivery to a suitable point eg site or gate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose reliable suppliers and maintain good relations with them </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Stages in Purchasing Process Requisition Negotiation Place Order Chase Delivery Clear Invoice
  40. 40. The Purchasing Mix <ul><li>Decisions on quantity to purchase: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock of raw materials available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time between orders placed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of raw materials to meet output demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability and cost of storage space </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. The Purchasing Mix <ul><li>Choice of Supplier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price : lowest? discounts? credit terms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity : acceptable? continuity of supply? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability : sources? delivery systems? confidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location : transport? insurance? </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. McDonalds Purchasing <ul><li>McDonalds do not have contracts with any of their suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>They can change suppliers without notice </li></ul><ul><li>Size of McDonalds makes them an attractive customer </li></ul><ul><li>Must meet very strict quality standards </li></ul>
  43. 43. Centralised Purchasing <ul><li>One department carries out purchasing for the whole business </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of Scale (lower rates/market power) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and Standard materials set </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and Warehousing better planned </li></ul>
  44. 44. Decentralised Purchasing <ul><li>Reduces the cost and burden of administration </li></ul><ul><li>If each store manager (in retail) takes responsibility - needs of the store better catered for </li></ul><ul><li>Managers get additional responsibility - increasing motivation </li></ul>
  45. 45. Nature of Stocks (1) <ul><li>Raw materials and components – saves delays in production (from stores) </li></ul><ul><li>Work in Progress – partially completed </li></ul><ul><li>Finished Goods – changes in demand (from stock holdings) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Nature of Stocks (2) <ul><li>A stock take will be performed at least annually to record the amount/value of stock. This is a physical count. </li></ul><ul><li>Stock is listed as a current asset on the balance sheet. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Costs of Holding Stock <ul><li>Stock improves business performance but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too much means capital is unproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too little means that there could be delays in production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opportunity cost </li></ul><ul><li>Spoilage costs </li></ul><ul><li>Administration/Finance costs </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-Stock costs </li></ul>
  48. 48. Stock Levels <ul><li>Decisions on how much stock to hold depend on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand – cover growth in sales and unexpected demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockpile – eg Christmas (toys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of Stock holding – if expensive less held eg furniture retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working capital – if limited can’t purchase more stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of stock – perishable eg bread/cakes, out-of-date eg new models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead time – time to place and receive new order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External factors – fear of future shortages </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Stock Control <ul><li>Issuing stock </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring Stock levels </li></ul><ul><li>Quantities of Stock held </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Stock Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Stock Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-order level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-order Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(see student notes) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Stock Control Diagram
  51. 51. Computerised Stock Control <ul><li>Most organisations use computer stock control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Computer automatically orders more stock at the reorder level </li></ul><ul><li>May use barcodes (30 yrs old in 2007) or RFID tags </li></ul><ul><li>Physical checks to ensure discrepancies accounted for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural wastage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterioration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management make decisions with regard to popular products and adjust stock levels as necessary (local tastes) </li></ul><ul><li>Information useful when dealing with large orders – judge delivery date possible </li></ul>
  52. 52. Just-in-Time (JIT) <ul><li>Limits stock holding to almost zero </li></ul><ul><li>Close relationship between manufacturer and supplier (need reliability) </li></ul><ul><li>Stock brought to factory only when needed </li></ul><ul><li>In a JIT system stock holding costs paid for by supplier: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital tied up in stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock loss/wastage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nothing produced unless there are customers ready to buy </li></ul>
  53. 53. Just-in-Time (JIT) - Example <ul><li>Just-in-Time was first developed in Japan by Toyota , the car manufacturer. In order to reduce the costs involved in holding stocks of materials and work-in-progress, Toyota devised a card ordering system known as Kanban. </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota devised a policy that no components would be made, or supplies ordered, unless the instruction appeared on a Kanban . </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a worker fitted six steering wheels, a Kanban card would be sent to the production team to order another six steering wheels. These would arrive just-in-time before the worker ran out of steering wheels. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Just-in-Time (JIT) - Example <ul><li>In order for this to be successful. Toyota had to ensure that its suppliers understood the system and were able to supply on demand. When it opened its UK plant it trained its suppliers in operations and quality procedures to make sure that they delivered the exact product at the right time. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases the suppliers had their factories next door to the Toyota plant to ensure that they could operate with the JIT production system. To secure long term contracts with Toyota, suppliers had to deliver, at short notice, small quantities of high-quality goods. </li></ul><ul><li>The suppliers had to be completely reliable and would have to pay the costs of lost production if they could not deliver, or if they delivered faulty materials. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Storage of Stock (Centralised) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist Staff Supervise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Wasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of Specialist Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of Dedicated Storage Area </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Storage of Stock (Decentralised) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock at Hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order as Required (Depends on Production) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Turnover of Small Quantities of Stock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space in Production Area Required </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Storage of Stock (Kanban) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exactly Meets Production Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings on Purchase/Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production Delays Prevented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close Links with Suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency on Suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers must be Willing to Participate </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Methods of Production <ul><li>You need to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batch Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow Production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and advantages and disadvantages of each </li></ul>
  59. 59. Job Production Simple organisation ‘ One-offs’ Customer Needs Specifications Changed Workers Motivated Production Costs High Time-Consuming Production Versatile Equipment Each job is completed in full before another is started. INDIVIDUALITY
  60. 60. Job Production <ul><li>A single product is custom-made to a customer’s own specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boat Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wedding Cakes/Dresses </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Job Production <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>“ One-off” orders accommodated </li></ul><ul><li>High price </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications can be changed </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>High labour costs </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of equipment needed </li></ul><ul><li>Each job will require individual design (time) </li></ul><ul><li>Lead times lengthy </li></ul>
  62. 62. Batch Production Flexibility Stock of Partly Finished Goods Scope for Specialisation Delays: Change/Clean Equipment Small Batch = High Cost Co-ordination Required All stages in production completed at the same time – possibly different ingredients. EACH IN BATCH SAME VARY FROM BATCH TO BATCH
  63. 63. Batch Production <ul><li>The production of a group of similar products . No item in a group goes to the next stage until all are ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinned Foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses in an Estate </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Batch Production <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible production </li></ul><ul><li>Partly finished goods can be stockpiled and completed later </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced need for highly skilled staff </li></ul><ul><li>Machinery can be standardised </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Higher costs per unit (small batches) </li></ul><ul><li>Needs careful planning </li></ul><ul><li>High stock levels </li></ul><ul><li>Less motivated staff </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in changing/cleaning equipment </li></ul>
  65. 65. Flow Production Economies of Scale Reduced Stockholding eg JIT Automation Start-up Costs High Standardised – All Customers? Work is Repetitive Use of a production line – component parts added at each stage. STANDARDISATION Quality Systems Built In System Failure?
  66. 66. Flow Production <ul><li>Production items move continuously from one operation to the next . Products are produced to a standard specification. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White goods eg washing machines </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Flow Production <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Automated production lines save time and money – 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>Large quantities produced </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced stockholding eg JIT </li></ul><ul><li>Quality systems can be built in/standard products </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Large investement required </li></ul><ul><li>Mass consumption required </li></ul><ul><li>If one part of the system fails – shutdown </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of worker motivation - repetitive </li></ul>
  68. 68. Choice of Production Method <ul><li>Nature of the Product - eg bridge, sewers (job); arable farming (batch) </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Market - eg fast moving consumer goods such as soap/canned drinks have a large market (flow) </li></ul><ul><li>Stage of Business Development - eg when starting up (job or batch) may then move to flow as sales increase </li></ul><ul><li>Technology - new materials/machinery eg computers and robotics in car manufacturing - also different models on same production line </li></ul>
  69. 69. Labour vs Capital Intensive <ul><li>Nature of the Product - eg everyday high demand mass produced, large quantities of machinery (newspapers) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Prices - if labour costs are rising might use more capital </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Firm - as firm grows scale of production increases employing more capital </li></ul>
  70. 70. Marginal Output <ul><li>Productivity rises as each additional worker is added to a production process </li></ul><ul><li>The marginal output is the increase in production by adding the extra worker </li></ul><ul><li>As more workers are added eventually marginal output will fall as workers can no longer specialise this is called the Law of Diminishing Returns </li></ul>
  71. 71. What is Quality? <ul><li>Physical appearance (style) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Durability (lifespan) </li></ul><ul><li>Special features (eg play MP3 CDs?) </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability (what the customer requires) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of spare parts </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of repair (service centres) </li></ul><ul><li>After care service (prompt delivery?) </li></ul><ul><li>Image of manufacturer (brand name?) </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of the product </li></ul>
  72. 72. Quality Control <ul><li>Historic concept assuming a degree of waste - 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Quality checks take place at the end of the manufacturing process </li></ul><ul><li>Often goods need destroyed or re-work ed </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological implications - assumes failure by denying the assumption that things can be done right </li></ul><ul><li>Friday Car Syndrome </li></ul>
  73. 73. Quality Assurance <ul><li>Assumes that wastage caused by Quality Control can be prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Quality checked at every stage of the process instead of just at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces waste to levels as low as 5% </li></ul><ul><li>In a highly competitive market : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Quality Standards (1) <ul><li>Quality is often defined as conformity with a standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit for purpose, Appearance, Safety, Availability, Value for money, Ease of use, After sales, Reputation, Customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Standards Institute on Quality Assurance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ an all embracing concept involving all stages and all people in the production process” </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Quality Standards (2) <ul><li>BSI Kitemark - eg safety goggles, independently tested to a specific standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BS5750 / ISO9000 - mark of quality worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CE mark an EU award - eg armbands, won’t deflate and need supervision warning </li></ul><ul><li>ABTA </li></ul><ul><li>Wool Mark - pure new wool, Wool Marketing Board </li></ul><ul><li>IIP - Investors in People - provide training and development of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties - manufacturer will undertake work arising out of a defect ‘free of charge’ </li></ul>
  76. 76. UK - Toilet Test <ul><li>Operations folder on server … </li></ul>
  77. 77. Japanese - Toilet Test <ul><li>Operations folder on server … </li></ul>
  78. 78. ISO 9000 <ul><li>Can help business to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine and improve systems, methods and procedures to lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate staff to gets things right first time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assure that orders are delivered on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight product or design problems - identifying improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record and investigate all quality failure and customer complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give a clear signal to customer - “we take quality seriously” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce a documented system for recording and satisfying the training needs of staff in terms of quality </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. ISO 9001 <ul><li>a set of procedures that cover all key processes in the business; </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring processes to ensure they are effective; </li></ul><ul><li>keeping adequate records ; </li></ul><ul><li>checking output for defects , with appropriate and corrective action where necessary; </li></ul><ul><li>regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; and </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating continual improvement </li></ul>
  80. 80. Total Quality Management (1) <ul><li>Culture shift : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ we know what quality is’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ You tell us what you want and that will be our definition of quality’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TQM assumes quality to your client or customer , even if that is the next worker in the assembly line - your work should be of the highest standard and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Costly to establish TQM </li></ul><ul><li>Wastage can be reduced to around 3% </li></ul>
  81. 81. Total Quality Management (2) <ul><li>TQM requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A whole-company focus on quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A commitment from each individual in the company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation with every employee at every level of the organisation in setting standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A focus on teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewing TQM as a long term concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The creation of a plan for quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training for employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant checking and review of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant checking for improvement </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Total Quality Management (3) <ul><li>Four (4) key elements need managed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The definition of quality at each stage of production - lies with customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The commitment of all - mission statement, handbook, responsibilities, procedures, quality audits, quality circles, benchmarking etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System in which quality can be assured - checking, monitoring, documentation, appraisals, targets etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A measure of the ability to meet quality requirements - quantitatively or qualitatively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(see student notes for more detail) </li></ul>
  83. 83. Benchmarking <ul><li>A process of Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Compare your performance with the market leaders (efficient producers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Analysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journalists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Could be resistance to obtaining information </li></ul><ul><li>May continue to benchmark when you become the market leader </li></ul>
  84. 84. Quality Circles <ul><li>Groups of employees who meet regularly to identify, discuss and resolve problems in the production process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shop floor workers know production problems best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers will be motivated by involvement in problem solving process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team will then present ideas and solutions to management </li></ul><ul><li>First established in Japanese car industry </li></ul>
  85. 85. Payment Systems (1) <ul><li>Used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Labour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A variety of Payment Systems have been designed to achieve this. </li></ul>
  86. 86. Payment Systems (2) <ul><li>Time-Rate Payment Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime </li></ul><ul><li>Piece-Rate Payment Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Piece rate plus Fixed Element </li></ul><ul><li>Commission Payments </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Bonuses </li></ul>
  87. 87. Payment Systems (3) <ul><li>Incentives to Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Contract Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Profit-Sharing Schemes </li></ul>
  88. 88. Payment Systems (4) <ul><li>Employers’ objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees’ objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition and Fairness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How Payments Are Made Up </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Distribution and Delivery <ul><li>Warehouse Planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and Layout – ground level, readily accessible and stock rotated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical Handling – specialist equipment (inc pallets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation – owned or hired, owning is expensive but complete control, careful route planning (see BBC Box) </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Transportation <ul><li>Road – 80% of goods transported, specialist vehicles, door-to-door delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Rail – shortage of lorry drivers, restrictions on driving time, road congestion, haulage to final destination </li></ul><ul><li>Air – Prestwick highest freight in Scotland, expensive, quick delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Sea – Forth Estuary, petrol/minerals/coal, lengthy delivery times </li></ul>
  91. 91. Distribution Mix <ul><li>Image of Product </li></ul><ul><li>The Product itself </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer’s Distribution Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability of Other Organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Finance Available </li></ul>
  92. 92. Scheduling <ul><li>Production Plans will show where the Factors of Production are needed at any point in time. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim being to eliminate idle time </li></ul><ul><li>May use a Gantt Chart </li></ul>
  93. 93. Efficiency of Production <ul><li>A work study shows how tasks are currently done with a view to improvement: </li></ul><ul><li>S elect the task to be analyses </li></ul><ul><li>R ecord how it is currently done </li></ul><ul><li>E xamine the information collected </li></ul><ul><li>D evelop a better method of doing the task </li></ul><ul><li>I nstall the new method </li></ul><ul><li>M aintain the new method </li></ul>Method Study
  94. 94. Efficiency of Production <ul><li>A work study shows how tasks are currently done with a view to improvement: </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing how long tasks should take so that standard times can be identified </li></ul><ul><li>Actual times then judged on the standard </li></ul>Work Measurement
  95. 95. Congratulations <ul><li>You have completed </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Higher/Int 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Business Management </li></ul>