Brainstorm – what are the differences between a leader and a manager? Leader Manager V
Du Brin (1995) States that Jack Welch, the oft-quoted CEO of General Electric Co, once said ‘leaders inspire people with clear visions of how things can be done better. Some managers, on the other hand, muddle things with pointless complexity and detail....................they inspire no one’
Henri Fayol One of the first writers on roles of management. His work forms the Classical School of Management. He summarised 5 key roles of managers. Planning Organising Commanding Controlling Co-ordinating
Identify tasks a Head Teacher would perform using Fayol’s functions?
Robert Katz Analysed the skills necessary to be a manager. Technical Human Conceptual Having the right tools for the job. For instance the ability to manage a budget, presentation skills Interpersonal skills. For instance, motivating staff, building a rapport Ability to see the bigger picture.
The Virgin Story Richard Branson’s staff are some of the lowest paid in the industry however his staff are very motivated. Why? Staff feel valued and that their opinions matter. What management skills is he exemplifying?
Henry Mintzberg In the 1970s he conducted a study on the activities of 5 Chief Executives in a variety of organisations. Key Findings <ul><li>Managers described their roles in Fayol’s terms </li></ul><ul><li>BUT in reality performed a greater variety of roles </li></ul>
Interpersonal Roles Decisional Roles Informational Roles Figurehead Leader Liaison Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Entrepreneur Disturbance Handling Resource Allocator Negotiator Identify tasks a Head Teacher would perform using Mintzberg’s Functions. Which best describes the role – Fayol or Mintzberg?
Key Findings <ul><li>Managers firefight – 50% of managers engaged in tasks of <9 minutes, only 10% of tasks lasted more than 1 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Managers work at a relentless pace </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy not planned – it emerges through management action </li></ul>
Peter Drucker Proposed Management by Objectives (MBO). Contradicts Mintzberg’s claim that strategy emerges and isn’t planned Set Organisational Objectives/Mission Statement Set Departmental Objectives Set Objectives for Individual Employees – agreement between manager and employee – not imposed
<ul><li>Employees are involved at every stage of process – management make decisions however </li></ul><ul><li>Once objectives are set – management decide on work to be done and delegate – setting clear yardsticks </li></ul><ul><li>On completion – managers analyse: </li></ul><ul><li>ACTUAL PERFORMANCE V PLANNED PERFORMANCE </li></ul>Key Features of MBO What are the advantages and disadvantages of MBO?
Advantages of MBO Disadvantages of MBO <ul><li>Clear objectives set </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming to set objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Targets are prioritised </li></ul><ul><li>Targets are not always achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives can act as a motivator – providing a clear aim </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives often lead to managers being short-sighted and rejecting profitable opportunities as they do not fit in with current objective </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a means to measure performance of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives can often become outdated quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Common goals set for entire work force </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation not always successful </li></ul>
Constraints Choices Rosemary Stewart In 1983 described a manager’s role as being made up of: Constraints , Choices and Demands Demands